Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Malinke-Bambara and the Mayan Languages

In Malinke-Bambara the word Ka and Kan means 'serpent, upon high,and sky'. In Yucatec we find that can/kan and caan/kaan means ' serpent and heaven'. The fact that both languages share the same homophonic words , point to a formerly intimate contact between the speakers of Mayan and Mande languages in ancient times.

Montellano mentions that in the Diccionario Maya Cordemex* Merida: Ediciones Cordemex (1980) we have the following

kan serpent

ka’an heaven

These terms correspond to Mande terms kan sky and kan serpent.

It is obvious the Mande and Mayan terms for sky and serpent share the same phonetic construction K-N .

There are many other shared Mayan and Mande terms. The Mande terms I will compare are taken from Delafosse, Maurice.(1929). *La Langue Mandingue et ses Dialectes (Malinke, Bambara, Dioula)*. Vol 1. Intro. Grammaire, Lexique Francais Mandingue).Paris: Librarie. Orientaliste Paul Geuthner

Often we find that Mande words beginning with /s/ , appear as /c/ ,/x/ or /k/ in the Mayan languages. For example, Malinke Bambara, the word sa means 'sell, to buy and market'. This is related to Mayan con 'to sell', and can 'serpent'. In Quiche we have ka:x 'sky' which corresponds to Mande sa / ka 'sky'. In Quiche many words beginning with /ch/ correspond to words they borrowed from the Malinke-Bambara languages possessing an initial /k/, e.g.,

  • Quiche Malinke-Bambara
    ch'ich' bird …………kono
    achi man……………. kye
    chi>ic bite…………… ki
    chhix rock…………… kaba

It is also interesting to note that many Quiche words beginning with /x/ which is pronounced 'sh', correspond to words borrowed from Malinke-Bambara with an initial /s/ e.g.,

  • Quiche Malinke-Bambara
    xab' rain…………… sa
    ixa? seed …………..si
    uxe root…………….. sulu, suru

Other loan words in Quiche from Malinke-Bambara include:

  • Quiche Malinke-Bambara
    saq'e daytime,sunlight ……………sa 'heaven, sky'
    k'i many………………………………….. kika
    ja lineage, family……………………. ga, gba
    ja water…………………………………….. ji
    q'aq fire ……………………………………ga-ndi
    palo lake, sea………………………….. ba, b'la
    k'oto to carve, cut………………… ka
    k':um squash …………………………kula, kura
    Ba father………………………………. fa
    Ba lord ………………………………….Ba 'great' (Person)
    ka 'land,earth'………………………… ka 'suffix joined to names of lands,etc.
    naal parent,……………………………….. mother na
    cah earth,…………………………………….. land ka (see above)
    balam jaguar/tiger…………………………. balan 'leopard worship'

    xuku? Boat…………………………………………, canoe kulu
    k'o:x mask……………………………………………. ku

    The loan words in Quiche from Malinke-Bambara show the following patterns
    a------->a c------->s
    o------->u c------->k
    u------->a z------->s
    x ---------s k------->k
    x--------- k p------->f
    q------->k ch------>k

Below we compared Yucatec and Malinke-Bambara terms. I have placed the page number where each Mayan term can be found in Maurice Swadesh, Critina Alvarez and Juan R. Bastarrachea's, "Diccionario de Elementos del Maya Yucatec Colonial" (Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Centro de Estudios Mayas, 1970). The Malinke-Bambara terms come from Delafosse, Maurice.(1929). *La Langue Mandingue et ses Dialectes (Malinke, Bambara, Dioula)*. Vol 1. Intro. Grammaire, Lexique Francais Mandingue).Paris: Librarie. Orientaliste Paul Geuthner.

Phonetic correspondences exists between the Malinke-Bambara and Yucatec. There is full agreement between k, m,n, and t. There is also assimilation of c to k, z to s.

  • Yucatec Malinke Bambara

    z s
    Zuu, 'joined,unite su,' shape p.95
    Zul 'to wet' su, 'precipitation p.95
    Zou, 'to entagle' su, 'be i mixture' p.95
    Zay, 'assemble' se, 'join' p.94

    c k
    Earth cab ka p.15
    Serpent can kan p.18
    Rock chhix kaba
    To cause cal ku
    Sky caan ka p.15, p.38
    Village cah ka 'suffix joined to names of towns p.15
    Maize co 'grain of maize' ka p.40

    k k
    Sun kin k'le p.58
    Buckle kal koli p.57
    To kill kim ki
    Sky kan kan
    God, sacre ku ku, ko p.60

    t t
    Man ta' tye p.79
    Come tal ta p.79
    To cover too tu
    Law toh tu
    Truth toh tu, 'fact, real' p.81
    Forest te tu
    Male ton,'male sexual organ' tye, khon p.81
    Saliva tub tu p.82

    b b
    Went,gone bin bi p.36
    Water bak ba
    Water ha a p.15
    Lord ba ba
    Arrows been bine
    Balan 'jaguar'/tiger balan 'leopard worship' p.17

    n n
    Mother na' na p.66
    House nu nu
    House na nu p.66
    Nose ni nu p.16

    p p
    To be pe pe
    To break pa'a pe p.71

An examination of Mayan and Mande homophones also indicates striking similarity. There is a connection between Malinke- Bambara and Yucatec homonyms for 'high, sky and serpent'.

