Friday, February 20, 2015

22 Points Proving that African/Negro people were in America before Atlantic Slave Trade

I have made 22 points proving that Black and or African people were in America before the Atlantic slave trade. None of these points have been disputed by counter scholarly evidence. The most important point is that Mexicans look African because indigenious Mexicans carry between 5-50% African genes,and Mestizos’ African admixture ranges between 20-40% Due to African admixture modern Mexicans look like the Olmecs and Africans generally.


No one disputes the points I made below with research articles they only give their personal opinions.
Here are the 22 undisputed proofs of Blacks in America when Columbus arrived in the Americas.

  • 1) The original Maya beginning with the Ocos , as illustrated by their the art, were Black Native Americans;

    2) The Black Native Americans lived from Chiapas to Belize, Guatemala and Hondurus; Quatrefages and Rafinesque wrote about these Blacks

    3) The root of the Mayan language is the Mande languages

    4) The first Americans based on skeletal remains : Naia and Luzia were Negroes or Black

    5) The Blacks according to researchers have been in Brazil since 100,000BC

    6) The Khoisan took MtDNA haplogroups N and y-haplogroup E to Eurasia and the Americas

    7) There are no “pure” Mexindians. Lisker noted that between 5-50% of Indian genes are African genes. See: Suarez-Diaz,(2014) Indigenous populations in Mexico. Medical anthropology in the Work of Ruben Lisker in the 1960’s. Studies in History and Philosop-hy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47 (p.117).

    8) Mixe, Zenu , Wayuu and other Mexican groups with YAP+ associated A-G transition at DYS271, is of African origin.

    10) Indian y-chromosome haplogroups C and D show African admixture at locus DYS271

    11) The American haplogroups A and B are part of the haplogroup N macrohaplogroup Ch’ol and Chontal at Campeche carry R-M173, E1b1b, K and T.
    12) Africans people carry mtDNA A common to mongoloid Native Americans and y-chromosome R, so they probably passed on these genes to mongoloid Native Americans

    13) The Spanish explorers mentioned Black Nations and Black tribes in the Americas, they met, even before African slaves were landed in America

    14) The Spanish said the Aztecs were Negroes.

    15) Paul Gaffarel (2010) that when Balboa reached America he found "negre veritables" or true Blacks. Balboa noted "...Indian traditions of Mexico and Central America indicate that Negroes were among the first occupants of that territory." This is why so many Mexicans have "African faces".

    16. Vasco da Gama is said to have found information about the West Indies from Ahmad b. Majid, whom he met along the West Coast of Africa . Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.

    17)Majid wrote a handbook of navigation on the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, Sea of Southern China and the waters around the West Indian Islands. Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.

    18) Majid is also said to be the inventor of the compassSee: Ferrand,G. (1928). Introduction a l’astrnomie nautique des Arabes, Paris.

    19) Black Native Mayan people have left iconography in the sub-pyramids at Tikal, San Bartolo and Xultun murals which depict the creators of these monuments as Negroes or Blacks

    20) Ancient Mayan Skeletons carried sickle cell.See: Wailoo, Keith. (2002). Drawing Blood: Technology and Disease Identity in Twentieth-Century America. JHU Press; and Whittington, S. L., & Reed, D. M. (1997). Bones of the Maya: Studies of ancient skeletons. Washington, D.C: Smithonian Institution Press.

    21. There are no “pure” Mexindians. Lisker noted that between 5-50% of Indian genes are African genes. See: Suarez-Diaz,(2014) Indigenous populations in Mexico. Medical anthropology in the Work of Ruben Lisker in the 1960’s. Studies in History and Philosop-hy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47 (p.117).

    22) The Mayan calendar was invented by the Xi, or Mande speaking Olmec people.

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Saturday, February 14, 2015

Evaluating Population Genetics Papers


Many people don’t know how to evaluate population genetics articles, because they are expost facto research based on “ statistical infererences” or the beliefs of the researcher  supported by statistics. As a result, researchers can not judge the difference between an ad hominid and legitimate discussion of the doxa behind a researcher’s research.

In traditional evaluation of a piece of research literature  you look at the researcher's hypothesis, results and statistical methods s/he used to determine the statistical significance of the research.This is not the case in population genetics research; in this research you are evaluating statistical inferences based on the researchers beliefs about a set of data, instead of testing a hypothesis. As a result, the research contained in a population genetics article, reflects the views and beliefs already held by the researcher. Thusly, the statistical inferences will automatically support the views and beliefs held by the researcher; and any outliners that fail to support the researchers  beliefs will not be mentioned in the research article/paper.

