Saturday, July 26, 2014

Khoisan in Morocco 200-40kya


The arcaheological data support a migration of probable Khoisan migration from Southern Africa to North Africa. You have to remember that many populations have settled Morocco, so their might not always be a one-to-one correspondence between contemporary Khoisan haplogroups and haplogroups found among contemporary Berbers in Morocco and the Atlas mountains. But given the geography, we would expect to see elements of Khoisan relic population genes among Atlas Mountain Berbers.

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Figure S1. Map Showing Location of the Population Samples Considered in This Study

Populations are represented by circles and numbered as in Table S5. Sectors within circles are proportional to the frequency of haplogroup A1a (green), A1b (red) and A2-T (black). Green asterisks indicate countries were haplogroup A1a has previously been observed.



See:

Table S1. Haplogroup Affiliation of the Seven Chromosomes that Were Re-sequenced


Table S5: Populations considered for the mutations defining major clades A1b, A1a and A2-T.


http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/1088206/8032906/mmc1.pdf


The hominids and tool kits common to South Africa also appear in Morocco. It is no secret that the earliest Y-chromosome haplogroups have been found in Morocco and among the Khoisan (see map).


These haplogroups belong to hg A (M91); among the Moroccans we find A1b and A1a.The Khoisan mtDNA was named originally L1a,L1d and L1k, these clades are called LoD and LoK today.

Morocco has yielded impotant new data on African prehistory. Here we find a complex and rich set of early hominids from Jebel Irhoud, Dar es-Soltan and Contrebandiers Cave.

A pan-African Middle Stone Age (MSA) culture existed that united South Africa and Morocco.The Moroccan tools are Levallois technology and Mousterian industries were used in South Africa,North Africa and western Eurasia.



 Dibble et al (2013) has shown that Pan-African industries included cognate scrapers, Levallois tools, Nassarius beads and engraved ostrich shells. The Moroccans and South Africans shared Levallois tools and the use of ochre, bone tools and ostrich shells.  Bouaouggar et al (2007) has shown how the shell beads from Grotte des Pigeons (Taforalt,Morocco) and South Africa's Blombos Caves.




The archaeological evidence is clear the Khoisan in Morocco and South Africa shared behavioral , cognitive and technological styles. The major behavioral indicators shared by the Moroccan and South African Khoisan was mining,beads, blades, ochre and bone tools between 200-40kya.




 It is important to note that Moroccan tools are Levallois technologies and Mousterian industries used in North Africa and Western Eurasia. We also should note that Neanderthals also used Mousterian tools.


References:
 
Dibble H L, et al (2013). On the industrial attributions of the Aterian and Mousterian of the Maghrib. J of Human Evolution, 64:194-210.


 


The Khoisan and Neanderthal

The most archaic AMH remains come from Florished, South Africa; they date between 190-330 kya. Other ancient fossil evidence of AMH in South Africa come from Broken Hill (c.110kya) and the Klasis River caves (c. 65-105kya). The Khoisan early migrated into North Africa. As a result, we see shared cultural and behavioral traditions between 200-40kya among South Africans and Moroccans.

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KHOISAN


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The Khoisan carry haplogroups L3(M,N). Before they reached Iberia, they probably stopped in West Africa. Granted L3 and L2 are not as old as LOd, but Gonder et al (2006)provides very early dates for this mtDNA e.g., L3(M,N) 94.3; the South African Khoisan (SAK) carry L1c, L1,L2,L3(M,N) dates to 142.3kya; the Hadza are L2a, L2, L3(M,N), dates to 96.7kya. The dates for L1,L2,L3, M,N are old enough for the Khoisan to have taken N to West Africa, where we find L3, L2 and LOd and thence to Iberia as I suggested in my paper (Winters,2011).


   It is interesting to note that LO haplogroups are primarily found among Khoisan and West Africans. This shows that at some point in prehistory the Khoisan had migrated into West Africa on their way to Morocco. The basal L3(M) motiff in West Africa is characterized by the Ddel site np 10394 and Alul site np 10397 associated with AF-24. This supports my contention that Khoisan speakers early settled West Africa on their way to Iberia. 


The Khoisan may have introduced the L haplogroup to Iberia. The SAK populations carry haplogroups L2, and L3. Dominguez (2005) ,noted that much of the ancient mtDNA found in Iberia has no relationship to the people presently living in Iberia today and correspond to African mtDNA haplogroups .