In Malinke-Bambara the word Ka and Kan means 'serpent, upon high,and sky'. In Yucatec we find that can/kan and caan/kaan means ' serpent and heaven'. The fact that both languages share the same homophonic words , point to a formerly intimate contact between the speakers of Mayan and Mande languages in ancient times.

Often we find that some borrowed Mande words beginning with /s/ , through nativization appear as /c/ in the Mayan languages. For example, word the Malinke-Bambara word sa means 'sell, to buy and market'. This is related to Mayan con 'to sell', and can 'serpent'. We also have other examples

Mayan Malinke-Bambara
Can serpent sa
Con to sell sa, san
Caan heaven, sky sa
Cah 'small village' so 'village, home'

The copying of Mande /s/ words into Mayan lexicons as /c/ words are probably the result of phonological interference of Mayan /c/, which influenced how Malinke-Bambara words were lexicalized by biligual Yucatec speakers. Interference occurs when speakers carry features from their first language over into a second language. Thus, we have Yucatec con 'to sell', and Malinke-Bambara san 'to sell. Many of the Mayan sites were first settled by the Olmec.

This is supported by the fact that the Mayan inscriptions from Palenque claim that the first ruler of this city was the Olmec leader U-Kix-chan. In addition, some Mayan kings were styled Kuk according to Mary Miller and Karl Taube,in "The Gods and symbols of ancient Mexico and Maya, said this term was also used in the Olmec inscriptions, like those from Tuxtla, to denote the local ruler of many Olmec sites. It was probably during this period of contact that the Maya began to copy Mande terms and incorporate them in their lexicon. It is time that we stop the name calling and work together to explain to the world the African presence in ancient America.

Many of these loan words are from the basic vocabulary. They support the hypothesis that in ancient times Mayan speakers lived in intimate contact with the Mande speaking Olmec people. Moreover this is further confirmation of Leo Wiener's theory in Africa and the Discovery of America that the religion and culture of the Meso-Americans was influenced by Mande speaking people from West Africa.

Thursday, June 18, 2015

The Mayan term for Maize is of Mande origin.

The Mayan term for Maize is of Mande origin. People have assumed that the Portuguese introduced Maize to Africa but there is no evidence that they spread the cultivation of Maize to Africa (Miracle,1965).

The first mention of Maize outside of Mexico by the Portuguese was in 1550, by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, who claimed that Maize was being cultivated in the Islands of São Tomé and Principe (Maize cultivationPaz-Sanchez,2013). Although Maize was being cultivated on the Islands, there is no mention of Portuguese introducing the cultivation of the crop to Africa.

The Mande term for Maize is Kan. In Africa crops introduced by the Portuguese was called manputo, ‘Portuguese grain’.
In Kaufman’s, Preliminary Mayan Etymological Dictionary, p.1057 See: http://www.famsi.org/reports/01051/pmed.pdf


  • %% MAIZE %%

    EM+GQ *k'uu=nhaah
    AKA k'unah
    AKA k'unah
    POP k'unhah
    POP k'unhah

Here we discover that Mayan term for Maize is K’unah.

In Delafosse , La Langue Mandingue et ses Dialectes (Malinke, Bambara, Dioula (1955) he notes on page 315, kâ (kan) is “maize”, in the Mande languages. It is obvious from a cursory examination of Mayan K’unah, and Mande Kan, that they are related, not only do they have the same meaning they also share the same phonetic construction K-N.


Miracle, M.P. (1965).The Introduction and Spread of Maize in Africa, The Journal of African History, 6(1):39-55.

Paz-Sánchez, M. (2013) “Wheat of Portugal. The African adventure of maize”. Culture & History Digital Journal 2(2): e028. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/chdj.2013.028

Wednesday, June 17, 2015

Do American Indians Look "Black" or Do "Blacks" look like American Indians?


The Europeans took Black Native Americans and made them slaves. Black Native Americans lived on the prime farming lands of New England, the Southeast and the Midwest.

