Sunday, April 20, 2014

Teaching Common Core State Standards Social Science and History







The Uthman Dan Fodio Institute has just begun a Common Core State Standards Institute to teach  teachers how to introduce CCSS to teach their students Social Science/History.


In Common Core State Standards teaching Social Studies/History  student
participate in a number of learning activities. Students individually or in 
collaborative groups, manipulate knowledge, emphasizing the idea that 
they are  learning to learn .

In CCSS History students make inference about informational text to solve 
problems.

In CCSS History students use Annotations to master the text

In general in CCSS  History students utilize, access & evaluate informational text

In CCSS History students synthesize info and use key details to write a 
compelling narrative like historians.

CCSS Institute Program
 



 Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are NOW. Today schools are 
focused on preparing students for the World of Work and College. The 
varied States have chosen CCSS to drive and deliver this educational reform.
CCSS demands that Elementary and High School students become actively 
involved in their own learning.
   The CCSS demand that students become actively engaged in their own 
learning while they generate their own learning products. As a result, 
students are expected to seriously think about what they are learning while
they generate knowledge answering rigorous questions. During this process 
it is important for teachers to remember that good teaching requires explicit 
teaching of academic content across the curriculum so students will have the
background knowledge to analyze, compare and contrast historical 
documents, informational text and artifacts.

     In this program teachers learn how to encourage their  students to use 
CCSS to identify primary and secondary sources; and be able to make 
inferences based on the relationship between these diverse sources of 
information to understand historical events and ideas.
     Teachers learn how to guide their students to  use details from the text 
they read and analyze to support their conclusions. Teachers will learn how 
to use use CCSS to create social science lessons and thematic units. These
social sciences lessons will demand that students individually or co-
construct their own knowledge as they work to explore the significant 
changes that have occurred in the world, the nation  and their 
neighborhood or community over time. 

    Making inferences and drawing conclusions will be an integral part of any 
unit of study. Using CCSS students will  become involved in uncovering 
information that will be used to develop and produce creative projects that

provide valuable social science and historical information.

African mtDNA haplogroup A is Related to Mexican haplogroup A

The mtDNA A haplogroup common to Mexicans is also found among the Mande speaking people and some East Africans (4-6). Haplogroup A found among Mixe and Mixtecs (4).The Mande speakers carry mtDNA haplogroup A, which is common among Mexicans (6). In addition to the Mande speaking people of West Africa, Southeast Africa Africans also carry mtDNA haplogroup A (5).

References:

4. Bonilla C, Gutierrez G, Parra E J, Kline C, Shriver M D. (2005). Admixture of a rural population of the State of Guerrero,Mexico, Am J Phys Anthropol. Dec;128(4):861-9.

5. Salas A, Richards M, De la Fe T, Lareu M V, Sobrino B, Sanchez-Diz P, Macaulay V, Carracedo A. (2002). The making of the West African mtDNA Landscape, Am J. Hum. Genet, 71:1082-1111.

6. Jackson B A, Wilson J L, Kirbah S, Sidney S S, Bassie L, Alle J A D, McLean D C Garvey W T.(2005). Am J Phys Anthropol. 128:156-163.
 


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Thursday, December 26, 2013

A Short History of Black People in Ancient Times


A Short World History of Black People in Ancient Times, provides a history of the numerous Black and African civilizations that existed between 60,000BC and 1492AD in the Americas and Eurasia. In this book you will learn about the phylogeography of African people and the four Out of Africa events beginning 6okya. It explains how the migration of the Kushites out of the Proto-Sahara led to the raise of the River Valley civilizations of Egypt, India and Mesopotamia and the Black civilizations of the Americas and Southeast Asia.


CreateSpace eStore: https://tsw.createspace.com/title/4550661

Ancient African History Primer



The "Primer" gives information that spans the millennia and the world to illuminate and supply the reader a thought provoking and comprehensive record of the life of the homo sapiens Africanus, i.e., the Black and African people on the earth. This is the only exhaustive history of classical African civilizations published anywhere in the world. The "Primer's" prose is readable and definitions and pronunciations for many terms are found in the text and index.


The "Primer" provides a chronological survey of African Civilizations . It is organized into separate chapters that offer an depth treatment of the ancient Black cultures of Africa.

