Tuesday, March 3, 2015

African Origin of Mississippian and South Death Cult Mounds


In 1310 Mansa [King] Abubakari of the Mali Empire set sail from his Kingdom in West Africa to visit the lands across the Atlantic.  In this expeditionary force their were 25,000 men and women.  Over time the Malians were nativised so we can count them amount the first Black Native Americans.

People in West Africa during King Abubakari’s time were not ignorant of the nautical sciences and navigation.

 West Africans had a highly developed knowledge of boat technology and navigation sciences. The canoes they built from gigantic trees were as big as the boats sailed to America by Columbus.

West Africans had a highly developed knowledge of boat technology and navigation sciences. The canoes they built from gigantic trees were as big as the boats sailed to America by Columbus. Much of what we Know about African nautical sciences comes from Vasco da Gama.

Vasco da Gama is said to have found information about the West Indies from Ahmad b. Majid, whom he met along the West Coast of Africa. Majid wrote a handbook of navigation on the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, Sea of Southern China  and the waters around the West Indian Islands. Majid is also said to be the inventor of the compass. See: R.A.G., Bazan, Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, (1967) pp.284-292; G. Ferrand, Introduction a l’astrnomie nautique des Arabes, Paris,1928 (p.247). 


The only occupied mounds seen by Europeans were those built by the Black Native Americans, the Arawak Indians and people in Florida. Hernando de Soto the only European to see occupied mounds tells us much about their construction and use.

     De Soto and his men discussed the mounds they found among the Florida Indians. Here as mentioned earlier lived  many Black Native Amerians. De Soto noted that at Ucita, Florida: "The town was of seven or eight houses built of timber, and covered with palm-leaves....The chiefs house stood near the beach, upon a very high mound made by hand for defense; at the other end of the town was a temple...."  It is interesting to note that in Florida one of the major ethnic groups living there was the Yamassi or Jamassi a tribe of Black Native Americans.

     The mounds in the United States are usually found near rivers. In the Ohio Valley 10,000 mounds have been discovered. In the north the mound zone begins in western New York and extended along the southern shore of Lake Erie into what is now Michigan, Wisconsin and on to the states of Iowa and Nebraska. In the southern United States the mounds lined the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to eastern Texas, and extended up through the Carolinas and across to the state of Oklahoma.

    The mounds of ancient America follow the lines of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, and outlying regions as well. They vary in size from colossal mounds in Illinois to mere blisters rising from the earth.

     Most, if not all of these mounds had long been abandoned by their former inhabitants when they were discovered. Many excavated mounds have yielded human bones, weapons, tools, inscriptions and jewelry.

     Statues of Africans have also been found in these mounds. As discussed earlier there were two types of African statues found in the ancient mounds excavated in the western Sudan.

Africoid statues of type one , i.e., humanoids in a sitting position with their hands on the thigh and right knee pointing up while the other knee is resting on the ground are found in Tennessee and Indiana at the Angel site.

 

 

 The most common type, style two statues , i.e., statues of humanoids in a sitting position with the hands placed across the chest have also been found at Etowah and Temple mound sites in Tennessee and Georgia.  It is also interesting that anthropomorphic statues found in Polk County, Georgia is analogous to statues found in Mauritania.

       

   Black Africans are characterized as being broad faced, full lipped, illustrating prognathism , large boned with fleshy noses.   Samuel Morton in Crania Americana , written in 1839 noted that Adena people possessed "ponderous bony structure[s]...large jaws and broad face". This description of the Adena, fits exactly the description of the West African type.

 

     Most of the Malian influence among the mound builders corresponds to artifacts recovered from the Southern Death Cult. The arms on these statues are placed across the chest. The pipes recovered from many mounds in the United States and the name for Tobacco suggest that it was the Manding who introduced tobacco to the New World.

    The Manding may have also constructed the Temple Mounds. These mounds were built between A.D. 700 and 1700. The Temple Mounds were built in the central Mississippi Valley, Arkansas, southern Missouri, southern Illinois and western Tennessee.

