Monday, April 23, 2018

The Relationship of the Nubian and Meroitic Languages

The Meroitic language was a lingua franca. As a result it includes many words from the languages spoken in the Meroitic Empire.
For a long time we were unable to recover the languages spoken during the Meroitic period because Meroitic was not deciphered. Since my decipherment of Meroitic now we can recover some of the languages spoken by the Meroites.
Brother Anas Elbashir, after comparing Colloquial Sudanese Arabic to words in my Meroitic Word List, has illustrated the continued use of classical Meroitic terms among contemporary Sudanese.
1.1To determine the past of man, scientists use historical and comparative linguistics. Historical linguistics seeks to describe the way languages change or maintain their structure over a period of time. The present state of a language is its synchronic state; whereas the transition from one state to the next is the diachronic state. Comparative linguistics is that branch of linguistics which discloses and studies similarities and difference between related languages.
 1.2There are two types of relatedness between languages: genetic and typological.  The closeness of languages depends on the number of rules the languages have in common. A genetic relationship means that a group of languages descend from a common ancestor. A typological relationship means that languages have a few common structural features. The closeness of languages depends on the number of rules the languages have in common.
 1.3There is an ethnic relationship behind a genetic relationship of languages because a genetic relationship suggests a family relationship. The basic objective of the comparative linguist is to isolate words with common or similar meanings that have systematic consonantal agreement with little regard for the location of the vowels. Consonantal agreement is the regular appearance of consonants at certain locations in words having similar meanings and representing similar speech sounds.
1.4Meroitic and Nubian share a genetic linguistic relationship. These two languages share many kinship terms, nouns and verbs. The Nubian terms are from Dongolawi, Modern Nubian, and Old Nubian.



1.5 In Tables 1 and Tables 1a, we see 34 cognate Meroitic and Nubian terms. Analogy exist between  Nubian and Meroitic terms. In relation to Meroitic and Nubian terms 41% show full correspondence and 59% had partial correspondence.

1.6There is Nubian and Meroitic Consonantal Correspondence
Nubian                                                        Meroitic 
t=/=t                                                    
tak       'to cover'                                        te 'to put. To lay'                                                                                                   
t'a        'to come'                                        tña  'come into being'                       
tok, tuk 'leave, set in motion                tk
tay              'girl'                                        to 'feminine suffix           
b=/=b  
aba, abo        father                                            ab   
s=/=š                                                    
essi                  sister                                               šr
s=/=s                                    
samil                chief,king                                   sr, sl

r=/=l                                                     
ur                         king                                             wl,wr                                                                          
toud                    son                                               mte                                                                            
wel                      dog                                               wle
d=/=d                                                                  
*den,tir            to give                                           d                                                                  
d=/=t                                                 
diya              'place'                                               te                                                                                                
diya              'village'                                            to   'to dwell'                                                                                          
da                country'                                           t                                                                                      
k=/=k                                                                                  
ker         pick up'                                             kd  'to bear'  
n=/=ñ                                                                                 
nukt       glory'                                                 ñt   ‘honor’                                                                                                                                                                                    
n=/=n
unn      'to give birth'                               tn 'to be born'
Ƞ=/=                                                                                               
uȠur  'to know'                                               aḫ 'to learn
ɛ=/= e                                  
ɛrri, έrr    'new'                                          er 'produce, evoke'                                                                                         
d=/=t   
dawi   'road'                                              ato   down the road'                          
r=/=r
ursέ   'root'                                               ro  'foundation'   
n=/=n                                                                                 
n'al   'see'                                                 ni ' to shine,to illuminate  
en    'women'                                       -ñ '3rd per promoun 'her'                                                                      
m=/=m                
màša  'sun'                                        'Sun God
                                                                  
Ƞ=/=n                                                                  
Ƞul   'white'                                          in-ne  'radiance'                                                                  
Š=/=š
màša  'sun'                                          'Sun God'     


