Sunday, September 14, 2014

CHINESE Carry African clades.

The majority of M clades in Asia are carried by Dravidian people, Dravidian people originated in Africa and belonged to the C-Group people. Moreover, M1 is recognized as an African haplogroup. as a result,


Haplotypes with HVSI transitions defining 16129-16223-16249-16278-16311-16362; and 16129-16223-16234-16249-16211-16362 have been found in Thailand and among the Han Chinese (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002) and these were originally thought to be members of Haplogroup M1.

However, on the basis of currently available FGS sequences, carriers of these markers have been found to be in the D4a branch of Haplogroup D , the most widespread branch of M1 in East Asia (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002). The transitions 16129,16189,16249 and 16311 are known to be recurrent in various branches of Haplogroup M, especially M1 and D4.

As you can see geneticist change the name of haplogroups to create confusion and deny relationships between Africans and non-Africans.

Another example is V88, although it is R1-M173, it was given another name to make it appear to be different from the R1 group.

In summary CHINESE carry African clades.


References

Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Horai S: Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Thailand. J Hum Genet 2001, 46:115-125.

Yao YG, Kong QP, Bandelt HJ, Kivisild T, Zhang YP: Phylogeographic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Han chinese. Am J Hum Genet 2002 , 70:635-651. 

Saturday, September 13, 2014

Did Zebu Originate in Africa

Researchers have assumed that Sanga cattle, or humped cattle originated in India where we find Zebu cattle. In the Sahara we find many rock engravings 9000 years old.


These rock engravings show cattle with humps. The humped cattle probably were the ancestors of the Sanga and Zebu cattle.




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In the picture below you can see a mixture of Saharan cattle. Note the long horned Sanga type cattle at the top of the picture below:
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These pictures date back to 7000 BC. The Dravidians probably took the Zebu cattle to India after they migrated from Nubia. The Dravidians founded the Indus Valley and South Indian Megalithic culture.


B.B. Lal  proved conclusively that the Dravidians were genetically related to the C group of Nubia, given the fact that both groups used 1) a common black-and-red ware (BRW), 2) a common burial complex incorporating megaliths and circular rock enclosures and 3) a common type of rock cut sepulchre. The BRW industry diffused from Nubia, across West Asia into Rajastan, and thence to East Central and South India.
The rock art evidence  of humped cattle suggest that the Zebu originated in Africa, not India.



Sunday, September 7, 2014

Foundations of Afrocentric Scholarship

There are many lies in the Color documentary because the people discussing Black history do not respect the history of Black people. The "experts" in the documentaries have been able to develop a cult following. They would never debate any European experts in the fields they discuss because they lack the knowledge base.As a result, they teach lies and eventually cause disappointment among the youth who might use their work in a University or College setting. Europeans like these "Afrocentric experts" because they are easy to dismiss.
The problem with the young people on this forum is that you lack direction for your research. You have done enough research to see the misinformation taught by the "experts" in the Color documentary so you feel justified in idealizing white scholarship and lumping all Afrocentric researchers in the same category. You fail to realize that a scholar does research, not just make feel-good speeches on the history of Black people. Secondly, you can't see that so called West Asian and South Asian history is the product of African people who left Africa beginning 5kya; and as a result of Indo-European expansion were in many cases driven back into Africa from Eurasia. 
My research on the otherhand, is based upon 200 years of Afro-American research into the ancient history of the Black race. Your mission is to perpetuate the Hamitic myths first introduced by Champolion and others, that the key to Egypt and West Asian history was a mixed race population.


Afro-American scholars, people who write history have met the standards of scholarship for almost 200 years supporting the role of Blacks in ancient history.During this period Eurocentric researchers have attempted to whiteout , Blacks from history.

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Knowledge is cumulative. In other words we build new knowledge on the research of the giants in our field. From your lack of knowledge about DuBois' it is clear you have no recognition of the fact that what you guys are writing about has already been discussed formerly, and your job should be confirming or disconfirming what these giants wrote.I teach educational philosophy on occasion. In this class I just don't talk about contemporary educators I also talk about the Greek philosophers.


The Afrocentric themes discussed by WWW researchers like  Ironlion, Mike, Marc and I write about is part of a 200 year tradition of Afro-American scholarship. Many Afro-American researchers need to learn to respect their  own scholars. Don't let white supremacy continue to blind you to the truths of history. 
Afrocentrism, is a mature social science that was founded by Afro-Americans almost 200 years ago.These men and women provided scholarship based on contemporary archaeological and historical research the African/Black origination of civilization throughout the world. These Afro-American scholars, mostly trained at Harvard University (one of the few Universities that admitted Blacks in the 19th Century) provide the scientific basis the global role played by African people in civilizing the world.


Afrocentrism and the africalogical study of ancient Black civilizations was began by Afro-Americans.

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  The foundation of any mature science is its articulation in an authoritive text (Kuhn, 1996, 136). The africalogical textbooks published by Hopkins (1905), Perry (1893) and Williams (1883) provided the vocabulary themes for further afrocentric social science research.


The pedagogy for ancient africalogical research was well established by the end of the 19th century by African American researchers well versed in the classical languages and knowledge of Greek and Latin. Cornish and Russwurm (1827) in the Freedom Journal, were the first African Americans to discuss and explain the "Ancient Model" of history.

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These afrocentric social scientists used the classics to prove that the Blacks founded civilization in Egypt, Ethiopia, Babylon and Ninevah. Cornish and Russwurm (1827) made it clear that archaeological research supported the classical, or "Ancient Model" of history.


Edward Blyden (1869) also used classical sources to discuss the ancient history of African people. In his work he not only discussed the evidence for Blacks in West Asia and Egypt, he also discussed the role of Blacks in ancient America (Blyden, 1869, 78).


By 1883, africalogical researchers began to publish book on African American history. G.W. Williams (1883) wrote the first textbook on African American history. In the History of the Negro Race in America, Dr. Williams provided the schema for all future africalogical history text.


Dr. Williams (1883) confirmed the classical traditions for Blacks founding civilization in both Africa (Egypt, Ethiopia) and West Asia. In addition, to confirming the "Ancient Model" of history, Dr. Williams (1883) also mentioned the presence of Blacks in Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula. Dr. Williams was trained at Howard.