 

    The sculptural evidence found in the mounds all indicate an African origin as proven by Wiener (1922). A long pipe with a crouching figure on the bowl on exhibit in the New York Historical Society is of an African with compound bracelets,five on the wrist, six on the upper arm, four on the calf, such as only found in Mexico and west Africa. These bracelets are found in gorgets from the Etowah Mound, which show Malian influence.       
    Other sculpture heads and figurines of Africans have been found on the banks of Paint Creek ,near Chillocothe,Ohio; Tennessee; Mississippi; and on Green Flats in Virginia, which wear African headdresses ,skull caps and facial striations identical with those of the Manding. We also find the depiction of Africans in carvings from Spiro Oklahoma. At Spiro Mound African faces were carved on shells and the Manding cross sign placed on the palms of the hands on one artifact. This cross in the Manding script meant "righteousness, purity". Other inscribed works of art from the Moundville site in central Alabama also show Manding signs, especially the Manding cross.

     A figurine found in a cemetery at Nashville, Tennessee was of an African women, while another African statue was found at Clarksville, Tennessee in 1897. These statues as well as heads on the gorgets from the Missouri mounds show analogous striations found on the faces of Manding clansmen.      

  -

     Among the Southern Death Cult mound builders we find a third type statue , which has the leg and knee as the base, with the arms placed across the chest with the hands resting above the breast. Another type statue is seen in the effigy jar with "weeping-eye" motif, it has as its base the feet and buttocks, the knees are pointing up in the air, and the arms are placed across the chest with the hands placed above the opposite breast.

    The major reason for the varied art styles among the mounds that were built by the Malians, result from the fact that Mali was composed of many different ethnic groups that spoke different languages and practiced varied cultures. As a result of this ethnic pluralism we find an homogenous people who inhabited many mounds in the United States, that practiced a multiplicity of cultural forms.
In addition to the transfer of African style statues in the mounds the Malians also left many inscriptions. These inscriptions and statues support the African origin of many mounds in the United States.

African Mounds the Antecedent to Mounds built in the United States


Many Mound Builders had come with Abubakari in 1310. These Black Native American mound builders had come from the ancient Empire of Mali.
West Africans had a highly developed knowledge of boat technology and navigation sciences. The canoes they built from gigantic trees were as big as the boats sailed to America by Columbus. Much of what we Know about African nautical sciences comes from Vaco da Gama. Vasco da Gama is said to have found information about the West Indies from Ahmad b. Majid, whom he met along the West Coast of Africa. Majid wrote a handbook of navigation on the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, Sea of Southern China  and the waters around the West Indian Islands. Majid is also said to be the inventor of the compass. See: R.A.G., Bazan, Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, (1967) pp.284-292; G. Ferrand, Introduction a l’astrnomie nautique des Arabes, Paris,1928 (p.247).  Paul Gaffarel, in Etude sur les Rapports de l'Amerique et de l'Ancien continent  said that when Balboa reached America he found "negre veritables" or true Blacks. Balboa noted "...Indian traditions of Mexico and Central America indicate that Negroes were among the first occupants of that territory." This is why so many Mexicans have "African faces".

  In ancient America it would appear that many mounds were built by Africans. These mounds were built between 200 B.C. and A.D. 1500. Many of the late mounds in the United States and South America were probably built by some of the 25,000 colonist from Mali who sail in the direction of the Americas in 1310.

     We can not point out the exact ethnic origin of all the African mound builders in the Americas. But we are sure that these blacks built many mounds along the Mississppi river and beyond in the United States ; and in South America from Brazil and Venezuela up into the northeastern parts of the United States. Leo Wiener in Africa and the Discovery of America, discussed the African figurines found in many of these mounds in great detail. The organization of the Malian mounds in the Americas were based on African models Blacks had built in Africa.

 AFRICAN MOUND BUILDING

       African people brought their architectural styles to the Americas where ever they settled depending on the topography of the settlement area. Near rivers they lived on mounds. In semiarid regions, the Malians built cliff houses like those found in the American Southwest. Today the Dogon people who trace their decent back to the Mande live in identical cliff dwellings as those found in Colorado, where Manding inscriptions have also been discovered.(Winters 1977a,1979)

     The ancient Africans built several types of homes. For example , as mentioned earlier round huts were very popular among the Manding.In ancient times they also built masonry houses and cliff dwellings identical to those found in the American Southwest. These cliff dwellings were later abandoned as the weather in the areas in which they were built became more arid, and thus less suitable for cattle raising and intensive agriculture.