The SAK carry haplogroups L1c, L1,L2,L3 M,N and dates to 142.3kya; the Hadza are L2a, L2, L3, M,N, and dates to 96.7kya. The dates for L1,L2,L3(M,N) are old enough for the Khoisan to have taken N to West Africa and thence Iberia. Dominguez (2005) found that the lineages recovered from ancient Iberian skeletons are the African lineages L1b,L2 and L3. Almost 50% of the lineages from the Abauntz Chalcolithic deposits and Tres Montes, in Navarre are the Sub-Saharan lineages L1b,L2 and L3.


The appearance of phylogenetically related sequences of hg L3 present in many ancient Iberian skeletons suggest that this haplogroup may have a long history in Iberia. This would support the possibility that SAK populations early settled ancient Iberia.

     The Neanderthal used Mousterian tools. These tools were also being used in Africa as early 130kya. This places Neanderthalers in North Africa. The human types associated with the Neanderthal tools found at Jebel Ighoud and Haua Fteah resemble contemporaneous European Neanderthaler tools. The presence of Mousterian tools suggest that Neanderthalers mixed with Africans because we know that anatomically modern humans were living in the area at the time.

      The African Neanderthal people used the common Levoiso-Mousterian tool kit originally discovered in Europe. The Nenderthal skeletons have come from Djebel Irhoud and El Guettar in Morocco (Ki-Zerbo,1981). Later Neanderthal people used the Aterian tool kit.


 It was probably in Morocco that Neanderthal and Khoisan interacted. An exception to this norm are the Khoisan who share a phylogenic relationship with Altai Neanderthals (Prufer, et al, 2013).


 Many researchers claim that Africans have no relationship to the Neanderthals.But Prufer et al (2013) observed that Khoisan share more alleles with Altaic Neanderthal than Denisova. In the Supplemental section of Prufer et al (2013) there is considerable discussion of the relationship between Neanderthal and Khoisan.


 In relation to the Altaic Neanderthal the non-Africans have a lower divergence rate than Africans between 10-20%. Prufer et al (2013) note little statistical difference between non-African and African divergence.


      Researchers have observered a relationship between the Neanderthals, the Khoisan and Yoruba. Prufer et al (2013) detected a relationship between the Neanderthal and Mandekan. It is interesting to note that Yoruba traditions place them in Mande-speaking areas (Prufer et al,2013). 


 There is interesting information in Figure S7.1. In Figure S7.1 the maximum likelihood tree of bonobo, Denisova and Neanderthal, the closest present-day hmans are Africans, not Europeans. Reading the Tree Chart Graph, the neighbor joining tree of archaic and present day human individuals has the Khoisan following the Denisova. An interesting finding of Prufer et al (2013) was that Altaic Neanderthal and Denisova are estimated to have similar split times.


The divergence estimate for African Khoisan-Mandekan and Altaic is younger than the split between Africans and Denisova archaic individuals and modern African individuals. The split times between the Khoisan and Mandekan may be explained by the presence of AF-24 haplotype in West Africa. The major problem with the paper is that the Prufer et al (2013)believe that there was a back-to-Africa migration of Eurasian genomes among West Africans people.


 This back migration probably did not occur. What we do know is that the ancient Kushite people belonged to the C-Group. The C-Group people spoke Niger-Congo and Dravidian languages. The Kushites founded many civilizations in Eurasia including the Sumerian and Elamite civilizations. The Kushites may have spread L3(M) and y-chromosome R haplogroup in Eurasia. This suggest that so-called Eurasian genomes are the result of admixtures of Europeans and Kushites.


   In summary the Khoisan early settled Morocco. From here they interacted with Neanderthal populations. Later the Khoisan migrated into Iberia an deposited many genomes of the L clade and L3(N) macrohaplogroup.





Reference:


de Domínguez E.F. Polimorfismos de DNA mitocondrial en poblaciones antiguas de la cuenca mediterránea. Universitat de Barcelona. Departament Biologia Animal, 2005 (PhD thesis).


Gonder MK, Mortensen HM, Reed FA, de Sousa A, Tishkoff SA. (2006). Whole mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages. Mol Biol Evol. 2006 Dec 28.


Ki-Zerbo,J. (1981). Unesco General History of Africa Vol. 1: Methodology and African Prehistory (1981), pg.572.
Pruler,K, Racimo,F.,Patterson,N et al. (2014). The complete genome sequences of Neanderthal from the Altai, Mountains. Nature , 505/7481: 43-9. doi .10.1038/ Nature 12881.Epub.2013.Dec.18.