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A decade later R.L. Perry (1893) also presented evidence to confirm the classical traditions of Blacks founding Egypt, Greece and the Mesopotamian civilization. He also provided empirical evidence for the role of Blacks in Phoenicia, thus increasing the scope of the ASAH paradigms.

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Pauline E. Hopkins (1905) added further articulation of the ASAH paradigms of the application of these paradigms in understanding the role of Blacks in West Asia and Africa. Hopkins (1905) provided further confirmation of the role of Blacks in Southeast Asia, and expanded the scope of africalogical research to China (1905).


This review of the 19th century africalogical social scientific research indicate confirmation of the "Ancient Model" for the early history of Blacks. We also see a movement away from self-published africalogical research, and publication of research, and the publication of research articles on afrocentric themes, to the publication of textbooks.It was in these books that the paradigms associated with the "Ancient Model" and ASAH were confirmed, and given reliability by empirical research. It was these texts which provided the pedagogic vehicles for the perpetuation of the africalogical normal social science.


The afrocentric textbooks of Hopkins (1905), Perry (1893) and Williams (1883) proved the reliability and validity of the ASAH paradigms. The discussion in these text of contemporary scientific research findings proving the existence of ancient civilizations in Egypt, Nubia-Sudan (Kush), Mesopotamia, Palestine and North Africa lent congruency to the classical literature which pointed to the existence of these civilizations and these African origins ( i.e., the children of Ham= Khem =Kush?).


The authors of the africalogical textbooks reported the latest archaeological and anthropological findings. The archaeological findings reported in these textbooks added precision to their analysis of the classical and Old Testament literature. This along with the discovery of artifacts on the ancient sites depicting Black\African people proved that the classical and Old Testament literature, as opposed to the "Aryan Model", objectively identified the Black\African role in ancient history. And finally, these textbooks confirmed that any examination of references in the classical literature to Blacks in Egypt, Kush, Mesopotamia and Greece\Crete exhibited constancy to the evidence recovered from archaeological excavations in the Middle East and the Aegean. They in turn disconfirmed the "Aryan Model", which proved to be a falsification of the authentic history of Blacks in early times.


The creation of africalogical textbooks provided us with a number of facts revealing the nature of the afrocentric ancient history paradigms. They include a discussion of:

1) the artifacts depicting Blacks found at ancient sites recovered through archaeological excavation;2) the confirmation of the validity of the classical and OldTestament references to Blacks as founders of civilization in Africa and Asia;3) the presence of isolated pockets of Blacks existing outside Africa; and4) that the contemporary Arab people in modern Egypt are not the descendants of the ancient Egyptians.



The early africalogical textbooks also outlined the africalogical themes research should endeavor to study. A result, of the data collected by the africalogical ancient history research pioneers led to the development of three facts by the end of the 19th century, which needed to be solved by the afrocentric paradigms:



(1) What is the exact relationship of ancient Egypt, to Blacks in other parts of Africa;(2) How and when did Blacks settle America, Asia and Europe;(3) What are the contributions of the Blacks to the rise, and cultural expression ancient Black\African civilizations;(4) Did Africans settle parts of America in ancient times.


As you can see the structure of Afrocentrism were made long before Boas and the beginning of the 20th Century.In fact , I would not be surprised if Boas learned what he talked about from the early Afrocentric researchers discussed in this post.


As you can see Afro-Americans have be writing about the Global history of ancient Black civilizations for almost 200 years. It was Afro-Americans who first mentioned the African civilizations of West Africa and the Black roots of Egypt. These Afro-Americans made Africa a historical part of the world.


Afro-American scholars not only highlighted African history they also discussed the African/Black civilizations developed by African people outside Africa over a hundred years before Bernal and Boas. Your history of what you call "negrocentric" or Black Studies is all wrong. It was DuBois who founded Black/Negro Studies, especially Afro-American studies given his work on the slave trade and sociological and historical studies of Afro-Americans. He mentions in the World and Africa about the Jews and other Europeans who were attempting to take over the field.


There is no one who can deny the fact that Leo Hansberry founded African studies in the U.S., not the Jews.Hansberry was a professor at Howard University.


Moreover, Bernal did not initiate any second wave of "negro/Blackcentric" study for ancient Egyptian civilization. Credit for this social science push is none other than Chiek Diop, who makes it clear that he was influenced by DuBois.

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DuBoisAfricalogical study of ancient historyThere are four philosophical schools associated with the afrocentric study of ancient history: perennialist, essentialist, existentialist, and progressivist. The taxonomic system we use to classify the various afrocentric philosophical positions and related values affecting afrocentrism are modeled on philo-sophical developments associated with education.


We can use taxonomies of educational philosophies to discuss any proposed afrocentric curriculum because both education and philosophy are "cultural experiences". Moreover, because afrocentrism seeks to explain and delineate the story of African people, it clearly is a field of study which encompasses all aspects of the culture of Black and African people (Asante, 1990, 1991; Winters, 1994).


The perennialist afrocentrists study the great works. The adherents of this school include Martin Delaney (1978), Cornish and Russwurm (1827), Frederick Douglas (1966), and Edward Blyden (1869). These Afrocentrists see knowledge as truth, which is eternal.


The essentialist afrocentric school emphasize in their writing data that is well established through scientific research. Afrocentrists of this philosophical school include W. E. B. DuBois (1965, 1970), John Jackson (1974), C.A. Winters (1985, 1989, 1991, 1994) and Leo Hansberry (1981). They believe that as new research is published, it should be analyzed to discover how it relates to the ancient history of African and Black people to enrich our understanding of the past.