Archaeologists have excavated these burial mounds and found numerous artifacts including large burial jars from Mopti, Soye Kaniana, and Kami (1).


     Some excavated tumuli in the Niger area have also yielded many copper and glass artifacts including numerous terracotta figurines of blacks in a sitting position. These seated figures have been mainly found at Kaniana, while other statuettes have been found at Nankaka, Kami, Koubaye, Bamako-Bankoni, N'Koumi and Mopti. It is interesting to note that many of the  African tumuli are almost identical burial mounds excavated in the United States and the pyramids of Egypt as discussed in the previous chapter.

     Many mounds have been excavated in the Mopti region

at Kami Island. The site of Kami is situated on the right bank of the Niger river. It occupies a small expanse of land with the river on one side and a bog/swamp on the other side (2).

     At Kami archaeologists have found many funerary emplacements in mounds with the dead buried in large jars or urns. They are similar to the pottery found at Fatoma (3) .

     At Kami archaeologists have found in addition to the burial jars , copper artifacts,statues, pipes  and pottery (4).  The baked clay pipes colored red-and-white were made in diverse forms and placed in the funerary urns. The copper artifacts and pottery found in the western Sudan are decorated with beautiful geometric designs which are similar to those found at Anasazi. We also find many polishers and grindstones.

     At Kami small statues and sculptured heads have been found (5). The statues at Kami are made of grey earth and a slip dark rose in color.  Malzy,believes that the statue found in the mound represented the dead person because it was found in the same position as the cadaver(6).  The statuettes found in these mounds are ancient because they show scarification, which was abandoned when the people in the western Sudan adopted Islam.And as noted by Malzy the art works of Kami, Mopti and Djenne are all of similar origins (7).

 

    There are two medieval Manding art styles. First, we have statues that depict humanoids in a sitting position with their right legs slightly higher then the left with the right hand placed on the right knee,the left hand is placed on the left knee or on the thighs. The feet and legs are slightly higher than the base of the statue. Many of the statues found in the mounds excavated in North America depict Africoids or blacks,  in this same sitting position common to statues found at Mopti, Djenne and Kami in West Africa (8).

    The second common  Manding pose for the African statues found in the mounds of Africa and the United States depict humanoids in a kneeling position, with the arms and elbows on the leg and thigh, and the hands placed on the knee; as in the case of the other statue type the feet and legs serve as the base.

      The mounds in the Americas are of various ages. This suggest that the Africans which inhabited many of these mound dwellings came at different times the to New World.

    Leo Wiener (1922) proved that many of the mound builders of the United States and Mexico were Manding speakers. He saw the mounds as defensive structures built on the African type of the stockade model. Wiener  noted that:

 

          "I have already pointed out that the mounds of the

          Mound-builders were town sites, with the hill for

          the caciques [chiefs] residence and temple, just as

          in the Sudan, and that the North American stockade

          is identical with the one in West Africa" (9).

We find many similarities between the art styles of the inhabitants of the mounds found in the area that encompassed ancient Mali, and the mounds built in the United States and South America.

  In discussing the artifacts found in the mounds of the Americas, and other artifacts scholars frequently note the resemblance of artifacts excavated from these mounds to Egyptian artifacts, even though the date for these artifacts are dated centuries after the decline of ancient Egypt as a unique African civilization. This results from the fact that the ancestors of the Manding speakers and the Egyptians formerly lived in the Fertile African Crescent. It was in this highland area of middle Africa that the culture typified by Egyptian civilization first originated.

Notes:

     1.P. Barlet, "Jarres Funeraires au Soudan", Notes Africaines, no.49, pp.107-10; and Annie Masson-Detourbet, "Terres Cuites de Mopti (Soudan)", Notes Africaines, no. 60, pp.100-102.

