Wednesday, January 28, 2015

The First Black Native Americans

We have been lied too about Black History. When I was growing up my mother made it clear that we were part Choctaw. So in 1967, I took a survey at my High School: DuSable, in Chicago and found that over 40% of my classmates had Indian heritage.

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Choctaw

At the time many people laughed at us because they only saw Lakota ad Apache on T.V. Today because of the WWW, there are numerous pictures of Black Native Americans on the Web. Below French artist Alexandre de Batz's renderings of Native American life in colonial Louisiana, such as "Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations" ("Drawings of Several Native Americans of Various Nations") from 1735

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As you can see there was not one Native American ethnicity

Several types of blacks entered the Americas including the Khoisan, Anu or negrito type and the Proto-Saharan variety of blacks. Up until recently it was believed that the first humans crossed the Bering Strait 12,000 B.P., to enter the North American continent.(Begley 1991, p.15) This view was never accepted by physical anthropologists who have found skeletal remains far older than 12,000 B.P.

Today archaeologists have found sites from Canada to Chile that range between 20,000 and 40,000 years old. In Brazil evidence of Africans date back 100,000 years.

There are numerous sites in North and South America which are over 35,000 years old.1 These sites are the Old Crow Basin (c.38,000 B.C.) in Canada; Orogrande Cave (c.36,000 B.C.) in the United States; and Pedra Furada (c.45,000 B.C.)2 Given the fact that the earliest dates for habitation of the American continent occur below Canada in South America is highly suggestive of the fact that the earliest settlers on the American continents came from Africa before the Ice melted at the Bering Strait and moved northward as the ice melted.
The appearance of pebble tools at Monte verde in Chile (c.32,000 B.P), and rock paintings at Pedra Furada in Brazil (c.22,000 B.P.) and mastodont hunting in Venezuela and Colombia (c.13,000 B.P.), have led some researchers to believe that the Americas was first settled from South America.3 C. Vance Haynes noted that:"If people have been in South America for over 30,000 years, or even 20,000 years, why are there so few sites?....One possible answer is that they were so few in number; another is that South America was somehow initially populated from directions other than 4north until Clovis appeared".

P.S. Martin and R. G. Klein after discussing the evidence of mastodont hunting in Venezuela 13,000 years ago observed that : "The thought that the fossil record of South America is much richer in evidence of early archaeological associations than many believed is indeed provocative.... Have the earliest hunters been overlooked in North America? 5Or did the hunters somehow reach South America first"?
The early presence of ice-age sites in South America suggest that these people probably came from Africa. This would explain the affinities between 6African languages and the Amerind family of languages.

In very ancient times the American continent was inhabited by Asian and African blacks. The oldest skeletal remains found in the Americas are of blacks. Marquez (1956,p.179) observed that "it is [good] to report that long ago the youthful America was also a Negro continent." Dr. Dixon (1923) noted that as early as 70,000 B.C., Austroloid and later negritos crossed the Bering Strait to reach the New World. His dating for these early Blacks crossing the Beringa is far too earlym because ice made it impossible to cross from Asia to North America, until at least 12-15,000 years ago. This meant that Blacks had to come directly from Africa and Eurpe to settle the Americas.


And Lanning (1963) noted that "there was a possible movement of negritos from Ecuador into the Piura Valley, north of Chicama and Viru" in early times.

In the 1970’s in Brazil an interesting skull of a girl was found. This skull was reconstructed and dated back to 12,000 BC. Dr. Walter Neves professor of biological anthropology at the University of Sao Paolo, after reconstructing the “Luzia” skull found that this personage was either an African or Pacific island type Black7. And recently, archaeologist found the skull of another Blck girl dating to this period, they named Naia.

I am happy to be an Afro-Indian. My heritage is of Africa and America Being here today is just making America the way it was originally. A continent first explored and inhabited by Africans. who began sailing to America probably as early as 100,000 years ago. We definitely know Africans were here by 30kya.
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Notes

1. Warwick Bray,"The Paleoindian debate". Nature 332, (10 March) 1988, p.107.

2 . Ibid, p.107; "Man's New World arrival Pushed back", Chicago Tribune, (9 May 1991) Sec.1A, p.40;and A.L. Bryan, "Points of Order". Natural History , (June 1987) pp.7-11.