 Here we will ask the question: “How do you evaluate population genetics research?” We will attempt to look at the doxa that may influence a geneticist's research and the constructs that should be considered when evaluating this knowledge base.

    Firstly, we assume that any article or book written by an establishment member of the academe is reliable and valid. A piece of research full of  valid  scientific and/or historical truths--erudite scholarship and impeccable research based on the scientific method.

 The scientific method is based on hypotheses testing. Hypotheses testing means that a researcher forms a hypothesis and test the hypothesis using a series of quantitative or qualitative statistical methods to determine the statistical significance of the hypothesis being tested. The scientific method  is based on experimentation to test a hypothesis .

Population geneticists usually do not test hypotheses. They make inferences about data based on Bayesian statistical inferences. They do not use statistical methods to determine the statistical significance of a hypothesis, they use statistics to describe data being reviewed by the researcher based on the beliefs the researcher already holds about the data being reviewed..

Population genetics is a type of  Expost facto research. Expost facto research design is a quasi-experimental type of study examining how an independent variable, present prior to the research study,  affects a dependent variable.

Whereas the subjects in experimental research are randomly selected,  the participants in Expost facto research , are not randomly selected or assigned.The genome of the research subjects is examined to determine the haplotypes and haplogroups carried by the participants in the study.

In population genetics research the researcher uses the Bayesian inference method of statistical inference. Bayesian statistical method, is a subjective research design/method that provides a rational method of updating the researcher's beliefs.

 Since, the results of a Bayesian statistical analysis are a series of beliefs based on statistical inferences, the results can not stand alone. This is due to the reality, that any results, reported by a researcher are only a series of inferences based on the researcher’s belief about a phenomena backed up by a series statistical results. If the results are published without corresponding evidence from archaeology, anthropology, linguistics and or craniometrics the inferences are pure conjecture, because they reflect the attitudes already held by the researcher, confirmed by data selected by the researcher to support his or her beliefs.

There is a sociological  basis behind how a researcher interprets data. Sociological research indicates that there are unconscious cognitive structures within each individual. Cognitive structures that  hold the idealistic view of members of the academe that determine how they perceive "reality". These structures are called doxa.

 Commenting on these schema Berlinerblau (1999) noted that "These types of theories share the assumption that human beings know things that they do not even know that they know; that they "possess" knowledge about the world which exists in some sort of cognitive substrate, beyond the realm of discourse" (p.106).Wacquant (1995) says that doxa is " a realm of implicit and unstated beliefs".

      Given the research suggesting that doxa exist, support the view that some researchers allow their hatred of multiculturalism, ethnic prejudice and racism to define their discourse, teaching and writing about themes relating to groups " other" ,than their own cultural and ethnic group . Moreover, it suggest that when topics such as Eurasian and African haplogroups, Afrocentrism, African origins of the Dravidians and etc., is attacked by members of the academe, these academics are supported by the "establishment" without any reservation, or test of the validity of their claims. In fact, it appears that doxic assumptions relating to the validity of Afrocentrism, back migration of so-called Eurasian genes into Africa, rcent African origens of Dravidians and Dravidian origin of the Indus Valley Civilization obviates critique of the academics that disparage these themes. Due to Doxa you can state a researcher’s attitude toward a historical, genetic or anthropological concept and theorems without the statement being an  ad hominem

To evaluate  research literature a student should know the varied research methods.A student  evaluating a piece of population genetics’ literature must understand that the researcher is conducting an expost facto method of research that does not involve hypotheses testing .Given the nature of Bayesian inferences, you can not determine the validity and reliability of a piece of genetics  research literature based on the statistical significance of the data. What you must do is look at the research article and ask yourself a series of questions regarding the article's validity and reliability. Below is a series of questions to evaluate population genetics articles.

                   Checklist used to analyze a Population Genetics Papers

Answer the following questions relating to this research article  below, or on a separate sheet of paper.

1.            What was the rationale for the study, that is, what led up to it?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
2.            Why do the authors believe that this problem is significant? Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
3.            What was the purpose of the study, that is , what did it intend to accomplish?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
4.            What was the hypothesis of the study?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
5.            What were the participants major characteristics?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
6.            Does the review of literature indicate previous research in the area associated with the article?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
7.            What type of study is reported in this article?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
8.            Was the sample randomly selected?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
9.            What was the instrument?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
10.          What were the major steps involved in the treatment?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
11.          How were the variables tested?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
12.          According to the author(s) how successful was the treatment?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
13.          What factors could equally account for the student tests results?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______
14.          What problems, if any, do you detect in the study?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______

15.          Do the results of analysis agree with the authors objectives and expectations?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______

16.          What other interpretations could  be made from the data?
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______

17.          Is there archaeological, craniometric and or linguistic evidence that  supports the research findings
Yes on page___ ,paragraph____ _,lines________ No_______

The Evaluator should read the article twice. The first reading of the article is brief.

