Wednesday, February 14, 2018

The basic lineages of L3 had probably spread across Africa prior to 100,000 BC

Vicente M. Cabrera1*, Patricia Marrero, , Khaled K. Abu-Amero,Jose M. Larruga. (2017). Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 basic lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/12/13/233502.full.pdf

Cabrera et al, argue that the basic lineages for L3 migrated back to Africa 70,000 years ago. The proposition is not supported by any archaeological evidence. Absent any archaeological evidence this proposal lacks any credibility. It is more likely that L3 had already spread across Africa prior to 100,000 BC. This is obvious by the fact that the Aurignacians carried L3 (N).

The TMRCA mtDNA ancestor of hgs L3, M and N lived around 94.3kya(3). There appears to have been a serial expansion of haplogroup N from the Great Lakes region of Africa to other parts of Africa 93kya (3a).  From Tanzania Khoisan speaking people probably spread the haplogroup into Ethiopia by 80kya. this agrees with Cabrera et al's contention that L3, had early spread into East Africa.

      By 70 kya Khoisan people probably spread hg N into West Africa. Sometime before 40kya there was probably a second migration event from Cameroon and possibly the Senegambian region into Northwest Africa on into Iberia (3a).
     The mtDNA haplogroup N has the common transitions 73,7028,11719, 12705,14766 and 16223. The defining mutations include 8701,9540,10398, 10873 and 15301. Haplogroup N is a branch of L3 (M,N).
         There are also N hgs found in Africa. Haplogroups N,N* and N1 is found in  low frequencies within Sub-Saharan groups including  Senegambians (9), Tanzanians (3) and modern Ethiopians (1) .In Egypt 8.8 percent of the Gurma carry hg N1b (25).
      Much of the ancient mtDNA found in Iberia has no relationship to the people presently living in Iberia (1a). Dominguez found that the lineages recovered from ancient skeletons are the African lineages L1b,L2 and L3. Almost 50% of the lineages from the Abauntz Chalcolithic deposits and Tres Montes, in Navarre are the Sub-Saharan lineages L1b,L2 and L3.
Discussion
    Until recently it was assumed that the earliest dates for hg N were in Eastern Eurasia. This view has changed recently as a result of the extraction and examination of ancient mtDNA from Cro Magnon skeletons dating to the Aurignacian period (26).
        The archaeological evidence indicates that AMH replaced Neanderthal during the Aurignacian period in Europe between 32-35kya (27). The Aurignacian civilization appears to have expanded from West to East (28-30).The founders of this culture came from Africa (28,29,31). Some researchers have argued that the Aurignacian culture was introduced to Europe from Africa (1a,32). They based this conclusion on the fact that its tool kit was foreign to the Mousterian type, and the culture appears in a mature form throughout Europe from France to Central  Europe (1a,3a, 32-33).
       Around 40,000 BC Europe was occupied mainly by Neanderthals. They begin to be replaced in Europe around 32,000 by the CroMagnon
people at Les Eyzies in France (29). It is also evident that archaic humans were replaced in much of the Levant by the Levantine Aurignacian culture bearers by a local variant of this technology at Ksar Akil Xlll-Vll 32kya , not 60-50kya. 
The Cro Magnon  DNA found in the ancient skeletons dates back to the Aurignacian period. The Cro magnon skeletons  belong to the N haplogroup (26).  
     The Cro Magnon skeletons carried N1a,N1b,N1c and N* (26). It is characterized by motifs 00073G,10873C, 10238T and A4CC between nucleotide positions 10397 and 10400. Most of the skeletons carried hg N*.
     It appears that the hg N was the most frequent mtDNA carried by Western European populations for over 20,000 years. This gene as discussed earlier is found primarily today outside Western Europe. The Cro Magnon people were mainly hunter-gathers.
     Haak et al. found that the twenty-four samples included haplogroups H or V, T, K, J , N1a and U3 (36). The frequency of N1a among ancient samples ranged from 8% to 42%.The archaeological evidence make it clear that the Cro Magnon people probably originated in Africa where we find hg N among African populations throughout the continent (3-3a,9). The spread of Cro Magnon populations from Iberia eastward into Eastern Europe and the Levant support the view that  haplogroup N was carried into Eurasia by Cro Magnon population from Africa across the Straits of Gibraltar into Iberia (28).
            The dates for the hg N in East Asia are far later than the dates for hg N among Cro Magnon populations in western Eurasia.  This suggest that the hg N was carried into Iberia by Cro Magnon people.   
       The Aurignacian culture did not enter Europe from the Levant. The Aurignacian civilization appears to have expanded from West to East (29-30) . The spread of the Aurignacian culture from Western to Eastern Eurasian suggest that while hg N*,N1 was already present among Western Eurasians,  by around 12-14 kya hgs N2- N3 probably originated in Siberia, not East Asia. It would appear that the presence of these haplogroups in Eastern Europe are the result of a back migration from Siberia.
    The high frequency of hg N among the ancient Western Eurasians make it clear that eventhough hg M and hg N may have exited Africa along the southern coastal route out of Africa 65kya most carriers of hg N probably left Africa during the migratory trajectory across the Straits of Gibraltar. Low frequencies of hg N in East Asia and Oceania today, are probably the result of the southern coastal route out of Africa from the Red Sea on into Asia.This view is supported by the ancient M and N lineages found in Asia.
Conclusion
      In conclusion, the  ‘Classic Aurignacian’ culture probably began in Africa, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar into Iberia, and expanded eastward across Europe (3a,40-41,44) . The archaeological record informs us that CroMagnon people carried hg N and replaced the Neanderthal population of the Levant,  at Ksar Akil around 32, 000 years ago (42-43), not the Natufians who entered the Levant almost 20,000 years later. Moreover, by 7000 BC the dominant haplogroup of Western Eurasians remained hg N1(36) .
     The appearance of phylogenetically related sequences of hg L3  present  in many ancient  Iberian skeletons suggest  that this haplogroup may have a long history in Iberia. The fact that hg N came to Iberia with the Cro-Magnon people in Aurignacian times suggest that carries of L3 may have also been part of this population movement.
       The mtDNA, skeletal and archaeological record generally,  support a third migration event out of Africa before the expansion of the Natufians into the Levant 10,000-20,000 ybp (35). This third out of Africa event took place between 40-35kya, when modern man crossed from Africa into Iberia carrying haplogroups N and L3,  and began to replace Neanderthal as the dominant population in western Eurasia.