     2. G. Szumoski, "Fouilles a Kami et decouvertes dans la Region de Mopti (Soudan)", Notes Africaines , no.67 (1955), pp.66-69.

     3. Ibid., p.66.

     4. Ibid., p.68.

     5.Pierre Malzy, "A Propos d'une statuette Funeraire (Kami, Mali)", Notes Africaines, no.113, pp.17-19.

     6. Ibid., p.17.

     7. Ibid., p.18.

     8. "Statuettes de Terre Cuite de Mopti", Notes Africaines, no.43, pp.70-72; and Herta Haselberger, "Deux Statuettes en terre cuite du Podo (Republique de Mali) , Notes Africaines , no.112, pp.143-144.

     9. Leo Wiener, Africa and the Discovery of America, (Philadelphia,1922) Vol. 3, p.317.

Sunday, March 1, 2015

Black Native Americans in War and Peace






 
Some racist and non-Black Native Americans claim Black people did not go to war against whites. This is wrong Black Native Americans had many wars with the whites, but like the Aztecs they were sold out by mongoloid Indians who joined the whites so they could take away the native lands of Black Native Americans. You don’t know anything about the Wars Native Black Americans had with the whites. This is especially true of the Yamasee. 

Much of what is now Georgia was a stronghold of the Native Black Americans. These Blacks lived predominately from the Smoky Mountains in North Carolina southward as far as St. Augustine ,Florida.
The vast majority of Native Black Americans lived in California, or along the Eastern seaboard in North America. They belonged to many Confederations including the Muskhoean and Algonquin. Some of their tribal names include Tuscarora, Secolan,  Tamacraw, Nanticoke, Kashita (Kauche-te), and Yamasee.

The Yamasee , was a tribe of Black Native Americans who originally lived in Florida and southern Georgia until they forced to migrate North into South Carolina by the Spanish in the 16th Century. The Yamasee were part of the  Muskhogean Confederacy. This was a Confederacy of mongoloid and Black Native Americans.

The whites began to steal the Yamasee lands. By 1715, the Yamasee  leading a Confederation of other tribes attacked the whites to drive them off their lands. The Cherokee who were part of the Muskogean Confederation broke away and formed an alliance with the  British in 1718 and helped defeat the Yamasee.

The Yamasee who were not killed were sold into slavery. Most of the Yamasee fled back into their ancestral homeland in Florida, which by this time was settled by the Creek.

 The Yamasee were  virtually wiped out due to  protracted combat with the Creeks, who felt they were trying to take over their land. Some Yamasee  joined  the Seminole tribe. In return, the Cherokee took control  of Yamasee land.

 If not for the break-away of the Cherokee the whites would have been defeated.

Saturday, February 28, 2015

What Happened to the Ancient Black Mexicans



There are eyewitness accounts of Blacks living in Meso-America when the Spanish arrived in the Americas.These Blacks were honored by the mongoloid Mayans gods. On the Chama  vase we see a mongoloid Mayan king greeting a Black personage visiting his court.



The chin of the Mayan King is red thus denoting that he was not a Black Mayan Indian. In addition some of the Mayan gods were depicted as Blacks or Negroes.

Before the Maya, especially during Olmec times mongoloid Mexicans lived peacefully with the Black Mexicans and adopted their culture. But we see at Monte Alban , some mongoloid people and Blacks were in violent conflict as evident in the danzante stone engravings below.


  

Many people ask me what happened to the Black Native Central Americans and Black Mexicans. Euronuts and Mestizos argue that if the Spanish truely saw Black Mexicans 500 years ago what happened to them. The answer is simple, the Spanish ignored the Mexican heritage of the Black Mexicans and declared that, since they were Negroes, they were African slaves.This means that many Black Mexicans and Blacks in Belize, Guatemala and Hondurus are descendants of the Blacks seen in these areas when the Spanish came to the Americas in 1492. Mestizos, who carry a large amount of white DNA are jealous of Blacks. Look at how they steal everything that Blacks create culturally in the U.S., and then try to attack Blacks in cities like L.A.Today the most vocal attacks on Black Mexicans and Afro-Americans, come from Mestizos, whoes European ancestry deny that they have a connection with the ancient mongoloid and Black Mexicans.