Next make a close reading of the article. The close read should involve the Evaluator in underlining key details in the article, while making annotations of important points in  the text. During the second reading of the text the Evaluator will assess the research article using the checklist above.Since the Bayesian statistics used for the study will support the inferences of the Researcher the answers for the majority of the checklist will be yes.

The key question in determining the validity of the research will be question 17. If the researcher only has Bayesian statistical inferences supporting the research study , the inferences made in the research article , may not be representative of actual past population events.

In summary, the validity and reliability of a piece of genetics research literature does not demand the Evaluator of a piece of literature to provide counter evidence all they need to do is evaluate the research using the checklist above. If the answer to most of these questions is no, the research is unreliable and lacks any validity.

The key question on the checklist is question 17. To confirm the validity of the archaeological, craniometric and etc., data , the Evaluator should be knowledgeable about the archaeology of the area where the population movement has been inferred to have taken place.In this way you can determine if the  Bayesian inferences correspond to the archaeological, craniometric, linguistic data associated with the geographical area where the population movement is suppose to have occur .

The major problem with most genetics literature which invalidates the research dealing with ancient population movements is that it is not supported by the ancientDNA, archaeological and/ or craniometric data. This is why many of theories about the ancient populations of Europe and alledged back migrations are usually over turned once researchers examine the ancientDNA.

Friday, January 30, 2015

Black Europeans were in America before African Slaves

The Afro-Americans have a tripart heritage: African slave, Black Native American and Black Europeans. As a result Afro-Americans are not just the descendants of slaves.



In The Souls of Black Folk (1903) W. E. B. Du Bois also specifically mentioned the slave-ship that "first saw the square tower of Jamestown" as an American beginning point (Du Bois 1986, 424) and asked, "Your country? How came it yours? Before the Pilgrims landed we were there" (Du Bois 1986, 545).


" Based on a census taken in March of 1619, there were already 32 blacks (15 men and 17 women) "in the service" of Jamestown planters prior to the August arrival of the Dutch ship. http://www.project2019.com/blkmayflower.htm


Some of these Blacks were freemen from Europe. In 1624 John Phillips “a negro, Christened in England 12 years since” testified against a white man.

The presence of Free Black men in Britain was not strange because of the “free” status of Blacks in Britain, back in the 17th Century.

quote:



And it really was true that Africans in England were free. Diogo, an African who had been taken to England by an English pirate in 1614, later reported to the Portuguese Inquisition that when he laid foot on English soil, "he immediately became free, because in that reign nobody is a slave." It was not legally possible to be a slave in Tudor and Stuart Britain and the hundreds of black people present in these isles during those centuries were not treated as slaves either. Africans such as Jacques Francis and Edward Swarthye were allowed to testify in court – a privilege denied to slaves in ancient Rome and the American south, as well as to English villeins.

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/oct/17/slavery-black-history-month


Jan Rodriguez was a free Black sailor working for Dutch merchants. In 1612, he was left behind on Manhattan Island to establish trade with the local native population.http://people.hofstra.edu/alan_j_singer/Slavery/2.%20lesson%20plans.pdf

It would appear that many Black Europeans from Spain and Portugal settled in Colonial America.


The Jamestown Census shows that there were 12 Blacks in Jamestown before the 20 Blacks taken to Jamestown by the Dutch.

Moreover, in 1624 John Phillips had been Christened in 1612, this meant that he had been a Black European from Britain.

In summary, the Jamestown Census and life of Phillips prove there were Black Europeans in the English colonies .


Black Native Americans probably introduced Solutrean Culture to America


Researchers have found evidence that Solutrean artifacts have been found on North American sites where Paleo-Native Americans have been found. This has led some researchers to create the so-called Solutrean hypothesis that proposes that ancient America was settled by ancient Europeans.

The proposed Solutrean migration route seems highly unlikely because these early men would have had to brave glaziers and Ice Age tempertures which would have made it impossible to reach North America.

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Although a migration from Europe seems highly unlikely 20-30kya because of the Ice Age. Ancient man could have made their way to the Americas directly from Africa which is a shorter distance to the Americas than Europe, and also ancient sailors could have made their way to the Americas on Currents, especially the Gulf Stream, that regularly flow from Africa, to the Americas.

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The first Americans Naia, and Luzia date to 12,000 BC were Negroes

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NAIA of Mexico


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LUZIA of Brazil

Archaeologist have reconstructed the faces of ancient Americans from Brazil and Mexico. These faces are based on the skeletal remains dating back to 12,000BC.