3. Bryan, p.11.

4. C.V. Haynes,Jr.,"Geofacts and Fanny". Natural History ,(February 1988)pp.4-12:12.

5 . P.S. Martin and R.G.Klein (eds.),Quarternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution, (Tucson:University of Arizona Press,1989) p.111.

6 . M.Ruhlen,"Voices from the Past". Natural History, (March 1987) pp.6-10:10; J.H. Greenberg,Language in the Americas. Stanford:Stanford University Press,1987.

7 Neves W.A . and Pucciarelli H.M. 1991. "Morphological Affinities of the First Americans: an exploratory analysis based on early South American human remains". Journal of Human Evolution Journal of Human Evolution 273
Powell J.F. and Neves W.A . 1999. "Craniofacial morphology of the first Americans: pattern and process in thepeopling of the New World". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 42:153-188
Neves W.A ., Powell J.F. and Ozolins E.G. 1999. "Extra-continental morphological affinities of Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1: A multivariate analysis with progressive numbers of variables. Homo 50:263-268; Neves W.A ., Powell J.F. and Ozolins E.G. 1999. "Extra-continental morphological affinities of Palli-Aike, Southern Chile". Interciencia24:258-263

Monday, January 26, 2015

Native Black Americans: War and Peace in the Carolinas

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The greatest myth about the Black Native Americans is that they never existed. This myth has been perpetuated by numerous American films which record the Indian Wars with the Apache and Lakota tribes.

But the Black Native Americans had many wars first with the Spanish, and later the British colonists. These Black Native Americans lived on the Atlantic seaboard from New York, all the way down into Florida.


These Black Native Americans fought bravely for their lands. Some were sold into slavery into the Caribbean while, others were made slaves or identified as "negro freemen" in the South.

Black Native Americans have a history of fighting Europeans for their independence. Or they lost their lives fighting with the French during the French Indian War.


This was especially true in North Carolina. In North Carolina there were many Black Native Americans including the Yuchi Creek,Tuscarora and Yamasse. A large mnumber of Algonquian speaking tribes were Black Native America.

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These Black Native Americans were made into slaves by the colonists. Some of them were even sold into slavery in the Caribbean. There were some Black Cherokee, but for the most part the Cherokee migrated into territory originally occupied by the Black Native American Creek, Yuchi, Tuscarora and Yamassee tribes.

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At first the Europeans identified the Black Native Americans as Indians, but overtime because the Carolina Indians were predominately Negroes or Blacks, both African and Black Native American slaves were called Negroes especially after the Yamasse War.


The Black Native Americans for the most part were peaceful people. They hunted and fished or grew crops to support themselves. The British from Barbadoes upon settling the Carolinas began to enslave the Black Native Americans to take their land and force them to work their plantations.



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Below is a scene of captives held by Tuscarora Indians by Baron Christoph Von Graffenried, as you can see their were different ethnicities in the drawing including Black Native Americans, and a Black European captive.


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Below are Secotan from an Algonquian speaking Indian Village in North Carolina , by John White 1585. Many Algonquian speakers were Native Black Americans.

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As you can see there were many Black Native American tribes in the South. Instead of telling the truth,historians claim that the only Blacks in the south were runaway slaves. This lie has been useful, for the mongoloid Indians to steal our heritage and deny that Black Native Americans ever existened.

Sunday, January 25, 2015

Archaeological Evidence of Black Native American Mound Builders

Some researchers reject the idea that Malians came to America in 1310. They base this conclusion on the myth that the first Africans came to the Americas as slaves.

The art from the American mound builders and Brazil indicate the presence of Malian military personal. Richard Hull, in Munyakaye: African Civilization before the Bature, noted that "the Mali marines wore white caps on their heds and a white tunic. On the side of the skull-caps worn by the Malian marines".E. Murphy, History of African Civilization, said the uniform of the Malian military consisted of sandles, loose fitting cotton breeches reaching down to the knees, a sleeveless tunic, and a white headdress of either cotton or leather, decorated with one or more feathers"(p.138). Below is the Brazil Tablet

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As you can see the Malian royal from Brazil wears the sleeveless tunic, skullcap breeches reaching down to the knees,as described by Europeans who visited the Mali Empire.