1.7Nubian and Meroitic also share vowel correspondence
a/e     u/w
a/I     i/i
e/e   o/u                                                                                                        

1.8In conclusion, the Meroitic Empire was made of diverse African nations speaking a variety of African languages. Some of the speakers of these languages migrated into West Africa, while other Meroites remained in the Nile Valley.  This comparison of Meroitic and Nubian illustrates that Nubian was spoken in the Meroitic Empire.
1.9Some linguists would question the ability to compare Meroitic to modern Nubian languages. We can compare these languages due to the linguistic continuity theory .
1.10The rate at which  languages change is variable. It appears that linguistic change is culture specific. Consequently, the social organization and political culture of a particular speech community can influence the speed at which languages change.
1.11 Based on the history of language change in Europe most linguists believe that the rate of change for all languages is both rapid and constant (Diagne, 1981,238).  The idea that all languages change rapidly is not valid for all the World's languages.
1.12Dr. Clyde Winters,  ( 1996), explained that  the rate at which languages change is variable. It appears that linguistic change is culture specific. Consequently, the social organization and political culture of a particular speech community can influence the speed at which languages change. Based on the history of language change in Europe most linguists believe that the rate of change for all languages is both rapid and constant (Diagne, 1981, p.238).
1.13The idea that all languages change rapidly is not valid for all the World's languages.The continuity of many African languages may result from the steady state nature of African political systems, and long standing cultural stability since Neolithic times (Diop, 1991 ; Winters 1996).
1.14This cultural stability has affected the speed at which African languages change.The political stability of African political institutions has caused languages to change very slowly in Africa (Winters 1996). Diop (1987, 1991) argue that a sedentary life style may account for the conservative nature of a language.
1.15This leads to the hypothesis that linguistic continuity exist in Africa due to the continuity or stability of African socio-political structures and cultural systems. This relative cultural stability has led African languages to change more slowly then European and Asian languages. Diop (1974) observed that: First the evolution of languages, instead of moving everywhere at the same rate of speed seems linked to other factors; such as , the stability of social organizations or the opposite, social upheavals. Understandably in relatively stable societies man's language has changed less with the passage of time (pp.153-154). In the case of Nubian languages, we know that while some Nubian speakers migrated into Eurasia after 1500 BC, most Nubian speakers probably remained in the Nile Valley.
1.16This comparison of Meroitic and Nubian shows a genetic linguistic relationship exist between these two languages. The linguistic evidence of a relationship between Nubian and Meroitic supports the  African linguistic continuity concept.


Further Readings:

Griffith, F.Ll. 1909. Meroitic inscriptions. In Areika, (ed) by MacIver, D.R. & Woolley, C.L. Vol.1. Philadelphia.
Griffith, F.L.1911a. Karanog. The Meroitic Inscriptions of Shablul and Karanog. Philadelphia: Eckley B. Coxe Jr Expedition to Nubia. Vol.VI.
Griffith, F. Ll. 1911b. Meroitic Inscriptions: Part I. London: The Offices of the Egypt Exploration Fund.
Griffith, F. Ll. 1912. Meroitic Inscriptions: Part II. London: The Offices of the Egypt Exploration Fund.
Beja and Meroitic ,   https://bafsudralam.blogspot.com/2010/04
Anas Elbashir Ahmed Musa , Old Sudanese Language and Meroitic , https://bafsudralam.blogspot.com/2018/02/old-sudanese-language-and-meroitic.html
Clyde Winters (1996) . Linguistic Continuity and African and Dravidian languages  ,International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 23 (2):34-52.