Scozzari, R, Massaia,A, Trombatta,B. et al.(2014). An unbiased resource of novel SNP markers provides a new chronology for human Y-chromosome and reveals a deep phylogenetic structure in Africa. Genome Research, January 6,2014, doi: 10.1101/gr./60785.113.


Winters C. The Gibraltar Out of Africa Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans. WebmedCentral BIOLOGY 2011;2(10):WMC002311 . http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/2311

Thursday, July 24, 2014

Are the Berbers of Vandal Origin?


Anthropologist and linguist continue to perpetuate the myth that the Berbers are remnants of the alleged paleo-whites who have always been in Africa, But the contemporary Berbers are not remnants of a paleo-white population, their ancestors was the Vandals.

The influence of European languages on the Berber languages and the grammar of the Berber languages indicate that the Berbers are probably of European, especially Vandal origin.
 The linguistic evidence makes it clear that Romans , Greeks and other Europeans have influenced the Berbers.
Berber is an Afro-Asiatic language. The Afro-Asiatic languages do not exit.
Egyptian and Berber languages do not share affinity. Examine this comparison of Berber and Egyptian by Obenga.


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There is no cognation between Berber and Egyptian languages.
There is also no cultural evidence collected that unite the Berbers and Egyptians. The Berbers only recently came to Siwan as discussed earlier.
I have never read that Tuareg has any Indo-European elements. Tuareg, as opposed to the other Berber languages is closely related to Hausa and Songhay.
Andre Basset in La Langue Berbere
, has discussed the I-E elements in the Berber languages. There is also a discussion of these elements in Schuchardt, Die romanischen Lehnworter im Berberischen (Wien,1918). Basset provides a few examples in his monograph. I have posted the page so you can examine the material yourself.

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You can also consult Note di geografia linguistica berbera more ,by Vermondo Brugnatelli :http://unimib.academia.edu/VermondoBrugnatelli/Papers/1098593/Note_di_geografia_linguistica_berbera

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Obenga made it clear that AfroAsiatic does not exist and you can not reconstruct the Proto-language.
This is true. Ehret (1995) and Orel/Stolbova (1995) were attempts at comparing Proto-AfroAsiatic. The most interesting fact about these works is that they produced different results. If AfroAsiatic existed they should have arrived at similar results. The major failur of these works is that there is too much synononymy. For example, the Proto-AfroAsiatic synonym for bird has 52 synonyms this is far too many for a single term and illustrates how the researchers just correlated a number of languages to produce a proto-form.
This supports Obenga's view that you can not reconstruct Afro-Asiatic. It is assumed that if languages are related you should be able to reconstruct the proto-language of the language family.



Loulan Mummy is a Black or Negro Personage





The Loulan mummy is clearly phenotypically a Black or Negro person given the pigmentation of the mummy. Dravido-Africans had early settled Central and East Asia. The Loulan mummy was probably a Dravidian speaker. The Loulan mummy was found at Xiaole. The DNA of the DNA of the Xiaole people was mtDNA C4 and y-Chromosome haplogroups R1a1a, H and K (Li et al, 2010). 

The Loulan mummy was found at Xiaole. The DNA of the DNA of the Xiaole people was mtDNA C4 and y-Chromosome haplogroups R1a1a, H and K (Li et al, 2010).

The Xiaole people mtDNA include many of the Pan-African haplotypes . The HVR1 motif was 16189-16192-163111. Xioale mtDNA hyplotypes include S1(16223) and S2 (16304). Li et al (2010) claim the mtDNA was C4, R* and M*..

The y-Chromosome SNPs were M89,M9,M45,M173 and M198. The y-Chromosomes of the Xiaole people were haplogroups R1a1a, H, and K. These y-chromosome haplogroups are common to the Dravidian and Siddi people in India (Winters,2010).

The Dravidian and Siddi people came from Africa (Winters, 2007a, 2008a,2008b,2010). The Dravidians belonged to the C-group people (Winters, 2007, 2008b). They migrated to Iran and India after 2600BC. The Dravidians carry African haplogroups M1 and y-chromosomes (Winters, 2008b,2010).


The Dravidians were called Yueh and Qing in the Chinese literature. Yueh people founded the Dongson culture of Southeast Asia. In Southeast Asia the Dravidians were called Yakshas or Kamboja (Winters,1986). In China the Yueh people founded the Shang Dynasty.