The first slaves in the United States were Black Native Americans. Whites forced over 100,000 Native Americans to cultivate tobacco, rice, and indigo. As a result,many Black Native Americans were exterminated or sold into slavery after they had wars with the whites or other Indian tribes. Like people in Africa, the Native Americans sold each other into slavery for guns and cheap goods. The whites concentrated on encouraging the Indians to fight each other so they could buy the losing tribal members as slaves. They also kidnapped Native Americans and made them slaves. Because the Black Native Americans were farmers whites concentrated on enslaving Black Native Americans, instead of mongoloid Native Americans who mainly lived in the Southwestern United States.

Black Native Americans who were not sold into slavery had to identify themselves as 'free colored", the same as freed African slaves. This was done by the government to make sure the Black Native Americans would lose their rights to land stolen by the whites. Since most Black Native Americans were sold into slavery or identified as "free colored"they did not mix with whites. The following books talk about the Native American slave trade Gary Zellar, African Creeks: Estelvste and the Creek Nation (2007), James F. Brooks, Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands (2002); Tiya Miles, Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom (2006); and Theda Purdue, (2005). To learn more about the Black Native Americans you may be interested in my new book: We are not JUST Africans: Black Native Americans. See: https://www.createspace.com/5561411

Check out these great video on how Native Americans look like Afro-Americans.



Monday, June 15, 2015

New Book: We are not JUST Africans: The Black Native Americans

 We Are Not JUST Africans : The Black Native Americans

  by Dr Clyde Winters

We are not JUST Africans, is the title of my new book because Afro-Americans are more than descendants of Sub-Saharan Africans. This book is richly illustrated with colorful pictures of the Black Native Americans. It provides a history of BNAs from 12,000 BC, up to the present. Learn about the various BNA tribes and their culture, and how the Native American slave trade in New England and the Southeast led to the extermination and decline of Black Native Americans in the United States.

Order Book at : https://www.createspace.com/5561411

Publication Date:Jun 14 2015ISBN/EAN13:1514360462 / 9781514360460Page Count:186Binding Type:US Trade PaperTrim Size:6" x 9"Language:EnglishColor:Full ColorRelated Categories:History / African American

Sunday, May 24, 2015

Craniometrics Show Differences between AMH and Prehistoric Man

Cranial differences exist between amh and prehistoric African populations. The indication of cranial phenotypic differences is mainly in cranonical variates relating to brow and eyebrow ridges. The most ancient Blacks have prominent sloping ridges. Succeeding amh have less prominent brow and eyebrow ridges.

The articles below show slight variations among and within the contemporary populations 

being studied.

Morphometric cranial identity of prehistoric Malawians in the light of sub-Saharan African diversity.

Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006 May;130 (1):10-25.



Am J Hum Biol. 2010 Jan-Feb;22(1):23-35. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.20908.

A geometric morphometric approach to the quantification of population variation in sub-Saharan African crania.


This is not surprising you would not expect to see too much variation between
 the cranial measurements of modern African populations.

When we began this discussion we were talking about Out of Africa ( OoA) events,

and the cranial measurements of the exiting population. As I made it clear overtime
the brow and eyebrow ridges have decreased, That is why you find marked differences 
between the ancient craniums and modern craniums. The most ancient Blacks have
prominent sloping ridges.

Below is the ancestor of Neanderthals



Here is a picture of Neanderthal man


By 100kya Neanderthal looked like this


As you can see, there is little difference between the African ancestor of Neanderthals,

 and the Neanderthals themselves who migrated out of Africa into Europe, both
 populations have broad or prominent eyebrow ridges . Theonly modern Negro 
population with prominent eyebrow ridges are the Australians.


Contemporary African and Black amh populations have less prominent brow and 

eyebrow ridges beginning with Cro-Magnon man. Here we have Cro-Magnon or
 Aurignacian man

Contemporary Afro-Indians

Note the less prominent eyebrow ridges. That is why the authors in the articles you cited did not find too much variation between and among contemporary African populations may they be Bantu or Khoisan and Anu (Pygmy).

As you can see there was a difference between the eyebrow ridges of the earliest OoA migrants and contemporary Black and Afro-Indo populations.

Denisovans were also Blacks.


Note the sloping eyebrow ridges of this hominid that reflect the prehistoric human form.


Note the less prominent eyebrow ridges among amh like Grimaldi man.



Friday, May 22, 2015

New Photos 1: Black Native Americans






Wednesday, May 20, 2015

The Mande Language, Nanticoke and Lenape

Around 25,000 Mande speakers set sail for the Americas in the 1300’s
from the Mali Empire of West Africa. Some of these Mande speakers
may have been the ancestors of the Nanticoke.