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Below is a statuette from the Spiro mound.

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This figure also wears a skullcap and breeches. He also has a shield on his back. This is interesting because Malian marines usually were armed with a leather shield and short sword. This spiro mound figure may be a representation of a Malian marine.


Below are some short swords and other figures with knee-length breeches, found in the Spiro mounds.

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These artifacts show the influence of Malian explorers in building mounds in North and South America.

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Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Chinese Domesticated Donkeys' Nubian Origin


Han et al. (2014). Ancient DNA provides new insight into the maternal lineages and domestication of Chinese donkeys BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014, 14:246 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/14/246

Han et al (2014) in a study of Chinese donkeys found that the Chinese donkeys are descendant from the Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus) . They believe these donkeys were in China before the Han empire.

The researchers noted that the: “ First, Chinese historical records state that 4000 years ago, the donkey was a treasure that was rare and only found in the aristocratic and imperial palaces”. This is an interesting finding because I have shown elsewhere that the Kushites from Nubia: Mande and Dravidian speakers founded the first civilizations of China: Xia and Shang respectively. This finding offers further support to the Kushite origin of the Xia and Shang.
You can find out more about the Blacks of Xia and Shang in my book:

Sunday, January 11, 2015

The first Americans Naia, and Luzia dating to 12,000 BC were Negroes



NAIA of Mexico



LUZIA of Brazil

Archaeologist have reconstructed the faces of ancient Americans from Brazil and Mexico. These faces are based on the skeletal remains dating back to 12,000BC.

Researchers working on these ancient people note that they resemble Negroes, instead of contemporary Native Americans.


In the  Smithsonian Magazine Dr. Chatters who found Naia's skeleton, noted that: 

“The small number of early American specimens discovered so far have smaller and shorter faces and longer and narrower skulls than later Native Americans, more closely resembling the modern people of Africa, Australia, and the South Pacific. "This has led to speculation that perhaps the first Americans and Native Americans came from different homelands," Chatters continues, "or migrated from Asia at different stages in their evolution."

Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/dna-12000-year-old-skeleton-helps-answer-question-who-were-first-americans-180951469/#hexUIhxcwDxMkCAz.99



Although Dr. Chatters believes these Negroes came from Asia this seems unlikely. It is unlikely because the Ice Age would have made it impossible to sail from Asia to Mexico and Brazil at this time. These Negroes were probably Blacks from Africa. This is the most likely origin of these Blacks;  the Dafuna boat dating back to 18,000 BC, shows that Africans had boats at this early date.

The Khoisan Probably took haplogroups N and y-chromosome R to Eurasia during the Aurignacian period


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I discuss the origin  Europeans genes  in my recent paper: " Were the First Europeans Pale or Dark Skinned? http://www.scirp.org/journal/aahttp://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aa.2014.43016

 

I quote"
The traditional view for the spread of L3(M, N) across Eurasia is that the M and N macrohaplogroups originated in western Eurasia and returned to Africa as a result of back-migration. The big problem for this theory is that the proposed dates for the origin of haplogroups N and M in western Europe, date to a period when these areas were inhabited by Neanderthal people—not AMH. This supports an African origin for L3(M, N).


The craniometric evidence supports a Khoisan presence in Europe during Aurignacian times. If the Khoisan represent the ancient dark skinned European population, this reality should be able to be confirmed by genetic research.


The most archaic AMH remains come from Florished, South Africa; they date between 190 - 330 kya (Rito et al., 2013). Other ancient fossil evidence of AMH in South Africa come from Broken Hill (c. 110 kya) and the Klasis River caves (c. 65 - 105 kya). Researchers have been surprised to find Khoisan and European admixture. The idea that the Khoisan acquired Eurasian admixture via Ethiosemitic speakers is pure speculation (Pickrell et al., 2013). There is no archaeological
evidence of Ethiopians migrating into East and South Africa, but there is evidence of an ancient migration of Khoisan into Europe based on archaeological and skeletal data.