In conclusion the Loulan mummy was probably of Dravidian origin. The Dravidian origin of the Loulan mummy is supported by the Xiaole DNA that corresponds to Dravidian and African DNA>


References:

Li C1, Li H, Cui Y, Xie C, Cai D, Li W, Mair VH, Xu Z, Zhang Q, Abuduresule I, Jin L, Zhu H, Zhou H.(2010).Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age. BMC Biol. 2010 Feb 17;8:15. doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-8-15. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/15

Winters,C. A.(1986). "Dravidian Settlements in ancient Polynesia", India Past and Present 3, no2: 225- 241.


Winters,C. 2007. Did the Dravidian Speakers Originate in Africa? BioEssays, 27(5): 497-498.

___________2007b. High Levels of Genetic Divergence across Indian Populations. PloS Genetics. Retrieved 4/8/2008 http://www.plosgenetics.

____________2008a. Can parallel mutation and neutral genome selection explain Eastern African M1 consensus HVS-1 motifs in Indian M Haplogroups. Int J Hum Genet, 13(3): 93-96.
http://www.ijhg.com/article.asp?issn=0971-6866;year=2007;volume=13;issue=3;spage=93;epage=96;aulast=Winters
_______________2008b. ARE DRAVIDIANS OF AFRICAN ORIGIN
http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/IJHG/IJHG-08-0-000-000-2008-Web/IJHG-08-4-317-368-2008-Abst-PDF/IJHG-08-4-325-08-362-Winder-C/IJHG-08-4-325-08-362-Winder-C-Tt.pdf

____________2010. Y-Chromosome evidence of an African origin of Dravidian agriculture. International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2(3): 030 – 033. http://www.academicjournals.org/IJGMB/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts2010/Mar/Winters.htm

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

There was No Race War in Africa 35kya


There was an article in the Independent newspaper which claims that 13kya there was a race war in the Sahara. The idea that a race war existed at this time seems ludicris because there is no evidence of different races in Africa at that time. The iconographic evidence from Egypt, does not show the European physical type until the invansion of Egypt by the People of the Sea after 1200BC

Scientists are investigating what may be the oldest identified race war 13,000 years after it raged on the fringes of the Sahara. They wrote:

 “ French scientists working in collaboration with the British Museum have been examining dozens of skeletons, a majority of whom appear to have been killed by archers using flint-tipped arrows.

The bones – from Jebel Sahaba on the east bank of the Nile in northern Sudan – are from victims of the world’s oldest known relatively large-scale human armed conflict.

Over the past two years anthropologists from Bordeaux University have discovered literally dozens of previously undetected arrow impact marks and flint arrow head fragments on and around the bones of the victims.

Of the 59 Jebel Sahaba victims, skeletal material from two has been included in the new Early Egypt gallery. The display includes flint arrowhead fragments and a healed forearm fracture, almost certainly sustained by a victim seeking to defend himself by raising his arm during an episode of conflict.”

The major problem researchers have with African prehistory is the idea that all Africans look alike. The  craniometric and skeletal evidence from Africa,  makes it clear that various African populations formerly  arose in Africa, and made successive migrations out of Africa.  These Blacks had varying physical features and hair type. There was never a monolithic Black race.

The archaeological evidence indicates that the first Black population or negro population to originate in Africa were the Australians, who left Africa during the OoA event 60kya. The next group were the Khoisan, who migrated into Europe across the Straits of Gibraltar  40-35kya and founded  the Grimaldi and Aurignacian.

 Numerous Sub-Saharan skeletons have been found in Europe dating to the Aurignacian and Neolithic periods ( Boule and Vallois, 1957; Diop, 1974,1981; DuBois,1941). Marcellin Boule and Henri Vallois, in Fossil Man , note that "We know now that the ethnography of South African tribes presents many striking similarities with the ethnography of our populations of the Reindeer Age. Not to speak of their stone implements which, as we shall see later , exhibit great similarities, Peringuey has told us that in certain burials on the South African coast 'associated with the Aurignacian or Solutrean type industry...."(p.318-319). They add, that in relation to Bushman art " This almost uninterrupted series leads us to regard the African continent as a centre of important migrations which at certain times may have played a great part in the stocking of Southern Europe. Finally, we must not forget that the Grimaldi Negroid skeletons sho many points of resemblance with the Bushman skeletons". They bear no less a resemblance to that of the fossil Man discovered at Asslar in mid-Sahara, whose characters led us to class him with the Hottentot-Bushman group.This is interesting because --CL. Brace 2005. The Questionable contribution of the Neolithic to European craniofacial form  found that the craniofacial features of these early European farmers and the Natufians plotted with Sub-Saharan groups (Brace, 2006) just like the Aurignacians (Boule and Vallois,1957; Winters, 2011).