In A.D. 1312, Emperor Abubakari Muhammad , of Mali gave his
throne to Mansa Musa and embarked with his fleet into the Atlantic
 Ocean in search of the continent  opposite Africa. Archaeological and
epigraphic evidence indicates that Abubakari, and or members of his
 expedition settled in pre-Columbian Brazil.

The Indians have a tradition that Mansar Akban was the leader of
another tribe which discovered the Cunan people.This Mansar Akban,
may be a reference to Mansa Abubakari, who led the Malian voyagers
to the Americas.

The Manding lived in mounds along the Niger rivers. The mound
 cultures of ancient  America were built by Africans primarily Manding.
The people of the Niger Delta  formed river riverine communities which
were partly vegetation with some aquatic animals were eaten.

The ancient Manding built several types of homes. In ancient times
they built masonry houses and cliff dwellings identical to those found
in the American  Southwest. In Medieval times they lived on mounds
in the most watery areas  in their circular huts made a stone and wood
 on the top and their fields in front of the mounds tilled each day.

The Malian people introduced their technology to the Americas. The
Manding built dwellings depending on the topography . Near rivers
they lived on mounds. In  semi-arid regions they lived in cliff houses,
 like those found in the Southwest.

 Today the Dogon who trace their descent to the Mande live in identical
dwellings  as those found in Colorado ,where Manding inscriptions dating
to the A.D. 1000 's  have been found related to the Pueblo culture.

According to Cadamosto the Mali marines wore white caps on their heads
and a white tunic. On the side of the skull-caps worn by the Malian
marines,a white wing  decoration was emblaxoned, and a feather
was stuck in the  middle of the skull cap.

On board each naval vessel stood a marine with a round leather
shield on the arm and a short sword. Other marines were armed with
bows and arrows .

Murphy reported that the Malian military wore a uniform consisting
of sandles, loose fitting cotton breeches reaching down to the knees,
 a sleeveless tunic, and a white headdress of either cotton or leather,
decorated with one or more
 feathers .
The major weapons of the Malian soldier included iron-pointed spears,
 daggers  and short swords, wooden battle-clubs and the bow and arrow .

The Malians left many inscriptions in the United States and elsewhere after
they arrived in the Americas. These inscriptions are of two kinds. One group
of inscriptions were meant to warn the Manding expeditionary force not to camp
 in certain areas.



Daniel G. Brinton, in On Certain Supposed Words, Shown to be of African
Origin (Am. Antiquarian and Oriental Journal (1887) ), argues that the Mande numerals recorded  by J.C. Pyrlaeus, were probably the numerals of a run away slave, because
they were of Mande origin. This was pure speculation on Brinton’s part because there
were many Black Native American tribes on the Eastern coast of North America.

This was speculation on Brinton’s part, because he acts as if Pyrlaeus would have
been unfamiliar with the Indians where he lived. Also, because the Nanticokes were
very dark Brinton due to emphasis on Blacks being mainly slaves just assumed
that the Nanticoke could not be Indian, since they were dark skinned.
Although this is Dr. Brinton’s opinion there are a number of historical events
relating to the Nanticoke.

Which can explain why the numerals collected by Murray are dissimilar to the
 Nanticoke numerals collected by Father Pyrlaeus.
The word list collected by Murray can be found on line at https://archive.org/stream/jstor-982971/982971#page/n0/mode/2up

This list of words comes from a certain Mrs. Mulberry. Below is a comparison
 of the original Nanticoke numerals collected by J.C. Pyrlaeus, and the vocabulary
collected  by Murray .


If you make a perusal of the comparison of the Murray Nanticoke and

Lanape the numerals are just about the same.

Pyrlaeus collected the numerals in 1741, this was 50 years before Murray

collected  his vocabulary. By this time the Nanticoke had been separated.
They originally  They originally lived in Delaware See: map

By this time most Nanticoke had moved to Wyoming, Pennsylvania and even

 New York. Because the Nanticoke fought with the Bristish during the
 Revolutionary War, many were resettled in Canada. Mrs. Mulberry lived
 along the Choptank River. As a result , of the Revolutionary War and
 European encroachment of Nanticoke land the Nanticoke, had joined the
  Lenape tribe. It is obvious from this word list and numerals collected by
Murray by 1792, many Nanticoke were mainly speaking Lenape.
This would explain the similarity between the Murray Nanticoke numerals
and the Lenape numerals.

The Nanticoke numerals collected by Father Pyrlaeus indicate that Mande

speakers lived in the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware, and contributed to
the rise of the Nanticoke Nation. The Murray list of Nanticoke in no way
means that the Nanticoke did not originally speak a Mande languages.
It just shows that after 50 plus years of the Nanticoke living among the
Lenape, most of the Nanticoke were speaking Lenape instead of their native