Granted, Mestizos carry African and Black DNA, but they ignore this heritage because they feel that since whites are in power embracing "white supremacy" makes them superior to Blacks generally. Since, Mestizos are the product of three groups: African, European and Indian, it seems that they should not attack Afro-Americans because they are part of their ethnic heritage.Yet they attack Afro-Americans so they can feel superior to Afro-Americans--in an environment where whites control the government and white supremacy is the rule.

Seeing the poverty conditions of Blacks in Mexico and Central America no one would believe that they built Mexican civilization. But the images of Blacks in pyramid murals and on vases, along with the eyewitness accounts of the Spanish denoting Black Mexicans and Central Americans evidence former supremacy of Blacks in Meso-America.

If you notice you don't find Mexican Indians attack the idea that the civilizations of Mexico were introduced by Black people. No it is the Mestizo who attack the idea there were Black and mongoloid group.

Black Mexicans built Mexican civilization. Beginning with the Mongoloid Indians at Monte Alban outsiders have been attempting to steal the history of the Black Mexicans.

At Monte Alban we see figures of Black men mutilated with their penises disfigured. Non-Negro Mexicans have been murdering Black Mexicans, since they took Monte Alban from the Black Indians.

Today some Mestizoes, due to jealousy of Blacks continue to steal the civilization and culture built by the Black Mexicans.The Dna and facial features of contemporary Mexican betry their African heritage. Racist Mestizos and Euronuts argue that the Black Mexicans could not have disappeared in 500 years. They are wrong the Black Mexicans have not disappeared, what has happened is that their history has been stolen by mongoloid and European people.

Some mongoloid Mexicans, like those at Monte Alban that have left us horrible images of mutilated black males , have always been jealous of the black Mexicans. These racists steal elements of Black Civilizations, but they could not sustain the civilizational elements due to their racism and the "Mayan" civilization of the mongoloid Maya fell into decline,

At Monte Alban, we see statues of the danzante. The danzante are engraved stone slabs depicting show Black Mexican males with their penis split or flayed. They were done to show how the mongoloid people hated Black people, and a warning to Blacks not to attempt to take back the town.

Even with the loss of Monte Alban, the Black Mexicans continued to prosper in Mexico up to the coming of the Spanish. The mongoloid Indians joined the Spanish and overthrew the Black Aztecs--but the joke was on them because the Spanish next defeated the local jealous mongoloid tribes and killed them off.

Next the Spanish declared the Black Mexicans were "Africans", because they were negroes. Forced to live like the African slaves they loss their history, because the Spanish burned their books and killed their scholars. With the destruction of the Black Mexican history text and scholars began the myth that the founders of Mayan civilization were mongoloid people. This lie was maintained because the artfacts found at Mayan sites were mainly of mongoloids. This changed after archaeologist began to dig inside of the pyramids. What they found at sites like Xultun ans San Bartolo was that there were subpyramids under the Mongoloid Mayan pyramids that contained iconographic images of the Black Mayans, and inscriptions written in the Olmec writing.



Above is a mural from Xultun. The inscription indicates that these Black men in this murals were engineers and architects.

In summary the ancient Black Mexicans continue to live in Mexico--they are just called Africans today. Today some Mestizoes are still trying to steal the history of the Black Mexicans, began by mongoloid Indians at Monte Alban but a lie cannot stand--Black Mexicans will one day regain their glory and take back Mexico .



Friday, February 20, 2015

22 Points Proving that African/Negro people were in America before Atlantic Slave Trade

I have made 22 points proving that Black and or African people were in America before the Atlantic slave trade. None of these points have been disputed by counter scholarly evidence. The most important point is that Mexicans look African because indigenious Mexicans carry between 5-50% African genes,and Mestizos’ African admixture ranges between 20-40% Due to African admixture modern Mexicans look like the Olmecs and Africans generally.


No one disputes the points I made below with research articles they only give their personal opinions.
Here are the 22 undisputed proofs of Blacks in America when Columbus arrived in the Americas.