 The next group to exit Africa after 15kya were the proto-pgymies who may represent the Natufians . In the ancient literature the pgymies were called Anu. The Anus ruled Africa, the Americas and Eurasia until the rise of the Proto-Saharans or Kushites . The Kushites   exited Africa after after  4000BC. The Kushites were the last Africans to exit Africa until the expansion of  Muslims  Africans from Sahara into Iberia , who founded the Moorist civilization that lasted in Spain until 1492.


The two ethnic groups who were probably engaged in war 13kya years ago may have been a conflict between the Niger-Congo speaking people who belonged to the Ounanian culture and the Anu. The Ounanian people  (=Kushites=Niger-Congo-Dravidian speakers) who archaeologically are associated with  arrowheads they left throughout the Sahara. The Anu were defeated by Narmar.
There was an article in the Independent newspaper which claims that 13kya there was a race war in the Sahara. The idea that a race war existed at this time seems ludicris because there is no evidence of different races in Africa at that time. The iconographic evidence from Egypt, does not show the European physical type until the invansion of Egypt by the People of the Sea after 1200BC
Scientists are investigating what may be the oldest identified race war 13,000 years after it raged on the fringes of the Sahara. They wrote:
 “ French scientists working in collaboration with the British Museum have been examining dozens of skeletons, a majority of whom appear to have been killed by archers using flint-tipped arrows.
The bones – from Jebel Sahaba on the east bank of the Nile in northern Sudan – are from victims of the world’s oldest known relatively large-scale human armed conflict.
Over the past two years anthropologists from Bordeaux University have discovered literally dozens of previously undetected arrow impact marks and flint arrow head fragments on and around the bones of the victims.
Of the 59 Jebel Sahaba victims, skeletal material from two has been included in the new Early Egypt gallery. The display includes flint arrowhead fragments and a healed forearm fracture, almost certainly sustained by a victim seeking to defend himself by raising his arm during an episode of conflict.”
The major problem researchers have with African prehistory is the idea that all Africans look alike. The  craniometric and skeletal evidence from Africa,  makes it clear that various African populations formerly  arose in Africa, and made successive migrations out of Africa.  These Blacks had varying physical features and hair type. There was never a monolithic Black race.
The archaeological evidence indicates that the first Black population or negro population to originate in Africa were the Australians, who left Africa during the OoA event 60kya. The next group were the Khoisan, who migrated into Europe across the Straits of Gibraltar  40-35kya and founded  the Grimaldi and Aurignacian.
 Numerous Sub-Saharan skeletons have been found in Europe dating to the Aurignacian and Neolithic periods ( Boule and Vallois, 1957; Diop, 1974,1981; DuBois,1941). Marcellin Boule and Henri Vallois, in Fossil Man , note that "We know now that the ethnography of South African tribes presents many striking similarities with the ethnography of our populations of the Reindeer Age. Not to speak of their stone implements which, as we shall see later , exhibit great similarities, Peringuey has told us that in certain burials on the South African coast 'associated with the Aurignacian or Solutrean type industry...."(p.318-319). They add, that in relation to Bushman art " This almost uninterrupted series leads us to regard the African continent as a centre of important migrations which at certain times may have played a great part in the stocking of Southern Europe. Finally, we must not forget that the Grimaldi Negroid skeletons sho many points of resemblance with the Bushman skeletons". They bear no less a resemblance to that of the fossil Man discovered at Asslar in mid-Sahara, whose characters led us to class him with the Hottentot-Bushman group.This is interesting because --CL. Brace 2005. The Questionable contribution of the Neolithic to European craniofacial form  found that the craniofacial features of these early European farmers and the Natufians plotted with Sub-Saharan groups (Brace, 2006) just like the Aurignacians (Boule and Vallois,1957; Winters, 2011).
 The next group to exit Africa after 15kya were the proto-pgymies who may represent the Natufians . In the ancient literature the pgymies were called Anu. The Anus ruled Africa, the Americas and Eurasia until the rise of the Proto-Saharans or Kushites . The Kushites   exited Africa after after  4000BC. The Kushites were the last Africans to exit Africa until the expansion of  Muslims  Africans from Sahara into Iberia , who founded the Moorist civilization that lasted in Spain until 1492.
The two ethnic groups who were probably engaged in war 13kya years ago may have been a conflict between the Niger-Congo speaking people who belonged to the Ounanian culture and the Anu. The Ounanian people  (=Kushites=Niger-Congo-Dravidian speakers) who archaeologically are associated with  arrowheads they left throughout the Sahara. The Anu were defeated by Narmar.