The "Primer" has been designed primarily for use by the private student. This is due to the fact that there are very few centers of higher learning where students can pursue Africalogical studies. It can also be used as an introductory text of Africana history.





https://www.createspace.com/4587761

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

The Minoans were Blacks

Some researchers love to lie and make Black populations into “white” populations. In a recent article researchers claim that the Minoans were white because the majority of Minoans were classified in haplogroups H (43.2%), T (18.9%), K (16.2%) and I (8.1%). Haplogroups U5A, W, J2, U, X and J were each identified in a single individual. As a result, if the majority of Minoans were classified in haplogroups mtDNA H (43.2%) they represent a Black population not white population, since this mtDNA is carried by the Tuareg who are Black.
The Y-chromosomes of Cretans also indicate the Cretans were Blacks Laisel Martinez et al , Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau, Eur J Hum Genet. 2007 http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html provides a detailed discussion of the y-chromosomes in Crete the presence of y-chromosomes R1b, T, K and H in Crete indicate that the Cretans were Black.
Martinez et al (2007), observed that In the case of the R1 haplogroup, while frequencies of 19.2% and 21.7% are found in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, more than half (56.1%) of the Lasithi Plateau individuals are R1-M306-derived.
In the case of Cretan E3b3-M123 (M34) chromosomes, they most likely signal East African or Middle-Eastern gene flow rather than European, due to the scarcity of this lineage in the latter area.19, 26 Similarly, the presence of E3b-M35* individuals in the Heraklion Prefecture population could probably be attributed to an East-African or North-African contribution.
This is interesting because researchers claim that haplotype H indicates that the Siddis, an African population in India are African because they carry haplotype H. Ramana et al (2001) claims that the discovery of H1 and H2 haplotypes among the Siddis is a “signature” of their African ancestry.
The finding that other Minoans carried haplotype T and K also indicates that the Minoans were Blacks, not whites. There are a number of shared African and Indian Y-chromosome haplotypes. These haplotypes include Y-hg T-M70 and H1. Haplogroup T-M70 is found among several Dravidian speaking tribal groups in South India, including the Yerukul (or Kurru) , Gonds and Kols. Y-haplogroup T-M70 is found in the eastern and southern regions of India (Trivedi et al, 2008). It has a relatively high frequency in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (Sharma et al, 2009). Sharma et al (2009) in a study of 674 Dalits found that 89.39 % belonged to Y-hg K*, in relation to Dravidian speakers it was revealed that Y-hg T-M70 was 11.1%. Trevedi et al (2008) report that Y-hg T-M70 is predominately found among Upper Caste Dravidians at a frequency of 31.9. The highest frequency of T-M70 in the World is found among the Fulani (18%) of West Africa. Martinez et al (2007) also found T-M70 and hg K in Crete see the figure above.
Ramana et al (2001) claims that the discovery of H1 and H2 haplotypes among the Siddis is a “signature” of their African ancestry. As a result, the Y-hg H1 subclade frequency among Dravidian speakers can also be considered as an indicator of an African-Cretan-Dravidian connection.
. The H1 haplotype is found among many Dravidians. Sengupta et al (2006) noted that the subclades H1 and H2 were found among 26% of the Dravidian speakers in their study, especially in Tamil Nadu. Trivedi et al (2008) found the Y-hg H1 frequency of 22.2 among Dravidian speakers in their study. Sharma et al (2008) reports a frequency rate of 25.2%.
. In conclusion, because the majority of Minoans were classified in mtdna haplogroups H (43.2%), the ancient Minoans were Black, not white, since the Tuareg are Blacks. The presence of y-chromosomes R1-306,R1b, T, K and H in Crete indicate that the Cretans were Black.
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References:
. Laisel Martinez et al , Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau, Eur J Hum Genet. 2007 http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html
. Ramana, G. V., Su, B., Jin, L., Singh, L., Wang, N., Underhill, P. & Chakraborty, R. (2001) Y-chromosome SNP haplotypes suggest evidence of gene flow among caste, tribe, and the migrant Siddi populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India. Eur J Hum Genet 9, 695 – 700. http://archive.is/UlNyk
. Sengupta S, Zhivottovsky LA, King R, Mehdi SQ, Edmonds CA, Chow C-E T, Lin AA, Mitra M, Sil SK, Ramesh A, Rani MVU, Thakur CT, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Majumder PP, Underhill PA. (2006). Polarity and temporality of high-resolution Y-Chromosome distributions in India Identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. Am J of Hum Genet, 78 (2):202-221.
Sharma S, Rai E, Sharma P, Jena M, Singh S, Darvishi K, Bhat AK, Bhanwer AJS, Tiwari PK & Bamezai NK.(2009). The Indian origin of paternal R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system. J of Hum Genet, 54: 47-55.
. Trivedi R, Sahoo S, Singh A, Bindu GH, Banerjee J, Tandon M, Gaikwad S, Rajkumar R, Sitalaximi T, Ashma R, Chainy GBN, & Kashyap VK. (2008). Genetic imprints of pleistocene origin of Indian populations: A comprehensive Phylogeographic sketch of Indian Y-Chromosomes. Int J Hum Genet, 8(1-2): 97-118