The existentialist afrocentrists believe that africalogical studies should thrive to teach African people to know more about themselves so we can have a better world. The afrocentric existentialists include J.A. Rogers, Anta Diop (1974, 1991), G.M. James (1954), Marcus Garvey (1966) and A.A. Schomburg (1979).
Research is the foundation of good science, or knowing in general. There are four methods of 1) Method of tenacity (one holds firmly to the truth, because "they know it" to be true); 2) method of authority (the method of established belief, i.e., the Bible or the "experts" says it, it is so); 3) method of intuition (the method where a proposition agrees with reason, but not necessarily with experience); and 4) the method of science (the method of attaining knowledge which calls for self-correction). To explain African origin of the Egyptians, I use the scientific method which calls for hypothesis testing, not only supported by experimentation, but also that of alternative plausible hypotheses that, may place doubt on the original hypothesis.   
The aim of science is theory construction (F.N. Kirlinger, Foundations of behavior research, (1986) pp.6-10; R. Braithwaite, Scientific explanation, (1955) pp.1-10). A theory is a set of interrelated constructs, propositions and definitions, that provide a systematic understanding of phenomena by outlining relations among a group of variables that explain and predict phenomena.   
Scientific inquiry involves issues of theory construction, control and experimentation. Scientific knowledge must rest on testing, rather than mere induction which can be defined as inferences of laws and generalizations, derived from observation. This falsity of logical possibility is evident in the rejection of the African origin of the Egyptians. These writers base their theories solely on observation--nonscientific knowledge is not science. Karl Popper in The Logic of Scientific Discovery, rejects this form of logical validity based solely on inference and conjecture (pp. 33-65). Popper maintains that confirmation in science, is arrived at through falsification.   
Therefore to confirm a theory in science one test the theory through rigorous attempts at falsification. In falsification the researcher uses cultural, linguistic, anthropological and historical knowledge to invalidate a proposed theory. If a theory can not be falsified through yes of the variables associated with the theory it is confirmed. It can only be disconfirmed when new generalizations associated with the original theory fail to survive attempts at falsification.   
In short, science centers on conjecture and refutation. Given 200 years of research in Afrocentrism, our job is to confirm the research into the role of Blacks in ancient history uncovered by the giants in Afrocentric Social Sciences discussed above.


Dr. Winters has written extensively on the ancient history of the African diaspora. He has numerous sites on the web were explains the ancient history of African people. His major work is Afrocentrism: Myth or Science . In Afrocentrism: Myth or Science Dr. Winters provides a detailed discussion of how to study Afrocentrism and provides an intimate and detailed study of the ancient Black civilizations outside Africa in Europe, Asia and the Americas.


The final afrocentric philosophical school is the progressivist. The afrocentric school of progressivism believes that we should have knowledge of the process and futuristic focus on afrocentric studies. The major exponent of this frame of reference is Molefi K. Asante (1991).


In general Diop (1974, 1991) caused an africalogical social scientific revolution because he was able to prove that Egypt was the archetypical civilization for many West Africans. This was an important discovery because almost all of the slaves that were sold in the United States had originally came from West Africa. Verification of the Egyptian origin of West Africans provided African Americans with relationship to the ancient Egyptians.Moreover, Diop's use of linguistics, and anthropological evidence to confirm the African origin of Egypt eliminated the need for africalogical researchers to use the classical writers to prove the African origin of Egypt (Diop, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1986, 1987, 1988). This finding by Diop has led africalogical researchers to seek a better understanding of African philosophy through an interpretation of Egyptian philosophy.


Moreover, africalogical researchers like Dr.Winters, have also began the reconstruction of the Paleo-African language used by Blacks in prehistoric times (Anselin, 1982, 1982b, 1989; Winters, 1994) so that we will know more about the culture and civilization of the Proto-Africans. Dr. Winters in Before Egypt: The Maa Confederation, Africa's First Civilization, is about the Maa civilization. The Maa civilization existed in the Saharan highlands. The people of Maa founded many civilizations including Egypt, and Sumer.


Dr, Winters in Egyptian Language, Niger-Congo Speakers and the Mountains of the Moon , provides the linguistic evidence that confirms the hypothesis of Cheikh Anta Diop, L. Homburger, M. Delafosse that the Niger-Congo speakers and Egyptians had a common origin. In this book we argue that many Egytians living in the 22 sepats of Upper Egypt spoke Niger-Congo languages including the Bantu Fulani and Mande languages.


Egyptian Languages , provides the genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence relating to the diverse Niger-Congo speakers who made up segments of the Egyptian nation. Readers of this book will learn that the Niger-Congo speakers originated in the Highland regions of Middle Africa: the Mountains of the Moon ; and that this population which later settled Upper Egypt, formerly belonged to the Ounanian culture.


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Clyde Winters


The last major confirmation of the ASAH paradigms was made by Clyde Ahmad Winters (1977, 1979, 1981, 1983a, 1983c, 1983d, 1984, 1985) when he expanded our understanding of the role of Blacks\Africans in Indo-China, India and China; and the ancient literacy of Blacks (1979, 1983d, 1985c, 1986b). Dr. Winters has an extensive background in teaching Social Studies. In the 1990’s Dr. Winters help write the Social Science standards for the Chicago Public Schools. In recent years he has been developing lesson plans for Common Core State Standards in Social Science.
Using linguistic, anthropological and historical evidence, Dr. Winters proved that the earliest cultures of China and Indo-China were founded by Blacks from West Africa and modern Ethiopia (Winters, 1979, 1983d, 1985c, 1986b). In support of this history Dr. Winters has posted over 70 videos on YouTube.


Winters also made it clear that the earliest Japanese were Blacks and that Japanese is related to African languages (Winters, 1979, 1981, 1983a, 1983c, 1984). In addition he was able to prove that the founders of Xia and Shang were of African and Dravidian origin (1983c,1985c).


Using the findings of Wiener in regards to the writing of the Olmecs Winters discovered that the Blacks from West Africa left numerous inscriptions written in the Manding language (Winters, 1977, 1979, 1983a, 1985b) . Winters later discovered that due to the cognition between the Mande writing and ancient scripts used by the Minoans and Indus Valley he could read the Indus Valley Writing and the Linear A inscriptions (1985b).


• The study of Africans in ancient America has been fruitful. Dr. Leo Wiener, in Africa and the Discovery of America was the first to recognize that the ancient civilizations of Mexico had been incluenced by Africans. He was especially sure that the Mande speaking people influenced the religion and civilization of the Aztec and Maya people; and that the writing on the Tuxtla statuette was written in the Mande writing system.