The Khoisan carry haplogroups L3(M, N). Before they reached Iberia, they probably stopped in West Africa. The basal L3(M) motiff in West Africa is characterized by the Ddel site np 10,394 and Alul site np 10,397 associated with AF-24. This supports my contention that Khoisan speakers early settled West Africa on their way to Iberia.


Granted L3 and L2 are not as old as LOd, but Gonder et al. (2006) provides very early dates for this mtDNA e.g., L3(M, N) 94.3; the South African Khoisan (SAK) carry L1c, L1, L2, L3 M, N dates to 142.3 kya; the Hadza are L2a, L2, L3, M, N, dates to 96.7 kya.


The dates for L1, L2, L3, M, N are old enough for the Khoisan to have taken N to West Africa, where we find L3, L2 and LOd and thence to Iberia as I suggested in my paper (Winters, 2011). It is interesting to note that LO haplogroups are primarily found among Khoisan and West Africans. This shows that at some point in prehistory the Khoisan had migrated into West Africa.


The first modern European reconstructed by Forensic artist Richard Neave based on skull fragments from 35,000 years ago resembled a Khoisan (Figure 1). The skull was discovered in the southwest region of Romania’s Carpathian Mountains. This supports the research of Boule and Vallois that South Africans migrated into Europe 35 kya. This genetic evidence now supports Boule and Vallois of a Khoisan migration into Europe.


The Khoisan may have introduced the L haplogroup to Iberia. The SAK populations carry haplogroups L2, and L3. de Domínguez (2005), noted that much of the ancient mtDNA found in Iberia has no relationship to the people presently living in Iberia today and correspond to African mtDNA haplogroups. de Domínguez (2005) found that the lineages recovered from ancient Iberian skeletons are the African lineages L1b, L2 and L3."

 

References:

 

Balter, M. (2005). Ancient DNA Yields Clues to the Puzzle of European Origins. Science, 310, 964-965. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.310.5750.964

 

Barral, L., & Charles, R. P. (1963). Nouvelles donnees anthropometriques et precision sue les affinities systematiques des negroides de Grimaldi. Bulletin du Musee d’Anthropologie Prehistorique de Monaco, 10, 123-139.

Boule, M., & Vallois, H. V. (1957). Fossil Man. New York: Dryden Press.

Brace, C. L., Seguchi, N., Quintyn, C. B., Fox, S. C., Nelson, A. R., Manolis, S. K., & Pan, Q. F. (2006). The Questionable Contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European Craniofacial Form. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 242-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0509801102

 

Brown, S. J. (2006). Neanderthals and Modern Humans in Western Asia. http://karmak.org/archive/2003/01/westasia.html

 

Canfield, V. A., Berg, A., Peckins, S. et al. (2014). Molecular Phylogeography of a Human Autosomal Skin Color Locus under Natural Selection. G3, 3, 2059-2067. http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.113.007484

 

Caramelli, D., Lalueza-Fox, C., Vernesi, C., Lari, M., Casoli, A., Mallegni, B. C., Dupanloup, I., Bertranpetit, J., Barbujani, G., & Bertorelle, G. (2003). Evidence for a Genetic Discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000 Year-Old Anatomically Modern Europeans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 6593-6597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1130343100

 

Caramelli, D., Milani, L., Vai, S., Modi, A., Pecchioli, E. et al. (2008). A 28,000 Years Old Cro-Magnon mtDNA Sequence Differs from All Potentially Contaminating Modern Sequences. PLoS ONE, 3, e2700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002700

Clark, J. D. (1977). The Origins of Domestication in Ethiopia. 5th Panafrican Congress of Prehistory and Quaternary Studies, Nairobi.

de Domínguez, E. F. (2005). Polimorfismos de DNA mitocondrial en poblaciones antiguas de la cuenca mediterránea. PhD Thesis, Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, Departament Biologia Animal.

Diop, A. (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Brooklyn, NY: Lawrence Hill Books.

Diop, A. (1991). Civilization or Barbarism. Brooklyn, NY: Lawrence Hill Books.

DuBois, W. E. B. (1941). The World and Africa.

Ehret, C. (1979). On the Antiquity of Agriculture in Ethiopia. Journal of African History, 20, 161-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002185370001700X

 

Gilead, I. (2005). The Upper Paleolithic Period in the Levant. Journal of World Prehistory, 5, 105-154.