Saturday, August 3, 2013


Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa 2013



Joseph K. Pickrell et al.



The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter-gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter-gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to Niger-Congo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to approximately 900-1,800 years ago, and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak Khoe-Kwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to approximately 2,700 - 3,300 years ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa, and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa.





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PDF, 75 pages







The idea that the Khoisan acquired Eurasian admixture via Ethiosemitic speakers is pure speculation. There is no archaeological evidence of Ethiopians migrating into East and South Africa, but there is evidence of an ancient migration of Khoisan into Eurpe based on archaeological and skeletal data.






The first modern European reconstructed by Forensic artist Richard Neave

based on skull fragments from 35,000 years ago resembled a Khoisan. This supports the research of Boule and Vallois that South Africans migrated into Europe 35kya. This genetic evidence now supports Boule and Vallois of a khoisan migration into Europe.



There have been numerous "Negroid skeletons" found in Europe. Marcellin Boule and Henri Vallois, in Fossil Man, provide an entire chapter on the Africans/Negroes of Europe Anta Diop also discussed the Negroes of Europe in Civilization or Barbarism, pp.25-68. Also W.E. B. DuBois, discussed these Negroes in the The World and Africa, pp.86-89. DuBois noted that "There was once a an "uninterrupted belt' of Negro culture from Central Europe to South Africa" (p.88) 25-35kya.



Boule and Vallois, note that "To sum up, in the most ancient skeletons from the Grotte des Enfants we have a human type which is readily comparable to modern types and especially to the Negritic or Negroid type" (p.289). They continue, "Two Neolithic individuals from Chamblandes in Switzerland are Negroid not only as regards their skulls but also in the proportions of their limbs. Several Ligurian and Lombard tombs of the Metal Ages have also yielded evidences of a Negroid element.



Boule and Vallois, note that "We know now that the ethnography of South African tribes presents many striking similarities with the ethnography of our populations of the Reindeer Age. Not to speak of their stone implements which, as we shall see later , exhibit great similarities, Peringuey has told us that in certain burials on the South African coast 'associated with the Aurignacian or Solutrean type industry...."(p.318-319). They add, that in relation to Bushman art " This almost uninterrupted series leads us to regard the African continent as a centre of important migrations which at certain times may have played a great part in the stocking of Southern Europe. Finally, we must not forget that the Grimaldi Negroid skeletons sho many points of resemblance with the Bushman skeletons". They bear no less a resemblance to that of the fossil Man discovered at Asslar in mid-Sahara, whose characters led us to class him with the Hottentot-Bushman group.



The Boule and Vallois research makes it clear that the Bushman expanded across Africa on into Europe via Spain as the Grimaldi people. This makes it clear that the Bushman/Khoisan people were not isolated in South Africa.The Eurasian alleles alleged to have been carried by Khoisan as the result of a back migration, may in reality be the result of the ancient spread of Khoisan in Europe documented by Boule and Vallois.

Thursday, June 20, 2013

The Dravidians and Aryans are not one group genetically.

The Dravidians and Aryans are not one group genetically. This truth is confirmed by a number of studies.




The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium (HPASC) (Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia) has done much to bring the genetic data for India in line with the archaeological, anthropological and linguistic data. Ray and Excoffer argue that coupling the archaeological data with genetic data is a powerful way to infer population migration (1).