Later Ivan van Sertima wrote an important book which highlighted the influence of Africans in Mexico. In They Came before Columbus, van Sertima discussed the African influence on the Olmec civilization, and the discovery of America by Abubakari, a ruler of the Mali empire in the 1300's A.D. Dr. Winters expands the discussion of Abubakari's voyage to America by discusing the colonies they left in North America and Brazil in his book African Empires in Ancient America.


Dr. Clyde Winters has written extensively on the African origins of the Olmec. He deciphered the Olmec language and since then he has published numerous websites where he discussed the Olmec Kings and their civilization. The most important work of Dr. Winters is Atlantis in Mexico, in this book Dr. Winters provides a detailed account of the migration of the Mande speaking people from Africa to the Americas. He explains that they called themselves Xi (Shi) or Si people and provides an informative discussion of the Mexican traditions regarding the expansion of the Olmec from the Gulf Coast, to the Pacific coast of Mexico. 


Atlantis in Mexico will provide any researchers with a wealth of knowledge to understand the African origin of the Olmec. And the contributions of the Xi to the civilizations of Mexico.


Dr. Winters has expanded knowledge about the other Blacks who established colonies in the Americas before Europeans. In African Empires Ancient America,Dr. Winters discussed the Axumite, Mound Builders and other ancient Black Americans.


Proficiency in a language other than English, helped africalogical researchers conduct the normal africalogical social science. It was DuBois' (1965, 1970) and Hansberry's knowledge of German that allowed these afrocentrists to conduct research into the role of Blacks in Egypt and Ethiopia. J.A. Rogers mastered many languages including French and German to prove that Blacks inhabited almost every continent on the globe. Dr. C. A. Winters (1977,1981\1982, 1985, 1991, 1994) had to learn Arabic, Chinese, Malinke, Portuguese, Otomi, Mayan, Swahili, Tamil and Tokharian (Kushana) to conduct his africalogical studies of Blacks in Asia and the Americas. Dr. Wintes used his linguistic knowled to decipher the Olmec, Meroitic and Minoan writing systems. Dr, Winters gives a detailed explanation of his decipherment of Meroitic writing numerous Meroitic inscriptions deciphered and in his book: Meroitic Writing and Literature.In the 1960's due to the rise of independence in the east African country of Tanzania, Swahili became a language used by africalogical scientists. Swahili terms were used to explain and define the phenomena associated with africalogy. This is one of the reasons that the terms used in the Kwanza ceremonies practiced by blacks are Swahili lexical items (Coleman, 1971).Swahili is still among africalogical researchers but today Egyptian is recognized as the classical language for africalogical research (Wimby, 1980). Diop (1974,1991) popularized the idea that Egyptian should be used as the classical language for the study of ancient africalogical language and historical studies. As a result, most of the africalogical researchers today concentrate on Egypt and use Egyptian terms to explain the culture and Proto-African language of Africa people (Carruthers, 1977,1980). 
Dr. Winters in Afrocentrism: Myth or Science , Has been able to update the literature regarding African civilizations in Asia, Europe and the Americas. This text provides the blueprint necessary for students to understand why the Afrocentric model of history continues to find support from the archaeological, linguistic and anthropological fields of study
This africalogical research by Winters (1981/1982, 1983b, 1983d, 1989a, 1991, 1994) made it clear that the first civilizations in Indo-China and China were founded by Blacks. He has also proved the lie to Hume's (1875) claim that Blacks have "No literacy" and "No letters". . In A Short History of Black People in Ancient Times (Createspace, 2013) and Ancient African History Primer ( Createspace,2014) Dr. Winters provides a comprehensive discussion of the role of African and Black people in the origin and rise of worldwide civilization.

These scholars recognized that the people of ancient Greece, Southeast Asia and Indo-China were African people. When giants in study of Afrocentrism discussed Blacks in Asia they were talking about people of African descent. So when you claim that these civilizations should be outside the study area of Afrocentric scholars you don't know what you're talking about. 

These researchers used anthropological, archaeological historical and linguistic evidence to support their conclusions. It is only natural that these well founded hypotheses developed by these scholars can be supported by population genetics.




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Bernal, M. (1996, Spring). The Afrocentric interpretation of history: Bernal replies to Lefkowitz. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 86-95.Bernal,M. (1987). Black Athena. New York: Free Association Press. Volume 1.________. (1991). Black Athena. New York: Free Association Press. Volume 2.


Blyden, E.W. ( January, 1869). The Negro in ancient history.Methodist Quarterly Review, 71-93.Blyden, E.W. (1887). Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press._____________. (1890). The African Problem and the method forits solution. Washington, D.C.: Gibson Brothers._______________.(1905). West Africa before Europe. London:C.M. Phillips.


Clegg, L.H. (1975). Who were the first Americans? The BlackScholar, 7(1), 32-41.