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

Early Spread of Haplogroup L3(M,N) supported by Stephan Schiffels and Richard Durbin (2014) Inferring human population size and separation history from multiple genome sequences


 

In several papers I have discussed the possibility that L3(M,N,) probably spread across Africa prior to the proposed out of Africa (OoA) event 60-50kya.  A recent paper:  Stephan Schiffels and Richard Durbin. (2014). Inferring human population size and separation history from multiple genome sequences. bioRxiv posted online May 21, 201 http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/005348 , presents convincing evidence that supports the demic diffusion of L3(M,N) prior to the proposed OoA event. Schiffels and Durbin noted that : “ We find strong evidence that the Yoruban/Non-African separation took place over a long time period of about 100,000 years, starting long before the known spatial dispersal into Eurasia around 50kya. Because we model directly an arbitrary history over time of relative cross coalescence rate between populations, we can see more clearly a progressive separation than earlier analyses based on a single separation time with some subsequent migration [7, 17, 33, 41]. However Yoruba does not represent all of Africa. Wenow see that the Maasai separation from the out-of-Africa populations occurred within the last 100,000 years. The older part of the separation from Yoruba may therefore be a consequence of ancient population structure within Africa, though the direct picture of relationships between African populations is complicated by extensive more recent exchange that we see between all three of Yoruba, Maasai and Luhya within the last 100,000 years. This scenario still does not rule out a possible contribution from an intermediate modern human population that dispersed out of Africa into the Middle-East or the Arabian peninsula but continued extensive genetic exchange with its African ancestors until about 50kya [17, 42,43].”

    The authors conclude that : “Our results are scaled to real times using a mutation rate of 1.25×10-8 per nucleotide per generation, as proposed recently [16] and supported by several direct mutation studies [14-16]. Using a value of 2.5×10-8 as was common previously [44, 45] would halve the times. This would bring the midpoint of the out-of-Africa separation to an uncomfortably recent 30-40kya, but more concerningly it would bring the separation of Native American ancestors (MXL) from East-Asian populations to 5-10kya, inconsistent with the paleontological record [25, 26]. We suggest that the establishment and spread of the Native American populations may provide a good time point for calibrating population genetic demographic models. We note that the extended period of divergence between African and non-African ancestors that we observe reconciles the timing of the most recent common ancestor of African and Non-African mtDNA around 70kya [1, 18] with the lower autosomal nuclear mutation rate used here, which in simple split models would suggest a separation around 90-130kya [7, 17, 33,41, 46]. Given that we observe extensive cross-coalescence at nuclear loci around 60-80kya, sharing a common ancestor during that time for mtDNA, which acts as a single locus with reduced effective population size, is entirely likely.”

      The  separation of Native American ancestors (MXL) from East-Asian populations to 5-10kya, indicated by the findings of Schiffels and Durbin is not  inconsistent with the paleontological record, because the crainiometrics suggest a divergence between the first Americans who were analogous to a Australian or African populations, while the contemporary native Americans are mongoloid. As a result, the archaeological evidence supports the recent date for the separation of the East Asian and Native American populations.

       In C. Winters (2011). The Demic Diffussion of the M-Haplogroup from East Africa to the Senegambia. BioResearch Bulletin ,4:51-54( Retrieved 7/9/2014 at http://www.academia.edu/1898550/The_African_Origin_of_mtDNA_Haplogroup_M1 , Winters argues that populations associated with the Sangoan culture expanded L3(M,N) across Africa prior to 60kya.

 In addition to haplogroups M1, M* and N in Sub-Saharan Africa we also find among the Senegambians hapotype AF24 (DQ112852) , which is delineated by a DdeI site at 10394 and AluI site of np 10397. The AF-24 haplotype is a branch of the African subhaplogroup L3 (Chen, 2000). This is the same delineation of haplogroup M*. It is clear from the molecular evidence that the M1, M and N haplogroups are found not only in Northeast Africa, but across Africa from East to West (Winters, 2007). Haplogroup LOd is found at the root of human mtDNA. Gonder et al (2006) maintains that LOd is “the most basal branch of the gene tree”. The TMRCA for LOd is 106kya. This makes haplotype AF-24 much older than L3a and probably explains why this haplotype is found among the Khwe/Khoisan (Chen et al,2000). The TMRCA of LOd dates to 106kya. As a result, anatomically modern humans (amh) had plenty of time to spread this haplogroup to Senegal. In West Africa the presence of amh date to the Upper Palaeolithic (Giresse,2008).