Sunday, April 22, 2018

Nubians and Meroites




What is the relationship between the Meroitic and Nubian languages? This is an important question because Griffith and other researchers over the years, have claimed that the Nubian languages were not related to Meroitic. They reached this conclusion when they compared the words Griffith claimed were  Meroitic words to Nubian vocabulary items. My decipherment of Meroitic indicates that the Nubian and Meroitic languages share a linguistic genetic relationship.
 Welsby in The Kingdom of Kush wrote, "Early scholars of the [Meroitic] language hoped that it may have been related to Old Nubian but this has been shown not to be the case, although both are agglutinative, lack gender and the place of inflexions taken by post-positions and suffixes. Whether it was related to the language of the Kerma culture is another unknown, as no inscriptions in Kerman have come to light"(p.190).
Lazlo Torok, in The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization , wrote "Since so far no bilingual text has been discovered nor any related language found, very little of Meroitic can be understood. Some linguists see a relationship between Berber and Chadic on the one hand and Meroitic, on the other. Others regard it as related to Nubian. On geographical grounds, it has been suggested that Meroitic may be related to the following language groups (in describing order of probability). Eastern Sudanic; Nilo-Saharan; Cushitic/Omotic; Kordofanian. The efforts based on such assumptions produced, however, very few results, if any. While the linguistic classification of Meroitic remains obscure, there is hardly any doubt that it was originally spoken in the northern Butana" (p.50).


As you can see, using Griffith’s alleged Meroitic words,  Meroitic has not been found to be related to Nubian, other languages in the Nilo-Saharan family ,or any other language spoken in the Sudan. The Nubian speakers that belonged to the Meroitic Confederation were absorbed into the Confederation.
Although Nubian was not related to the Meroitic words recovered by Griffith, it is related to Meroitic. In this paper I will outline the relationship between Nubian and Meroitic , based on my decipherment of the Meroitic language.
My decipherment of Meroitic has allowed me to publish Meroitic Vocabularies that we can compare to languages spoken in the Sudan and West Africa. Griffith (1911a) has divided the Meroitic writing into two different forms according to the shape of Meroitic signs at various points in history. The two stages of Meroitic writing were called Archaic and late. In deciphering Meroitic inscriptions it is important that you refer to Giffith (1911a) so you can learn how each Meroitic symbol appeared at various stages in the evolution of the Meroitic writing.


During my research I learned that the Dravidian and Nubian languages were related. I thought this was an aberration, because the historical data suggested that the Nubians appeared in the Nile Valley during Roman Times. If the Nubian term for god is Ku, and Nubian is related to Dravidian indicated that the Nubians had to have been in the Nile Valley 5000 years ago, and that these Nubians probably migrated into Eurasia.
The historical evidence finds first mention of the Beja, in Kerma literature 700BC. This is interesting because the earliest literature of the Buddhists mention Beja. This means that the Beja were in Asia thousands of years ago.

The climate in the Southern Sahara and Sahel has been fluctuating. Between 5000-2000 BC, there were expanding Lakes in this region. A dry period developed between 2500-1500 BC. At this time most lakes in the southern Sahara and Sahel were at low levels. During this period  the Nubians, Beja and other Nile Valley nomadic tribes migrated into Arabia and thence Eurasia.
The evidence of the Beja and Nubians in Eurasia indicate to me , at least, that the Nubians and Beja were among the Nile Valley people that settled Tihama in Arabia.
 It further, suggests,  that the Beja and Nubians migrated from Tihama into India and beyond. Although remnants of the Beja and Nubians never migrated out of the Nile Valley, after 1000 BC, as the Indo Aryans began to expand into Eurasia Nubian and Beja speakers proibably began to migrant back into Africa. Because the Horn was highly populated the Beja and Nubians from Eurasia had to invade the Nile Valley that would explain the conflicts between the Beja and Meroites, and Nubians and Meroites. The Nubians and Beja, who did not migrate out of Africa were probably considered to be Kushites, that might explain the word Kushiab, which implies that anyone who was the descendant of the Kushites could be enslaved.
My opinion about the relationship between Old Nubian and Meroitic is under development. It is under development because I believe there was formerly a dichotomy between nomadic and urban Nubians. I believe that shortly before the Romans took control of Egypt nomadic Nubians driven out of Eurasia returned to the Nile Valley and began to fight the Meroites for control of the Meroitic Empire, which would have included Nubian speakers that had not migrated into Eurasia. Since Meroitic was a lingua franca it may include some Nubian terms because of the Nubian-Meroites being members of the Confederation. Anas Elbashir discovery of cognate Colloquial Sudanese Arabic and Meroitic terms suggest that, we may find some cognate Nubian and Meroitic terms in the future.
There appears to have been a dichotomy between nomadic rural and urban Nubian populations. There is a genetic relationship between the Tamil and Nubian languages. This suggest that the Nubian speakers may have migrated into Eurasia and formerly lived among Dravidian speakers.