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Winters, C.A. (1979). Manding Scripts in the New World", Journal of African Civilizations, l(1), 80-97. Winters,C.A. (December 1981/ January 1982). Mexico's Black Heritage. The Black Collegian, 76-84.Winters, C.A. (1983a). "The Ancient Manding Script". In Blacksin Science:Ancient and Modern. (ed.) by Ivan van Sertima, (New Brunswick: Transaction Books) pp.208-215.__________. (1983b). "Les Fondateurs de la Grece venaient d'Afrique en passant par la Crete". Afrique Histoire (Dakar), no.8:13-18._________. (1983c) "Famous Black Greeks Important in the development of Greek Culture". Return to the Source,2(1):8.________.(1983d). "Blacks in Ancient China, Part 1, The Foundersof Xia and Shang", Journal of Black Studies 1 (2), 8-13. ________. (1984a). "Blacks in Europe before the Europeans".Return to the Source, 3(1):26-33.Winters, C.A. (1984b). Blacks in Ancient America, Colorlines, 3(2), 27-28.Winters, C.A. (1984c). Africans found first American Civilization , African Monitor, l , pp.16-18._________.(1985a). "The Indus Valley Writing and relatedScripts of the 3rd Millennium BC". India Past andPresent, 2(1):13-19.__________. (1985b). "The Proto-Culture of the Dravidians, Manding and Sumerians". Tamil Civilization,3(1):1-9.__________. (1985c). "The Far Eastern Origin of the Tamils",Journal of Tamil Studies , no.27, pp.65-92.__________.(1986). The Migration Routes of the Proto-Mande.The Mankind Quarterly,27 (1), 77-96._________.(1986b). Dravidian Settlements in Ancient Polynesia.India Past and Present, 3 (2), 225-241.__________. (1988). "Common African and Dravidian Place NameElements". South Asian Anthropologist, 9(1):33-36.__________. (1989a). "Tamil, Sumerian, Manding and the GeneticModel". International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics,18(1):98-127.__________. (1989b). "Review of Dr. Asko Parpola's 'The Coming of the Aryans'",International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 18(2):98-127.__________. (1990). "The Dravido-Harappan Colonization of Central Asia". Central Asiatic Journal, 34(1/2):120-144.___________. (1991). "The Proto-Sahara". The Dravidian Encyclopaedia, (Trivandrum: International School of Dravidian Linguistics) pp.553-556. Volume l.----------.(1994). Afrocentrism: A valid frame of reference, Journal of Black Studies, 25 (2), 170-190._________.(1994b). The Dravidian and African laguages, International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 23 (1), 34-52.________.2007. Afrocentrism Myth or Science.www.lulu.com Here
___________2007. Did the Dravidian Speakers Originate in Africa? BioEssays, 27(5): 497-498. ___________2007b. High Levels of Genetic Divergence across Indian Populations. PloS Genetics. Retrieved 4/8/2008 http://www.plosgenetics. ____________2008. Can parallel mutation and neutral genome selection explain Eastern African M1 consensus HVS-1 motifs in Indian M Haplogroups. Int J Hum Genet, 13(3): 93-96.http://www.ijhg.com/article.asp?issn=0971-6866;year=2007;volume=13;issue=3;spage=93;epage=96;aulast=Winters ______________2008b. African millets taken to India by Dravidians. Ann of Bot, http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/eletters/100/5/903#49 _______________2008. ARE DRAVIDIANS OF AFRICAN ORIGINhttp://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/IJHG/IJHG-08-0-000-000-2008-Web/IJHG-08-4-317-368-2008-Abst-PDF/IJHG-08-4-325-08-362-Winder-C/IJHG-08-4-325-08-362-Winder-C-Tt.pdf ________________Aurignacian Culture:Evidence of Western Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans, South Asian Antropologist, (2008) 8(1) pp.79-81. _____________2009. Literacy Existed in the Indus Valley .Science Magazine. E-Letter. (2June 2009) http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/eletters/324/5931/1165 Archaeogenetics ___________2007. Did the Dravidian Speakers Originate in Africa? BioEssays, 27(5): 497-498. ___________2007b. High Levels of Genetic Divergence across Indian Populations. PloS Genetics. Retrieved 4/8/2008 http://www.plosgenetics. ____________2008a. Can parallel mutation and neutral genome selection explain Eastern African M1 consensus HVS-1 motifs in Indian M Haplogroups. Int J Hum Genet, 13(3): 93-96.http://www.ijhg.com/article.asp?issn=0971-6866;year=2007;volume=13;issue=3;spage=93;epage=96;aulast=Winters
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____________.2011b. Munda Speakers are the Oldest Population in India. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology. 4 (2) Retrieved 9/21/2011 http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_biological_anthropology/volume_4_number_2_61/article/munda-speakers-are-the-oldest-population-in-india.html _______________.2011c. Is Native American R Y-Chromosome of African Origin? Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences. Vol. 3 , (6): 555-558. http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjbs/v3-555-558.pdf
_______________,2011d. Olmec (Mande) Loan Words in the Mayan, Mixe-Zoque and Taino Languages . Current Research Journal of Social Science Year: 2011 Vol: 3 Issue: 3 Pages/record No.: 152-179. http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjss/v3-152-179.pdf ______________.2011e. The Ancient Indian Populations Were Not Homogenous . Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences Year: 2011 Vol: 3 Issue: 2 Pages/record No.: 129-131______________.2012. Comparison of Fulani and Nadar HLA. Indian J Hum Genet [serial online] 2012 [cited 2012 Jul 1];18:137-8. Available from: http://www.ijhg.com/text.asp?2012/18/1/137/96686 _______________. 2011.The Gibraltar Out of Africa Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans. WebmedCentral BIOLOGY. http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/2311 ________________.2012. Haplogroup L3 (M,N) probably spread across Africa before the Out of Africa event. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1590/770/reply _________________.2011. Haplogroup M23 is probably not Asian in origin. Hg M23 is of Africa. http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/2237 _____________A Sub-Saharan Origin for European Farmers http://olmec98.net/BlkFarmers.pdf _____________There has been a Continous Indigenous Sub-Saharan Presence in North Africe for 30ky http://olmec98.net/ContinuousEurope.pdf __________________.2012. First Europran Farmers were Sub-Saharan Africans http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1730/884.abstract/reply      



Woodson, C.G. & Wesley, C.H. (1972). The Negro in Our History. Washington, D.C. Associated Publisher.
Get up off your knees and learn from the Afro-American scholars who began the study of Blacks in ancient history.





In conclusion, Afrocentrism is a mature social science. A social science firmly rooted in the scholarship of Afro-American researchers lasting almost 200 years. Researchers like Marc Washington, Mike and I are continuing a tradition of scholarship began 20 decades ago. All we are doing is confirming research by DuBois and others, that has not been disconfirmed over the past 200 years.
Aluta continua.....The struggle continues.....

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

The First Americans were Khoisan

The first Americans sailed to America from Africa. They had to have come from Africa because the last ICE AGE blocked people from crossing the Beringa straits before 16kya.

If you could not cross the Beringa until 14kya and all the skeletons of ancient inhabitants are found near the Atlantic coastline the people had to have come from Africa given the fact the carniometrics indicate that they were of the African variety, and ice blocked any possible movement of people from the Pacific to Argintina and Chile where some of the evidence of early man has been found.

The first Americans did not cross the Bearing Straits to enter the Americas.The earliest sites for Negroes date between 20,000 and 40000 years ago Old Crow Basin Canada(38,000BC) Pedra Furada (45,000BC) Brazil. These people were Khoisan type according to Dr. Dixon, & Dr. Marquez(p.179).