Researchers agree that the first Americans, Naia of Mexico, Luzia of Brazil and Kennewick Man, found near the Columbia River in Washington, were all Negroes. This finding is not so significant because the first Europeans were also Blacks.

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It appears that the first Europeans entered Western Europe across the Straits of Gibraltar. These people were Khoisan. The Khoisan took their art and culture to Europe 40kya. Here they contructed the Aurignacian, Grimaldi and Solutrean cultures. Since the first Europeans had come from North Africa, we also find a Solutrean culture in Africa.

Africa is closer to the Americas than Europe. As you can notice from the map above the Currents could have easily carried the Khoisan from Africa to the Americas. This view is supported by the face that most ancient archaeological sites of paleo-Indian habitation are nearer to the Atlantic Ocean, than the Pacific.

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In addition in Africa we find the Dafuna boat. The Dafuna boat has been dated to 8000 B.C., the culture associated with the people who built the Dafuna boat date back to 12,000 BC. This would indicate that around the time Kennewick man, Naia and Luzia inhabited the Americas, Khoisan in Africa had the naval technology to have sailed to the Americas.

In summary , the Solutrean artifacts in the Americas probably relate to Khoisan from Africa sailing to America. The fact that these ancient people in Europe, Africa and the Americas indicate that for a considerable period of time the world was dominated by Black or Negro people.

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Black Native American Hair Textures


Many Black Native Americans had straight hair.

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Other Black Native Americans had kinky hair.



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Thursday, January 29, 2015

Many Black Native Americans were sold into Slavery

The DNA does not deny the possibility that 20% of African ancestry is of Native American origin. When Europeans got here there were already Black Native Americans, e.g., the Nanticoke that used Mande numerals.

During slavery many Indians North were sold into slavery. The numerous laws regulating trade in Indian slaves in New England illustrate the extensive nature of the trade. This provided ample opportunies for Indians to mate with slaves. Other NA married free AA, many of European origin.

The Indians from New England down into South Carolina and Virginia, were sold into slavery. In INDIAN SLAVERY IN COLONIAL TIMES WITHIN THE PRESENT LIMITS OF THE UNITED STATES, BY ALMON WHEELER LAUBER (http://archive.org/stream/indianslavery00laubrich/indianslavery00laubrich_djvu.txt
), we learn that the Black Native American tribes like the Nanticoke and Yamasse were sold into slavery


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Eventhough Kittle recognizes less than 10%. The number is much higher. Lets not forget that the Native American (NA) mtDNA haplogroups A2,B2,C1 and D1 are rooted in African L3. For example, the NA haplogroup A2i is represented by the T3308A has a transversion with an insertion of T3308C. This parallels the T3308C transition in the African haplogroup L1b.

Henry Lewis Gates, joked about the fact that many AAs who self identified themselves as having Indian heritage, ended up carrying haplogroup R1-M173. As a result Gates claimed they must have European heritage.

I believe that Africans who carry R1, indicate their Indian heritage. NA people carry R-M173.


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The presence of R1, probably denotes the African heritage of many North American Native American populations. Some researchers claim that NA must have European heritage because some carry haplogroup R-M269.

Moreover the majority of Native America (NA) haplogroup R is M-173, not M269. And lets not forget that Khoisan, Pgymy , Fula and etc., carry M269, and in Equatorial Guinea 17% of Africans carry R1b1-P25. This indicates that this y-chromosome was widespread in Africa. And could have be transferred to NA by Pre-Columbian Blacks, Black Europeans or African slaves who mainly came to the U.S., from the Senegambian and Guinea region of West Africa.

As a result, the presence of between 19-22% AA males carrying R1, is probably evidence of their Native American heritage.


Finally there was never extensive intermarriage between Northeastern Native Americans and Europeans so Europeans can not account for the spread of R-M173 among Native Americans .The presence of R1 among NA probally accounts for a high percentage of the 22% of AA that carry this haplogroup. You add these AAs to the 10% that carry the Native American mtDNA, we would probably have 20% or more of AAs that have a NA heritage.

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Native Black Americans had their own Writing System

The Black Native Americans were not illiterate. Many of these Blacks continued to use the Vai script to write. The Vai script taken to America by the the Malian explorers led by Abubakari in 1310. They left inscriptions across the United States.

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There is constant talk about the Cherokee script.

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Although a great deal is made of the invention of the script, in reality it is just a modification of the Vai writing that had been used as a written language in America at least since 1310. You can tell the influence of the Malians on Sequoyah or George Guess. You can look at the African influence on Sequoyah by his head dress which is a Turban.