 This is the best explanation to explain why Nubian elements are found in the Meroitic language. The existence of Nubian elements in Meroitic means that Nubian speakers belonged to the Meroitic Empire. The rural Nubians that were in major conflicts with the Meroites, were probably Nubians who had migrated back into the Sudan around the time Romans were advancing into ancient Egypt.
There are some representations of Nubian or Noba prisoners, in Meroitic art that suggest that Nubian speakers were enemies of the Meroites. The Noba are believed to have spoken a Nubian language.
The rural Nubians or Nobatai lived in the area from Aswan to Maharraqa called the Dodekaschoenas which was first under the rule of the Ptolemies and later the Romans. Most researchers believe that by 200 BC most of the region was occupied by Nubians. Ptolemy, noted that in the mid-2nd Century AD that the Nubae lived on the Westside of the Nile, and that they were not subjects of the Kushites. These Nubian speakers, were probably Nubian speakers that were not part of the Merowe Confederation
The Meroitic language was a lingua franca. As a result it includes many words from the languages spoken in the Meroitic Empire.
For a long time we were unable to recover the languages spoken during the Meroitic period because Meroitic was not deciphered. Since my decipherment of Meroitic now we can recover some of the languages spoken by the Meroites.
Brother Anas Elbashir, after comparing Colloquial Sudanese Arabic to words in my Meroitic Word List, has illustrated the continued use of classical Meroitic terms among contemporary Sudanese.
1.1To determine the past of man, scientists use historical and comparative linguistics. Historical linguistics seeks to describe the way languages change or maintain their structure over a period of time. The present state of a language is its synchronic state; whereas the transition from one state to the next is the diachronic state. Comparative linguistics is that branch of linguistics which discloses and studies similarities and difference between related languages.
 1.2There are two types of relatedness between languages: genetic and typological.  The closeness of languages depends on the number of rules the languages have in common. A genetic relationship means that a group of languages descend from a common ancestor. A typological relationship means that languages have a few common structural features. The closeness of languages depends on the number of rules the languages have in common.
 1.3There is an ethnic relationship behind a genetic relationship of languages because a genetic relationship suggests a family relationship. The basic objective of the comparative linguist is to isolate words with common or similar meanings that have systematic consonantal agreement with little regard for the location of the vowels. Consonantal agreement is the regular appearance of consonants at certain locations in words having similar meanings and representing similar speech sounds.
1.4Meroitic and Nubian share a genetic linguistic relationship. These two languages share many kinship terms, nouns and verbs. The Nubian terms are from Dongolawi, Modern Nubian, and Old Nubian.



1.5 In Tables 1 and Tables 1a, we see 34 cognate Meroitic and Nubian terms. Analogy exist between  Nubian and Meroitic terms. In relation to Meroitic and Nubian terms 41% show full correspondence and 59% had partial correspondence.