        The archaeological evidence makes it clear that amh had ample opportunity to spread LOd and L3(M,N) which has an affinity to AF-24 (Chen,2000), to West Africa during this early period of demic diffusion of amh in Africa. The earliest evidence of human activity in West Africa is typified by the Sangoan industry (Phillipson,2005). The amh associated with the Sangoan culture may have deposited Hg LOd and haplotype AF-24 in Senegal thousands of years before the exit of amh from Africa. This is because it was not until 65kya that the TMRCA of non-African L3(M,N) exited Africa (Kivisild et al, 2006). Anatomically modern humans arrived in Senegal during the Sangoan period. Sangoan artifacts spread from East Africa to West Africa between 100-80kya. In Senegal Sangoan material has been found near Cap Manuel (Giresse, 2008), Gambia River in Senegal (Davies,1967; Wai-Ogussu,1973); and Cap Vert (Phillipson,2005).

       Gonder et al (8) claimed that LOd is exclusive to the southern African Khoisan (SAK) population. The presence of the ancient AF-24 haplotype among the Senegalese, that is absent in other parts of Africa, suggest a long-term population in the Senegambia that preserved this rare haplotype—that originated early in the history of amh.
       Moreover, the existence of the L3a-M motif in the Senegambia characterized by the DdeI site np 10394 and AluI site np 10397 in haplotype AF24 (DQ112852) make a ‘back migration’ of haplogroup M to Africa highly unlikely, since this haplotype is associated with LOd . The first amh to reach Senegal carrying haplogroup M probably belonged to the Sangoan culture which spread from East Africa to West Africa probably between 100-80kya.

  In conclusion,  the TMRCA of mtDNA L3(M,N) and their derivatives probably appear around 94.3kya.  Most researchers agree that ,it was not until 60kya that the TMRCA of non-African L3(M,N) exited Africa. This was 30,000 years after the rise of L3 and LOd and predicts a significant period of time for anatomically modern humans (amh) living in Africa to spread L3(M) haplogroups across the continent. This would explain the findings of Schiffels and Durban(2014) of the co-existence of the ancestors of African and non-African populations.  The existence of the basal L3a(M) motif and the LOd haplotype AF-24 among Senegalese supports this view.
References:
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Thursday, June 19, 2014

Blue Eyed Blacks in Ancient Europe

Some of the ancient Europens were dark skinned and possessed Blue Eyes. This supports the view that "Blue eyes" originated among Blacks who early settled Europe via Africa.

quote:
Motivated by these observations, we modeled Europeans as a three-way mixture of ANE (of which MA1 is a member), WHG (Loschbour), and EEF (Stuttgart). To test the consistency of this model with our data, we used the ADMIXTUREGRAPH software22, which fits a tree with discrete admixture events and reports f-statistics that differ by more than three standard errors between the estimated and fitted values (SI12). Our model-building was motivated by three observations (SI12): (1) Eastern non-Africans (Oceanians, East Asians, Native Americans, and Onge, indigenous Andaman islanders24) are genetically closer to ancient Eurasian hunter-gatherers (Loschbour, Motala12 and MA1) than to Stuttgart; (2) Every eastern non-African population except Native Americans is genetically equally close to Loschbour, Motala12, and MA1, but Native Americans are genetically closer to MA1 than to European hunter-gatherers6;and (3) All three hunter-gatherers and Stuttgart are genetically closer to Native Americans than to other eastern non-Africans. We jointly fit models to data from Loschbour, Stuttgart, MA1, Karitiana and Onge (SI12), and found that there was a unique model with two admixture events that fit the data; models with one or zero admixture events could all be rejected (SI12). One of the inferred admixture events is the ANE gene flow into both Europe6 and the Americas6 that has previously been documented. The successful model (Fig. 2A) also suggests 44 ± 10% “Basal Eurasian” admixture into the ancestors of Stuttgart: gene flow into their Near Eastern ancestors from a lineage that diverged prior to the separation of the ancestors of Loschbour and Onge. Such a scenario, while never suggested previously, is plausible given the early presence of modern humans in the Levant25, African-related tools made by modern humans in Arabia26, 27, and the geographic opportunity for continuous gene flow between the Near East and Africa28.


See: http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2013/12/23/001552.full.pdf

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These early Europeans were mainly carriers of hg U5. Haplogroup U5 probably originated in Africa. I discuss this fact here .
This is a bushman or San.