Chile: Monteverde (12,500 years), Tierra del Fuego, Cueva de Fell, Tres Arroyos and some other places.There are older ones in the Argentinian Patagonia.










The first Americans were Khoisan speakers. The Penon woman of Mexico and Luzia of Brazil were probably Khoisan. this is supported by the ancient Y-chromosomes of the Fuegians of South America.









I said  the Fuegians were related to the Khoisan because of the Y-chromosomes they carried. Fuegians 100-400 BP carried haplogroup A1. Hg A1 is an African haplogroup. The y chromosome STRs of the Fuegians include DYS434,DYS437,DYS 439, DYS 393, DYS391,DYS390,DYS19, DYS 389I, DYS389II and DYS 388 (see: Garcia-Bour et al above). Except for DYS390 and DYS388 they are characteristic of haplogroup A1 .Y-chromosome A1 is recognized as one of the oldest African haplogroup.
See: GarcĂ­a-Bour J., 2004 Early population differentiation in extinct aborigines from Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia: ancient mtDNA sequences and Y chromosome STR characterization. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 123, 361–370. (doi:10.1002/ajpa.10337) CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science, Am J Phys Anthropol. 2004 Apr;123(4):361-70.
See:  http://docencia.med.uchile.cl/smg/pdf/GARCIA-BOUR-fueguian2004.pdf




In 1959 archaeologists found the Penon woman skeleton at Mexico City.




                                            Penon Woman







Penon woman has been characterized as a Negro and is physically different from Native Americans. The Penon skeleton has been dated between 12,500-15,000BP. The skull of Penon woman is dolichocephalic like most Negroes, not brachysephalic (short and braod) like modern Native Americans. She is related to the Fuegians of Parana Argentina and the Luizia population of Brazil.







Some researchers claim that these skeletons are of Australian or Melanesian Blacks. This is highly unlikely given the fact that that have been found near the Atlantic Ocean and suggestive of a migration from Africa to Mexico, like the migration of the Olmec 11,000 years later. This view is supported by the discovery of the so-called Eva Neharon skeleton (c.13,600 ) dating to around the same period found in the Caribbean.By 11,500 we see the appearence tall Negroes from Africa in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil e.g.,Luiza. Negroes settled America both from the Bearing & South America. Cite an archaeological site where Amerind skeletons have been found prior to the Negro skeletons.


 -
Let's look at the facts:


1) the Australians represent the OOA population that settled Asia


2) during the OOA event much of Siberia and North America was under ice from 110,000 - 10,000BC. As a result there was no way Siberians could cross Beringa before the end of the ice age;


3) Ice even separated much of South America east to west.


 -
.
4) the first Americans appear in Brazil, Chile and Argintina Latin America around 30,000 BC


5)using craniometric evidence it is clear that the first Americans look like Africans not modern Asian Native Americans


6) using craniometrics I have pointed out that Asia was dominated by the Australian population until the rise of Suhulland when the Melanesian people appear in the area, at this time the Beringa was still under Ice


7) I pointed out that the Melanesian type reach East Asian mainland by 5000 BC, long after Africans had settled Latin America


8) between 15,000-12,000 we see numerous African populations in Mexico and Brazil; and skeletons dating to this period have even been found off the Yucatan coast in the Caribbean


9) these first Americans did not look like the Australians or modern Amerinds


10) iconography of PreClassic people like the Cherla, Ocos and other groups is of Negroes not Amerinds like the Maya


11) Amerind groups not associated with African slaves carry African genes


12) Maya carried African y chromosome


13) Chontal Mayan speakers were classified as Negroes by Quatrefages. This may explain why the Maya carry African genes


14)Negrocostachicanos claim that they have never been slaves and are indigenous to Guererro and Oaxaca on the Pacific coast


15) The Dufuna boat makes it clear that Africans probably had the technology to travel to the Americas 15,000 years ago. 


16) Fuegians 100-400 BP carried haplogroup A1. Hg A1 is an African haplogroup


17) Amerinds carry haplogroup N, just like Africans


.18)The y chromosome STRs of the Fuegians include DYS434,DYS437,DYS 439, DYS 393, DYS391,DYS390,DYS19, DYS 389I, DYS389II and DYS 388 (see: Garcia-Bour et al above). Except for DYS390 and DYS388 they are characteristic of haplogroup A1 . A1 is recognized as an African haplogroup.



Inline image 1






19)Quatrefages noted numerous African Native American tribes


20)The antiquity of these populations is supported by the ancient iconography found in these countries which are of African Native Americans.


21) Most contemporary populations are descendants of the San people.