  • 1) The original Maya beginning with the Ocos , as illustrated by their the art, were Black Native Americans;

    2) The Black Native Americans lived from Chiapas to Belize, Guatemala and Hondurus; Quatrefages and Rafinesque wrote about these Blacks

    3) The root of the Mayan language is the Mande languages

    4) The first Americans based on skeletal remains : Naia and Luzia were Negroes or Black

    5) The Blacks according to researchers have been in Brazil since 100,000BC

    6) The Khoisan took MtDNA haplogroups N and y-haplogroup E to Eurasia and the Americas

    7) There are no “pure” Mexindians. Lisker noted that between 5-50% of Indian genes are African genes. See: Suarez-Diaz,(2014) Indigenous populations in Mexico. Medical anthropology in the Work of Ruben Lisker in the 1960’s. Studies in History and Philosop-hy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47 (p.117).

    8) Mixe, Zenu , Wayuu and other Mexican groups with YAP+ associated A-G transition at DYS271, is of African origin.

    10) Indian y-chromosome haplogroups C and D show African admixture at locus DYS271

    11) The American haplogroups A and B are part of the haplogroup N macrohaplogroup Ch’ol and Chontal at Campeche carry R-M173, E1b1b, K and T.
    12) Africans people carry mtDNA A common to mongoloid Native Americans and y-chromosome R, so they probably passed on these genes to mongoloid Native Americans

    13) The Spanish explorers mentioned Black Nations and Black tribes in the Americas, they met, even before African slaves were landed in America

    14) The Spanish said the Aztecs were Negroes.

    15) Paul Gaffarel (2010) that when Balboa reached America he found "negre veritables" or true Blacks. Balboa noted "...Indian traditions of Mexico and Central America indicate that Negroes were among the first occupants of that territory." This is why so many Mexicans have "African faces".

    16. Vasco da Gama is said to have found information about the West Indies from Ahmad b. Majid, whom he met along the West Coast of Africa . Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.

    17)Majid wrote a handbook of navigation on the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, Sea of Southern China and the waters around the West Indian Islands. Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.

    18) Majid is also said to be the inventor of the compassSee: Ferrand,G. (1928). Introduction a l’astrnomie nautique des Arabes, Paris.

    19) Black Native Mayan people have left iconography in the sub-pyramids at Tikal, San Bartolo and Xultun murals which depict the creators of these monuments as Negroes or Blacks

    20) Ancient Mayan Skeletons carried sickle cell.See: Wailoo, Keith. (2002). Drawing Blood: Technology and Disease Identity in Twentieth-Century America. JHU Press; and Whittington, S. L., & Reed, D. M. (1997). Bones of the Maya: Studies of ancient skeletons. Washington, D.C: Smithonian Institution Press.

    21. There are no “pure” Mexindians. Lisker noted that between 5-50% of Indian genes are African genes. See: Suarez-Diaz,(2014) Indigenous populations in Mexico. Medical anthropology in the Work of Ruben Lisker in the 1960’s. Studies in History and Philosop-hy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47 (p.117).

    22) The Mayan calendar was invented by the Xi, or Mande speaking Olmec people.

.

Saturday, February 14, 2015

Evaluating Population Genetics Papers


Many people don’t know how to evaluate population genetics articles, because they are expost facto research based on “ statistical infererences” or the beliefs of the researcher  supported by statistics. As a result, researchers can not judge the difference between an ad hominid and legitimate discussion of the doxa behind a researcher’s research.

In traditional evaluation of a piece of research literature  you look at the researcher's hypothesis, results and statistical methods s/he used to determine the statistical significance of the research.This is not the case in population genetics research; in this research you are evaluating statistical inferences based on the researchers beliefs about a set of data, instead of testing a hypothesis. As a result, the research contained in a population genetics article, reflects the views and beliefs already held by the researcher. Thusly, the statistical inferences will automatically support the views and beliefs held by the researcher; and any outliners that fail to support the researchers  beliefs will not be mentioned in the research article/paper.

 Here we will ask the question: “How do you evaluate population genetics research?” We will attempt to look at the doxa that may influence a geneticist's research and the constructs that should be considered when evaluating this knowledge base.