Before this research by HPASC, researchers have noted the absence of congruency between Indian population genetics and archaeological research (2) As a result research into India population studies are not supported by historical, archaeological and linguistic evidences (3). The archeological evidence indicated that the first settlers of India were probably Negritos and Austro-Asiatic, then Dravidian speakers and finally Southeast Asians (4-5). But Geneticists maintain that the Dravidian speakers originated in India (6-7). They support this view by showing how the Indian mtDNA belonging to the M haplomacrogroup must have developed in situ in India (7).



Some researchers use Rosenberg et al. to argue that there is a low level of genetic divergence across geographically and linguistically diverse Indian populations based on their analysis solely of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian speakers from India (8-9).



This study by HPASC contradicts Rosenberg et al and supports the view that the Indian populations are not homogenous and that Negritos were probably the first settlers of India. Using an Indian sample from India, HPASC acknowledges that the Dravidians were probably not the first population to settle India. The research of HPASC also supports an Indo-European migration into India.



The HPASC finding is supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence that indicated a Dravidian substratum in the Indo European languages and the major probability that Rosenberg et al. use of only Indo- Aryan and Dravidian speakers in the United States as a representative sample of diverse Indian populations was not an accurate example of the linguistic and geographical diversity of Indian populations because TMRCA of the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian speakers in India was probably a Proto-Dravidian speaker and a high level of genetic divergence across Indian populations (11) . A shared MRCA for Dravidian and Indo-Aryan speakers , is supported by the Dravidian substratum in Indo-European languages which indicates that the speakers of these languages lived in intimate contact in North India for 1000s of years .



These findings were confirmed by Reich et al (12). Reich et al,claims that the Indian Cline divides Indians into two groups Ancestral North Indians (ANI) and Ancestral South Indians (ANS) (12).



The ANI are related to western Eurasians and speak Indo-Euopean languages. The ANS on the otherhand speak Dravidian languages.



This genetic data clearly divides the North and South Indians, and supports AIT; and the replacement of an original Dravidian speaking people in the north by the invading Indo-European speaking Vedic people.





The finding of heterogeneity in ancient India by Reich et al, and the HUGO Pan –Asian SNP Consortium is in conformity with the archaeological and linguistic data. This makes the research of HPASC significant and suggests future studies which will provide keen insight into the ancient human demography in India and the rest of Asia.





Reference:



1. Ray N, Excoffier L.2009. Inferring past demography using spatially explicit population genetic models. Human Biology, 81 (2-3): 141-157.



2. Tripathy V, Nirmala A, Reddy BM. 2008. Trends in Molecular Anthropological Studies in India. Int J Hum Genet, 8(1-2): 1-20.



3. Winters,C. 2008.Origin and Spread of Dravidian Speakers Int J Hum Genet, 8(4): 325-329 (2008)



4. Cordaux R, Saha N, Bentley GR, Aunger R, Sirajuddin SM, et al. (2003) Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals diverse histories of tribal populations from India. Eur J Hum Genet 11: 253–264.



5. Kumar V, Reddy ANS, Babu JP, et al. (2007). Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7:47.



6. Rajkumar R, Banerjee J, Gunturi HB, Trivedi R, Kashyap VK. 2005. Phylogeny and antiquity of M macrohaplogroup inferred from complete mtDNA sequence of Indian specific lineages. BMC Evo. Bio., 5: 26.



7. Thangaraj K, Chaubey G, Singh VK, Vanniarajan A, Thanseem I, Reddy AG, Singh L. 2006. In situ origin of deep rooting lineages of mitochondrial macrogroup M in India. BMC Genome, 7: 151.



8. Rosenberg NA, Mahajan S, Gonzalez-Quevedo C, Blum MGB, Nino-Rosales L, et al.. 2006. Low Levels of Genetic Divergence across Geographically and Linguistically Diverse Populations from India. PLoS Genet, 2(12): e215 DOI: 10.1371 /journal.pgen.0020215



9. Winters C (1989). Review on Dr. Asko Parpola’s ‘The Coming of the Aryans’. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics 18 (2): 98-127.



10. Krishnamurti K 2001. Comparative Dravidian linguistics: Current perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



11. Winters CA 2007. High Levels of Genetic Divergence across Indian Populations. PloS Genetics. Retrieved 4/8/2008 http://www.plosgenetics



12. Reich et al, Reconstructing Indian population history, Nature 461:489-494.





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