Gonder, M. K., Mortensen, H. M., Reed, F. A., de Sousa, A., & Tishkoff, S. A. (2006). Whole mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24, 757-768. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msl209

 González, A. M., Cabrera, V. M., Larruga, J. M., Tounkara, A., Noumsi, G., Thomas, B. N., & Moulds, J. M. (2006). Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Mauritania and Mali and Their Genetic Relationship to Other Western Africa Populations. Annals of Human Genetics, 70, 631-657. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00259.x?cookieSet=1&journalCode=ahg
Haak, W., Forster, P., Bramanti, B., Matsumura, S., Brandt, G., Tänzer, M., Villems, R., Renfrew, C., Gronenborn, D., Alt, K. W., & Burger, J. (2005). Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites. Science, 310, 1016-1018.

Holliday, T. (2000). Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia. American Anthropologist, 102, 54-68.

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Lazaridis, J., Patterson, N., Mittnik, A. et al. (2013). Ancient Human Genomes Suggest Three Ancestral Populations for  Present-Day Europeans. http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2013/12/23/001552.full.pd

Olalde, I., Allentoft, M. E., Sanchez-Quinto, F., Santpere, G., Chiang, C. W. K., DeGiorgio, M. et al. (2014). Derived Immune and Ancestral Pigmentation Alleles in a 7,000-Year-Old Mesolithic European. Nature, 507, 225-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12960

 Pickrell, J. K., Patterson, N., Loh, P. R., Lipson, M., Berger, B., Stoneking, M., Pakendorf, B., & Reich, D. (2013). Ancient West Eurasian Ancestry in Southern and Eastern Africa. http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.8014

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Quibtanana-Murci, L., Semino, O., Bandelt, H. J., Passaro, G., McElreadey, K., & Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. S. (1999). Genetic Evidence of an Early Exit of Homo Sapiens from Africa through Eastern Africa. Nature Genetics, 23, 437-441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/70550

 

Rito, T., Richard, M. B., Fernandes, V., Alshamal, F., Cerny, V., Pereira, L., & Soares, P. (2013). The First Modern Human Dispersals aross Africa. PLoS ONE, 8, e80031.

Scozzari, R., Massaia, A., Trombatta, B., Bellusci, G., Myres, N. M., Novelletto, A., & Cruciani, F. (2014). An Unbiased Resource of Novel SNP Markers Provides a New Chronology for Human Y-Chromosome and Reveals a Deep Phylogenetic Structure in Africa. Genome Research.

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Monday, December 29, 2014

New Book: History of Blacks in America from Pre-History to 1877


I have just published a new book on the history of Afro-Americans. This is an important book because it is the first book which details the entire history of Afro-Americans. Although, the average history of Afro-Americans only discusses the African slaves, in this book I tell the history of the indigenous Black Native Americans and Black Europeans who also contributed to the contemporary  Afro-American population.

The final chapter of this book provides the genetic evidence of the relationship between Native Americans and Sub-Saharan Africans.

History of Blacks in America from Pre-History to 1877

List Price: $25.99 

History of Blacks in America from Pre-History to 1877
 

A Common Core State Standards History

Authored by Dr. Clyde WintersIn History of Blacks in America from Pre-History to 1877, I discuss the real history of Blacks in America. It explains that the contemporary Black population in the United States is made up of three Black Nationalities: Black Europeans, Black Native Americans and Black Africans from Sub-Saharan Africa.
A History of Blacks in America from Pre-History to 1877 is meant to be used as a textbook or a single history text. The book is divided into two parts. Part One provides a traditional short history of Afro-Americans from slavery up to the 1960's.
Part Two provides two short essays on the Black Europeans and American Mound builders, along with short informational text teachers can use to teach the history of the Black Americans of European descent, Black Americans of African descent and Black Americans of Native American descent so the reader can have a full knowledge of the history of Blacks in America.


Publication Date:
Dec 28 2014
ISBN/EAN13:
1505827612 / 9781505827613
Page Count:
160
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
8.5" x 11"
Language:
English
Color:
Full Color
Related Categories:
History / United States / General