1.6There is Nubian and Meroitic Consonantal Correspondence
Nubian                                                        Meroitic 
t=/=t                                                    
tak       'to cover'                                        te 'to put. To lay'                                                                                                   
t'a        'to come'                                        tña  'come into being'                       
tok, tuk 'leave, set in motion                tk
tay              'girl'                                        to 'feminine suffix           
b=/=b  
aba, abo        father                                            ab   
s=/=š                                                    
essi                  sister                                               šr
s=/=s                                    
samil                chief,king                                   sr, sl

r=/=l                                                     
ur                         king                                             wl,wr                                                                         
toud                    son                                               mte                                                                            
wel                      dog                                               wle
d=/=d                                                                  
*den,tir            to give                                           d                                                                  
d=/=t                                                 
diya              'place'                                               te                                                                                                
diya              'village'                                            to   'to dwell'                                                                                          
da                country'                                           t                                                                                      
k=/=k                                                                                  
ker         pick up'                                             kd  'to bear'  
n=/=ñ                                                                                 
nukt       glory'                                                 ñt   ‘honor’                                                                                                                                                                                   
n=/=n
unn      'to give birth'                               tn 'to be born'
Ƞ=/=                                                                                               
uȠur  'to know'                                               aḫ 'to learn
ɛ=/= e                                  
ɛrri, έrr    'new'                                          er 'produce, evoke'                                                                                         
d=/=t   
dawi   'road'                                              ato   down the road'                          
r=/=r
ursέ   'root'                                               ro  'foundation'   
n=/=n                                                                                 
n'al   'see'                                                 ni ' to shine,to illuminate  
en    'women'                                       -ñ '3rd per promoun 'her'                                                                      
m=/=m                
Ƞ=/=n                                                                  
Ƞul   'white'                                          in-ne  'radiance'                                                                  
Š=/=š
màša  'sun'                                          'Sun God'     


1.7Nubian and Meroitic also share vowel correspondence
a/e     u/w
a/I     i/i
e/e   o/u                                                                                                        

1.8In conclusion, the Meroitic Empire was made of diverse African nations speaking a variety of African languages. Some of the speakers of these languages migrated into West Africa, while other Meroites remained in the Nile Valley.  This comparison of Meroitic and Nubian illustrates that Nubia was spoken in the Meroitic Empire.
1.9Some linguists would question the ability to compare Meroitic to modern Nubian languages. We can compare these languages due to the linguistic continuity theory .
1.10The rate at which  languages change is variable. It appears that linguistic change is culture specific. Consequently, the social organization and political culture of a particular speech community can influence the speed at which languages change.
1.11 Based on the history of language change in Europe most linguists believe that the rate of change for all languages is both rapid and constant (Diagne, 1981,238).  The idea that all languages change rapidly is not valid for all the World's languages.
1.12Dr. Clyde Winters,  ( 1996), explained that  the rate at which languages change is variable. It appears that linguistic change is culture specific. Consequently, the social organization and political culture of a particular speech community can influence the speed at which languages change. Based on the history of language change in Europe most linguists believe that the rate of change for all languages is both rapid and constant (Diagne, 1981, p.238).
1.13The idea that all languages change rapidly is not valid for all the World's languages.The continuity of many African languages may result from the steady state nature of African political systems, and long standing cultural stability since Neolithic times (Diop, 1991 ; Winters 1996).
1.14This cultural stability has affected the speed at which African languages change.The political stability of African political institutions has caused languages to change very slowly in Africa (Winters 1996). Diop (1987, 1991) argue that a sedentary life style may account for the conservative nature of a language.
1.15This leads to the hypothesis that linguistic continuity exist in Africa due to the continuity or stability of African socio-political structures and cultural systems. This relative cultural stability has led African languages to change more slowly then European and Asian languages. Diop (1974) observed that: First the evolution of languages, instead of moving everywhere at the same rate of speed seems linked to other factors; such as , the stability of social organizations or the opposite, social upheavals. Understandably in relatively stable societies man's language has changed less with the passage of time (pp.153-154). In the case of Nubian languages, we know that while some Nubian speakers migrated into Eurasia after 1500 BC, most Nubian speakers probably remained in the Nile Valley.
1.16This comparison of Meroitic and Nubian shows a genetic linguistic relationship exist between these two languages. The linguistic evidence of a relationship between Nubian and Meroitic supports the  African linguistic continuity concept.