Sunday, August 31, 2014

The Greek speakers and the Origin of the Indo-European family of languages



It is important to remember that the relationship between Indo-European and Indo-Aryan language, especially Sanskrit is via the Greek language. Greek influenced other European languages because it was recognized as a language of culture and civilization by the Romans.
It was in Pakistan that the Greek language was probably incorporated into Sanskrit. Many of the rules for Sanskrit were codified by Panini, who was born in Salatura, in Northwest Pakistan. Panini’s grammar contains 4000 rules.
When Panini wrote his grammar of Sanskrit, it was spoken by the elites in the area. Greek was also popular when Panini wrote the Sanskrit grammar. The Greeks were called Yunani or Yavana. Thus we learn from Agrawala (1953) that the Yavanani lipi (edict) was well known in Gandahara, and even Panini mentions the Yavana in his grammar . The term Yauna meant Ionian (Woodcock, 1966).
The history of Greeks in the area is quite interesting. When Alexander entered the HinduKush region in 327 B.C., Greek settlements were already in the area. By 180 BC, as the Mauryas fell into decline, the Greek Kings of Bactria took control of Western Punjab and Gandhara up to the Indus River. Under King Menander (d.130 B.C.) the Greeks had their capital at Taxila. The center of Greek culture in the area was Charsadda near Peshawar (Woodcock,1966).
Many Greek terms were probably already incorporated in the Prakrits of Northern India-Pakistan and Central Asia. Here the Greeks minted their coins with Kharoshthi, Brahmi and Greek inscriptions.
Greek was used for commercial purposes and served as a patrician lingua franca of the Kabul valley and of Gandhara. During the rule of Pushyamitra many Greeks settled in India. Due to the long history of Greeks in India, Ashoka had some of his edicts written in Greek and Aramaic bilinguals. In 44 A.D., Appolonius of Tyana when he visited Taxila found that merchants and kings learned Greek “as a matter of course” (Rahman, 2004; Woodcock,1966).
Given the popularity of Greek in the region it is not surprising that Sanskrit would show such a strong relationship to the Indic languages, since it was spoken throughout the area of a couple of hundred years. Commenting on the Greek rulers of India, Kulke and Rothermund (1998), said that “They are referred to as ‘Indo-Greeks’, and there were about forty such kings and rulers who controlled large areas of northwestern India and Afghanistan….They appear as Yavanas in stray references in Indian literature, and there are few but important references in European sources. In these distant outposts, the representatives of the Hellenic policy survived the defeat of their Western compatriots at the hands of the Parthians for more than a century” (p.70). The greatest of the Indo-Greek rulers was Menander, who is mentioned in the famous Milindapanho text. The Shakas adopted many elements of Indo-Greek culture which they perpetuated in India for over 100 years (Rahman, 2004).
It is impossible to argue for a genetic relationship between Vedic and Greek languages based on the fact that speakers of these languages formerly lived in intimate contact in historical times. Secondly, we know the Dravidians were in Greece before the Indo-Europeans enter the country. These non-I-E speakers were called Pelasgians. As a result, Anna Morpurgo Davies, The linguistic evidence:Is there any?, in Gerald Cadogan, The End of the early Bronze Age in the Agean (pp.93-123), says that only 40% of Greek is of Indo-European etymology (p.105). Since only 40% of the Greek terms are of I-E origin, many of the Greek terms that agree with the Indic languages may be from the 60% of the Greek lexical items that came from non-I-E speakers which as noted by Lahovary in Dravidian origins and the West, were people who spoke either Dravidian languages, or other languages from Africa, genetically related to the Dravidian group.
In conclusion, as a result of the Greek influence in Bactria and India-Pakistan , Indians and Bactrians had to acquire "Greek Culture" to enhance their position and opportunity in North India and Bactria during Greek rule. Greek rule placed prestige on status elements introduced into the region by the Greeks, especially the Greek language. Status acquired by Bactrians and Indian-Pakistanis was thus centered around acquisition of Greek language and Greek culture. This supported by the evidence that Indian elites used Greek in business and government (Rahman, 2004). This would have inturn added pressure on the Bactrians to incorporate Greek terms into a Bactrian lingua franca (i.e., Tocharian).
Given the fact that Greek administrators in Bactria and Northern India-Pakistan ,refused to fully integrate Bactrians and Indians into the ruling elite, unless they were “well versed in Greek culture and language) led to subsequent generations of native Bactrians and Indian-Pakistanis to progressively incorporate more Greek terms into their native language. This would explain why Tocharian has many features that relate to certain IE etymologies and Panini’s Sanskrit grammar, present many terms that are associated with the Greeks, but illustrates little affinity to Indo-Iranian languages which are geographically and temporally closer to Tocharian.
Some researchers might dispute the influence of the Greek language on Sanskrit because Panini’s grammar was suppose to have been written around 400 B.C. This date for the grammar might be too early, because Rahman (2004) and Agrawala (1953) maintains that Greek was spoken in Gandahara in Panini’s time.
The influence of colonial Greeks in Central Asia would explain why the most important evidence of an I-E relationship with Sanskrit. The historical connections between the so-called Indo-European languages probably respect an areal linguistic relationship—not genetic relationship.

Here I discuss in detail the relationship between Greek and Sanskrit
http://www.federatio.org/joes/EurasianStudies_0310.pdf
see pages 70-77.

.

Dravidians and Aryans in Anatolia


To understand the relationship between Dravidian languages and Prakrits you must understand the history of Kushites, the people of Kusha Dwipa. In the Puranas the region from Arabia to Mesopotamia and India and lands below Egypt were belonged to Kusha Dwipa.

Once you recognize the history of the Tamil in Anatolia, as represented by the Kassites, and the fact that the Hattic, Hurrian and Kaska people also belonged the C-Group (or Kushite) people who left Nubia in search of metals after 3500 BC explains why Dravidian languages are at the base of Sanskrit and the Pakrits. Although the original "Aryans" spoke languages related to the Dravidian group when they entered India they came to settle new lands in where the majority of the population lived in city-states instead of an Empire with a central administration.

The Hattic, Kaska and Kassite people desperate for land because the Hittites, the first Indo-European speakers had forced them from Anatolia sent these nationalities eastward in search of new lands. Under the Elamites and original Persians these nomadic people were unable to establish themselves in Iran, except among the hunter-gather groups which may have been composed of the Proto-Indo-Iranian speakers.The Anatolians probably intermarried with Iranian speakers and probably adopted many Elamite/Old Persian terms, and like the Elamite/ Old Persians used the term Arya to denote their Anatolian heritage as rulers and elits.

Consequently, when the Aryans (Kassite, Hurrian, Hattic,and Iranians) probably entered India and found much of the authority situated in city-states (walled villages) the Aryans (Kassites, Hattic, Hurrian and Iranian speakers) were able to concentrate their forces and easily overthrow the Dravidian City-States and thus conqueror the North. The nomadic nature of these Aryans and led to their lost of the polish and sofhistication they manifested when they were the rulers of Anatolia.

As a result, there were probably numerous attempts of the Vedic people to return to Anatolia and recapture their heritage. But over time Europeans and Gutians took control of the region and they were forced make India the center of their culture and civilization.

If this is an accurate account of the origin and spread of the Indo-Aryan people to India, it would appear that the Indo-Aryan people would have remained a significant minority in India if not for the fact the India they entered was made up of City-States , instead of an Empire with a centralized polity and military.

Aryan is not a racial term.