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Hottentot

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Bushman created much of the early civilization of Eurasia. They left us numerous figurines showing their type.

Venus Figurines


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The Bushman continue to carry this ancient form.

The Aurignacian civilization was founded by the Cro-Magnon people who originated in Africa. They took this culture to Western Europe across the Straits of Gibraltar. The Cro-Magnon people were probably Bushman/Khoi.


There have been numerous "Negroid skeletons" found in Europe. Marcellin Boule and Henri Vallois, in Fossil Man, provide an entire chapter on the Africans/Negroes of Europe Anta Diop also discussed the Negroes of Europe in Civilization or Barbarism, pp.25-68. Also W.E. B. DuBois, discussed these Negroes in the The World and Africa, pp.86-89. DuBois noted that "There was once a an "uninterrupted belt' of Negro culture from Central Europe to South Africa" (p.88).

Boule and Vallois, note that "To sum up, in the most ancient skeletons from the Grotte des Enfants we have a human type which is readily comparable to modern types and especially to the Negritic or Negroid type" (p.289). They continue, "Two Neolithic individuals from Chamblandes in Switzerland are Negroid not only as regards their skulls but also in the proportions of their limbs. Several Ligurian and Lombard tombs of the Metal Ages have also yielded evidences of a Negroid element.

Since the publication of Verneau's memoir, discoveries of other Negroid skeletons in Neolithic levels in Illyria and the Balkans have been announced. The prehistoric statues, dating from the Copper Age, from Sultan Selo in Bulgaria are also thought to protray Negroids.

In 1928 Rene Bailly found in one of the caverns of Moniat, near Dinant in Belgium, a human skeleton of whose age it is difficult to be certain, but seems definitely prehistoric. It is remarkable for its Negroid characters, which give it a reseblance to the skeletons from both Grimaldi and Asselar (p.291).

Boule and Vallois, note that "We know now that the ethnography of South African tribes presents many striking similarities with the ethnography of our populations of the Reindeer Age. Not to speak of their stone implements which, as we shall see later , exhibit great similarities, Peringuey has told us that in certain burials on the South African coast 'associated with the Aurignacian or Solutrean type industry...."(p.318-319). They add, that in relation to Bushman art " This almost uninterrupted series leads us to regard the African continent as a centre of important migrations which at certain times may have played a great part in the stocking of Southern Europe. Finally, we must not forget that the Grimaldi Negroid skeletons sho many points of resemblance with the Bushman skeletons". They bear no less a resemblance to that of the fossil Man discovered at Asslar in mid-Sahara, whose characters led us to class him with the Hottentot-Bushman group.

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The Boule and Vallois research makes it clear that the Bushman expanded across Africa on into Europe via Spain as the Grimaldi people. This makes it clear that the Bushman/Khoisan people were not isolated in South Africa. The Khoisan people carry the haplogroup N. The Hadza are Bushman they carry haplogroup N.


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Cro-Magnon people carried haplogroup N:

quote:


Specific mtDNA sites outside HVRI were also analyzed (by amplification, cloning, and sequencing of the surrounding region) to classify more precisely the ancient sequences within the phylogenetic network of present-time mtDNAs (35, 36). Paglicci-25 has the following motifs: +7,025 AluI, 00073A, 11719G, and 12308A. Therefore, this sequence belongs to either haplogroups HV or pre-HV, two haplogroups rare in general but with a comparatively high frequencies among today's Near-Easterners (35). Paglicci-12 shows the motifs 00073G, 10873C, 10238T, and AACC between nucleotide positions 10397 and 10400, which allows the classification of this sequence into the macrohaplogroupN,containing haplogroups W, X, I, N1a, N1b, N1c, and N*. Following the definition given in ref. 36, the presence of a single mutation in 16,223 within HRVI suggests a classification of Paglicci-12 into the haplogroup N*, which is observed today in several samples from the Near East and, at lower frequencies, in the Caucasus (35). It is difficult to say whether the apparent evolutionary relationship between Paglicci-25 and Paglicci-12 and those populations is more than a coincidence. Indeed, the haplogroups to which the Cro-Magnon type sequences appear to belong are rare among modern samples, and therefore their frequencies are poorly estimated. However, genetic affinities between the first anatomically modern Europeans and current populations of the Near East make sense in the light of the likely routes of Upper Paleolithic human expansions in Europe, as documented in the archaeological record (37).


http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/100/11/6593


This suggest that haplogroup N was taken to Western Eurasia by the San people=Cro-Magnon.

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This makes it clear, to me, that hg N in Africa is not the result of a back migration.