References:
Diagne,P. (1981). In J. Ki-Zerbo (Ed.), General history of Africa I: Methodology and African prehistory (233-260). London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.

Diop,C.A. (1977). Parentè gènètique de l'Egyptien Pharaonique et des languues Negro-Africaines. Dakar: Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire.
Diop, C.A. (1978). Precolonial Black Africa. Wesport, Conn. :Lawrence Hill and Company.
Diop, C.A. 1981. A methodology for the study of migrations. In African Ethnonyms and Toponyms, by UNESCO. (Unesco: Paris) 86--110.
Diop, C.A. (1991). Civilization or Barbarism. Brooklyn,N.Y.:Lawrence Hill Books
Griffith, F.Ll. 1909. Meroitic inscriptions. In Areika, (ed) by MacIver, D.R. & Woolley, C.L. Vol.1. Philadelphia.
Griffith, F.L.1911a. Karanog. The Meroitic Inscriptions of Shablul and Karanog. Philadelphia: Eckley B. Coxe Jr Expedition to Nubia. Vol.VI.
Griffith, F. Ll. 1911b. Meroitic Inscriptions: Part I. London: The Offices of the Egypt Exploration Fund.
Griffith, F. Ll. 1912. Meroitic Inscriptions: Part II. London: The Offices of the Egypt Exploration Fund.
Anas Elbashir Ahmed Musa , Old Sudanese Language and Meroitic , https://bafsudralam.blogspot.com/2018/02/old-sudanese-language-and-meroitic.html
Clyde Winters (1996) . Linguistic Continuity and African and Dravidian languages  ,International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 23 (2):34-52.


Sunday, April 8, 2018

Inscriptions on Sphinx

Curtis Penn posted an interesting picture of several signs under the ear of the Sphinx on the Ta-Seti Facebook Group.. The signs are interesting because they are written in ancient Mande script.




 This ancient Mande script is called Libyco-Berber, but the signs are read using the Malinke Bambara language.The Libyco-Berber, Minoan, Proto-Sumerian writing system is based on Thinite script.


 The Berber writing is an alphabet. The signs under the ear of the Sphinx reads I yu po pe. In translation they read "Thou pure tomb on the flat lands." 




This inscription is interesting because we find pyramid(s) on the flat lands behind the Sphinx. This is a fantastic discovery by Curtis Penn.

Monday, April 2, 2018

The Hyksos were Kushites not Asians II


Most researchers accept the contemporary meaning of Gardiner's N25 symbol as "Rulers of foreign lands" not Kush”. In reality, Heqa ḫ3st probably means “Ruler of the Kushites”.

Researchers have made it clear that the Hyksos included many different nationalities. The Hyksos according to John Bright (2000, p.60 ); and Robert Drews (1997, p.254 ) included Hurrians and Hattians, in addition to Canaanites. This means that the name Aamw, was a generic name for ‘Asians’, and did not denote a specific Asian tribe.
The Hyksos were called heqa ḫ3st (khasut), not Habiru or Shepherd Kings. The Hyksos did not only speak Semitic languages.
The Hyksos ruled from 1650-1550. The New Kingdom lasted from 1549-1292. During the New Kingdom Egyptians used the name Aamw, as a generic name for the Asian, the term : Habiru, was ethnonym for one of the Asian tribes. It is clear that if the Habiru and Heqa Khasut were the same people, they would have had the same name given the fact the New Kingdom, began at the end of the Heqa Khasut Dynasty.

During the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt (2563-2423), namely during the reign of Sahure there is mention of the Tehenu people. Sahure referred to the Tehenu leader “Hati Tehenu” . These Hatiu, correspond to the Hatti speaking people of Anatolia. The Hatti/Hurrian people often referred to themselves as Kashkas or Kaskas.
This means that During the Old Kingdom the term heqa khasut, did not mean "ruler(s) of the foreign countries", as assumed by most Egyptologist. The term meaning of heqa khasut, was really "ruler(s) of the Kushites". If heqa khasut, meant "ruler(s) of the foreign countries", it would have been applied to every foreign country, but foreign kings were usually referred to as wr ‘King’, instead of heqa which was reserved for Egyptian rulers as noted by Camille DiBiase Dyson (2013). The Hyksos were rulers of Egypt during the 12th -15th Dynasties The title of these kings was Heqa Khasut . According to Fraser (1900) and Petrie Heqa Khasut was an exclusive title for the Hyksos Kings.