Over the years there have been many discussions of the term Aryan. Due to Nazism people believe this term relates to a racial group. This is not the true definition of ARYAN.
  • --- In Ta_Seti@yahoogroups.com, "ulagankmy" wrote:
    Dear Dr Winters

    As you are aware, the word 'aariyan' is a Tamil word, an ancient one at
    that and which has been borrowed by many tribes in deep past. Probably the root is Su. a and Ta. aal, to spread out, powerful, strong etc.


    Sumerian a-ri-a and Tamil aariyan

    The noun aal-al ( >aaRRal) which means strength, capacity and so forth is still in use in Tamil . The following note may help out to destroy the myth that Europeans were the Aryans.

    Related to this is that the whole of Rig Veda and related literature in
    Rigkrit is another variant of SumeroTamil. As such it has nothing to
    do with any "Aryan' family of languages - it is a pure fiction





    The word "aryan " that has acquired a racial connation has become one of
    the most important words to divide of Indian into Aryan and Dravidian with vrious antagonisms along racial lines. The growth of 19th century
    Dravidian movements in Tamil Nadu which has become political in the 20th
    cent. and the cultural movements to purify Tamil by cleaning it of the so-called Sanskrit terms are related to this. The replacemnt of Tamil as the language of Temple Worship among the tamils however has a different
    historical basis. It was something introduced by Ramanuja and on
    philosophical grounds. The Sanskrit literature , under the impact of
    Sankara became predominantly Advaitic Vedantic and hence was seen as
    detrimental to the growth of Bakthi and for which reason Ramaunuja
    installed the recitation of Thruvaymozi in the temples in place of Vedic
    mantras. One can see the present movement of the Saivites to give the
    place of honour to Tamil particularly the Thevaram corpus as something like that of Ramanuja, who incidently was a Brahamin and who wrote only in Sanskrit despite being a brilliant Tamil scholar.

    At the moment and perhaps mainly due to IndoEuropean scholarship the
    excitment and arrogance with which the Brahmins in Tamil Nadu received
    this, which is mainly a hypothesis , and who started to call themseves the scions of these Aryans is that which unnderlies the Brahmin-bashing that continues to this day. I have a colletion of litwrature in Tamil towards the end of 19th ,where the Smartha brahmins called themselves Aryans and went on to criticise severely Saiva Sidddhanta and many other philosophies of the Tamils. The Dravidian identity was fostered by Bihop Caldwell with his epoch making "Comparative study of Dravidian Languages" which was well received by the Tamil scholars but vehemently challenged by the Smartha Brahmins.

    This association of Tamil Brahmins with Aryanism and also Sanskrit along
    with it, still continues and will continue perhaps for a long time. It is certainly unfortunate for such a hatred for the TERM aryan is NOT to be met with in traditional India where the primary meaning of Aryan as used in Thevaram corpus Kamba Ramayan and so forth and perhaps also as Dhammapada did not have the racial sense at all rather that of "exceptional or brilliant individual" as in Tamil " ariyan'

    In Sangam classics there are several uses of it .

    1. aariyar tuvanRiya peerisai imayam: the famed Himalayas where dwell the Aryas. Here it certainly means a group of people bordering the Himalayas and in sense a generic term for all those who dwelt in the North of India

    2. aariyak kuuttu: here it means a noisy kind of dance especially those
    like walking on ropes to the accopaniment of loud and boisterous music.

    3. ariyamum tamizum: This phrase used by Appar and so forth applies to the Languages and here aariyam means certainly Sanskrit. Here we see the
    beginnings of the use of Aryan and Dravidian (=Tamil) in linguistic terms but without any anatogonistic emotional undertones. For both are recognised as languages founded by Siva.

    Ariyan as the Brilliant , Resplendent Principle and hence another variant for Siva

    We see the use of Aryan in this sense in the following verse of Tirumular

    Tirumantiram 134.

    puraiyaRRa paalinuL ney kalataaR pool
    tirai aRra cintaiyil aariyan ceppum
    uraiyaR RuNarvoor udambing kozitaaR
    karaiyaRRa cooti kalawthasat taame
    Meaning

    BEING emerges but stands as the Unconscious in the mind that
    becomes unruffled by any earthly desires just like ghee
    being present invisibly in the pure milk. Those who transcend
    speech ( by transcending temporality) and LISTEN in
    DEEP SILENCE to the instructions on Absolute Illumination that
    BEING-the -Radiant instructs on (through the language of Cin
    Muttirai) will untie themselves from all attachments to the
    physical body and becoming FREE from it, plunge into
    Boundless Radiance and through that also become a Sat, an
    absolute (just like BEING)

    Here Ariyan is used as anohter name for Civa, the Immensely Radiant BEING who illuminates all and helps the attainment of genuine freedom through the severances to all the bondages.
    The use of Aryan in the sense 'divine" that the above suggests is also
    available in Kampan's description of Rama as "aariya maintan". Here it may also mean the "royal, the kingly" etc.

    Su. a -ri-a

    The Tamil 'aariyan' that has has so many different meanings and hence
    possibly with different etymological roots also occurs in Sumerian in the sense "divine, royal " etc as the following line from Sulgis MutarIbuyam (Hymn B) would indicate.

    11. lugal-e lugal-a-ri-a nin-e -tu-da -me-en
    I, the king of Royal descent, who a princess bore.
    Ta. uLukaLee uLugak aariya(ariya) ninnee todda maan

    lu> uLu> aaLu, aaL: person. gal> kaL: great -e: -ee: the suffix that
    isolates that which is named ; the teeRRa eekaaram. a-ri-a> ariya (the
    rare) ; aariya: the royal , divine etc. nin> Nin, nan: the lofty: tu-da>
    todda; to bear , to give birth; me-en> maan: the person as in ceeramaan,
    atikaimaan etc The term" lugal-aria" is almost identical with the Tamil usage of Arya maintain such as that of Kamban. And this may be the sense in the use of Arya by Buddha in Dhammapada.

    It is also interesting that in the long history of Tamil literature nowhere we come across the Brahmins being called or call themselves as Aryas. Even in Sangam epoch we have kapilar, known as a Brahamana calling himself AntaN and NOT Aryan. This term has been more in use with the royalties and as an alternative term for Siva , the Brilliant Principle, the supremely radiant BEING that illuminates all minds arising as the inner sun.