    Firstly, we assume that any article or book written by an establishment member of the academe is reliable and valid. A piece of research full of  valid  scientific and/or historical truths--erudite scholarship and impeccable research based on the scientific method.

 The scientific method is based on hypotheses testing. Hypotheses testing means that a researcher forms a hypothesis and test the hypothesis using a series of quantitative or qualitative statistical methods to determine the statistical significance of the hypothesis being tested. The scientific method  is based on experimentation to test a hypothesis .

Population geneticists usually do not test hypotheses. They make inferences about data based on Bayesian statistical inferences. They do not use statistical methods to determine the statistical significance of a hypothesis, they use statistics to describe data being reviewed by the researcher based on the beliefs the researcher already holds about the data being reviewed..

Population genetics is a type of  Expost facto research. Expost facto research design is a quasi-experimental type of study examining how an independent variable, present prior to the research study,  affects a dependent variable.

Whereas the subjects in experimental research are randomly selected,  the participants in Expost facto research , are not randomly selected or assigned.The genome of the research subjects is examined to determine the haplotypes and haplogroups carried by the participants in the study.

In population genetics research the researcher uses the Bayesian inference method of statistical inference. Bayesian statistical method, is a subjective research design/method that provides a rational method of updating the researcher's beliefs.

 Since, the results of a Bayesian statistical analysis are a series of beliefs based on statistical inferences, the results can not stand alone. This is due to the reality, that any results, reported by a researcher are only a series of inferences based on the researcher’s belief about a phenomena backed up by a series statistical results. If the results are published without corresponding evidence from archaeology, anthropology, linguistics and or craniometrics the inferences are pure conjecture, because they reflect the attitudes already held by the researcher, confirmed by data selected by the researcher to support his or her beliefs.

There is a sociological  basis behind how a researcher interprets data. Sociological research indicates that there are unconscious cognitive structures within each individual. Cognitive structures that  hold the idealistic view of members of the academe that determine how they perceive "reality". These structures are called doxa.

 Commenting on these schema Berlinerblau (1999) noted that "These types of theories share the assumption that human beings know things that they do not even know that they know; that they "possess" knowledge about the world which exists in some sort of cognitive substrate, beyond the realm of discourse" (p.106).Wacquant (1995) says that doxa is " a realm of implicit and unstated beliefs".

      Given the research suggesting that doxa exist, support the view that some researchers allow their hatred of multiculturalism, ethnic prejudice and racism to define their discourse, teaching and writing about themes relating to groups " other" ,than their own cultural and ethnic group . Moreover, it suggest that when topics such as Eurasian and African haplogroups, Afrocentrism, African origins of the Dravidians and etc., is attacked by members of the academe, these academics are supported by the "establishment" without any reservation, or test of the validity of their claims. In fact, it appears that doxic assumptions relating to the validity of Afrocentrism, back migration of so-called Eurasian genes into Africa, rcent African origens of Dravidians and Dravidian origin of the Indus Valley Civilization obviates critique of the academics that disparage these themes. Due to Doxa you can state a researcher’s attitude toward a historical, genetic or anthropological concept and theorems without the statement being an  ad hominem

To evaluate  research literature a student should know the varied research methods.A student  evaluating a piece of population genetics’ literature must understand that the researcher is conducting an expost facto method of research that does not involve hypotheses testing .Given the nature of Bayesian inferences, you can not determine the validity and reliability of a piece of genetics  research literature based on the statistical significance of the data. What you must do is look at the research article and ask yourself a series of questions regarding the article's validity and reliability. Below is a series of questions to evaluate population genetics articles.

                   Checklist used to analyze a Population Genetics Papers

Answer the following questions relating to this research article  below, or on a separate sheet of paper.