It does not matter if Kamose called the Hyksos Aamw, the Hyksos rulers referred to themselves as Heqa "ruler", i.e. Heqa Khasut, "Ruler of the Khasut/Kushites. In the Egyptian text from Avaris Kings like Apophis, made it clear that they were , "Rulers of Kushites.
Egyptian Khas corresponds to Kashkas or Kaska, the name for the Hattians. The Egyptian term ḫ3st (Khasut} has three different elements the ethononym Khas: Kas(ka)/Kush. Plus, the /-u/ which and the Egyptian plural marker, while the Egyptian /-t/ was a suffix that signified 'land, people'.

There are Egyptian text where the Hyksos called themselves ḫ3st = Kushite. The Egyptian textual evidence the Hyksos called themselves Heqa ḫ3st . In the Turin Royal Canon where the Hyksos were styled : heqa khasut. During the New Kingdom, the Kushites were called Kash, the same name the Hattians (Hyksos) called themselves: i.e., Kashka.
The first four rulers of the Hyksos called themselves heqa khasut on their seals and scarabs, the stela of Ka and a monumental doorjamb from Avaris. This is primary contemporaneous AEL literature epigraphic documentation evidence indicating that they called themselves Khas.

Fraser (1900) and Newberry (1906) have published many of the Hyksos scarabs. Thes scarabs often begin with the title Heqa ḫ3st.
Kim Ryholt (1997) believes that the title Heqa Khasut was used by Egyptian Pharoahs up to the 15th Dynasty. Ryholt believes that Pharoah Semqen, who used the title Heqa Khasut on one of his scarabs belonged to the 15th Dynasty

Hyksos Kings were proud of their Kushite origin. in the Hyksos seals, the Kings wrote their names followed by the "Heqa Khasut", i.e. “King of the Kushites”. These sealings are primary contemporaneous AEL literature documentation ,indicating that the Hyksos used this name to illustrate their Kushite ancestry and relationship to the Nubian Kushites. See; A History of Ancient Egypt by Marc Van De Mieroop.

Hyksos Kings were proud of their Kushite origin. in the Hyksos seals, the Kings wrote their names followed by the "Heqa Khasut", i.e. “King of the Kushites”. These sealings are primary
contemporaneous AEL literature documentation, indicating that the Hyksos used this name to illustrate their Kushite ancestry and relationship to the Nubian Kushites. See; A History of Ancient Egypt by Marc Van De Mieroop.
The meaning of ḫ3st, has to be Kush, because why would Hyksos kings refer to themselves as ‘foreign kings’, when they were native to the land they ruled.

In summary meaning of ḫ3st (Khas) is Kushite). My interpretation of N25 ḫ3st, is supported by the use of the term ḫ3st, on the Hyksos sealings and inscriptions generally.
References
Bright, John, A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press , 2000.
Drews, Robert , The Coming of the Greeks: Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East, Princeton University Press , 1994.
Dyson, Camille DiBiase Foreigners and Egyptians in the Late Egyptian Stories, Boston,2013.
Fraser, G.W. , A catalogue of scarabs belonging to George Fraser (cat. no. 179). London, Bernard Quaritch, 1900.
Newberry, Percy E. , Scarabs : An Introduction to the Study of Egyptian Seals and Signet Rings (1906) Retrieved 4/2/2018 athttp://www.unz.com/print/NewberryPercy-1906/ .
Petrie, Sir William Matthew Flinders , Egypt and Israel, London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1911,
Ryholt, K.S.B. : The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997