1.            What was the rationale for the study, that is, what led up to it?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
2.            Why do the authors believe that this problem is significant? Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
3.            What was the purpose of the study, that is , what did it intend to accomplish?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
4.            What was the hypothesis of the study?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
5.            What were the participants major characteristics?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
6.            Does the review of literature indicate previous research in the area associated with the article?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
7.            What type of study is reported in this article?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
8.            Was the sample randomly selected?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
9.            What was the instrument?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
10.          What were the major steps involved in the treatment?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
11.          How were the variables tested?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
12.          According to the author(s) how successful was the treatment?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
13.          What factors could equally account for the student tests results?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
14.          What problems, if any, do you detect in the study?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______

15.          Do the results of analysis agree with the authors objectives and expectations?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______

16.          What other interpretations could  be made from the data?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______

17.          Is there archaeological, craniometric and or linguistic evidence that  supports the research findings
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______

The Evaluator should read the article twice. The first reading of the article is brief.

Next make a close reading of the article. The close read should involve the Evaluator in underlining key details in the article, while making annotations of important points in  the text. During the second reading of the text the Evaluator will assess the research article using the checklist above.Since the Bayesian statistics used for the study will support the inferences of the Researcher the answers for the majority of the checklist will be yes.

The key question in determining the validity of the research will be question 17. If the researcher only has Bayesian statistical inferences supporting the research study , the inferences made in the research article , may not be representative of actual past population events.

In summary, the validity and reliability of a piece of genetics research literature does not demand the Evaluator of a piece of literature to provide counter evidence all they need to do is evaluate the research using the checklist above. If the answer to most of these questions is no, the research is unreliable and lacks any validity.

The key question on the checklist is question 17. To confirm the validity of the archaeological, craniometric and etc., data , the Evaluator should be knowledgeable about the archaeology of the area where the population movement has been inferred to have taken place.In this way you can determine if the  Bayesian inferences correspond to the archaeological, craniometric, linguistic data associated with the geographical area where the population movement is suppose to have occur .

The major problem with most genetics literature which invalidates the research dealing with ancient population movements is that it is not supported by the ancientDNA, archaeological and/ or craniometric data. This is why many of theories about the ancient populations of Europe and alledged back migrations are usually over turned once researchers examine the ancientDNA.

Friday, January 30, 2015

Black Europeans were in America before African Slaves

The Afro-Americans have a tripart heritage: African slave, Black Native American and Black Europeans. As a result Afro-Americans are not just the descendants of slaves.



In The Souls of Black Folk (1903) W. E. B. Du Bois also specifically mentioned the slave-ship that "first saw the square tower of Jamestown" as an American beginning point (Du Bois 1986, 424) and asked, "Your country? How came it yours? Before the Pilgrims landed we were there" (Du Bois 1986, 545).


" Based on a census taken in March of 1619, there were already 32 blacks (15 men and 17 women) "in the service" of Jamestown planters prior to the August arrival of the Dutch ship. http://www.project2019.com/blkmayflower.htm


Some of these Blacks were freemen from Europe. In 1624 John Phillips “a negro, Christened in England 12 years since” testified against a white man.

The presence of Free Black men in Britain was not strange because of the “free” status of Blacks in Britain, back in the 17th Century.

quote:



And it really was true that Africans in England were free. Diogo, an African who had been taken to England by an English pirate in 1614, later reported to the Portuguese Inquisition that when he laid foot on English soil, "he immediately became free, because in that reign nobody is a slave." It was not legally possible to be a slave in Tudor and Stuart Britain and the hundreds of black people present in these isles during those centuries were not treated as slaves either. Africans such as Jacques Francis and Edward Swarthye were allowed to testify in court – a privilege denied to slaves in ancient Rome and the American south, as well as to English villeins.

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/oct/17/slavery-black-history-month


Jan Rodriguez was a free Black sailor working for Dutch merchants. In 1612, he was left behind on Manhattan Island to establish trade with the local native population.http://people.hofstra.edu/alan_j_singer/Slavery/2.%20lesson%20plans.pdf

It would appear that many Black Europeans from Spain and Portugal settled in Colonial America.


The Jamestown Census shows that there were 12 Blacks in Jamestown before the 20 Blacks taken to Jamestown by the Dutch.

Moreover, in 1624 John Phillips had been Christened in 1612, this meant that he had been a Black European from Britain.

In summary, the Jamestown Census and life of Phillips prove there were Black Europeans in the English colonies .