 Reference:
1.   Quibtanana-Murci L, Semino O,Bandelt H J, Passaro G, McElreadey K, Santachiara-Benerecetti A S. Genetic Evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa, Nat. Genet (1999); 23:437-441.

1a. Domínguez E.F. Polimorfismos de DNA mitocondrial en poblaciones antiguas de la cuenca mediterránea.
Universitat de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal, 2005 (PhD thesis).
2.   Rootsi S, Zhehvotsky LA, Baldovi M, Kayer M, Kutnev IA, Khusainova R, Bermisheva MA, Gubina M. A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe. Eur J Hum Genet   (2007)15, 204-211.
3.   Gonder MK, Mortensen HM, Reed FA, de Sousa A, Tishkoff SA. (2006). Whole mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages. Mol Biol Evol. 2006 Dec 28.
3a. Winters,C. Origin and spread of the Haplogroup N. Bioresearch Bull (2010) 3:116-122.
4.    Karafet TM, Osipova LP, Gubina MA, Posukh OL, Zegura SL, Hammer MF: High levels of Y-chromosome differentiation among native Siberian populations and the genetic signature of a boreal hunter-gatherer way of life. Hum Biol 2002; 74: 761–789. | PubMed | ISI |
5.   Zerjal T, Dashnyam B, Pandya A et al: Genetic relationships of Asians and Northern Europeans, revealed by Y-chromosomal DNA analysis. Am J Hum Genet 1997; 60: 1174–1183. | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
6.    Tambets K, Rootsi S, Kivisild T et al: The western and eastern roots of the Saami – the story of genetic 'outliers' told by mtDNA and Y-chromosome. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 661:682. | Article |
7.   Palanichamy MG, Sun C, Agrawal B, Kong Q-P, Khan F, Wang C-Y, Palla V, Zhang Y-P. Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N Based on complete sequencing: Implications for South Asia , Am J Hum Genet 2004; 75(6), 966-978.
8. Rosa A, Ornelas C, Jobling MA, Brehm A, Villems R. Y-chromosome diversit6y in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective, BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007; 7, 124-.  

9. González, A. M.,  V. M. Cabrera, J. M. Larruga, A. Tounkara, G. Noumsi, B. N. Thomas  and J. M. Moulds. Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Mauritania  and  Mali and their Genetic Relationship to Other Western  Africa Populations. Annals of Human Genetics  2006;70,5. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00259.x?cookieSet=1&journalCode=ahg

10.             Su B, Jin L: Natives or immigrants: modern human origin in East Asia. Nat Rev 2000; 1: 126–133. | Article | ChemPort | 
11.             Wendorf, F. The History of Nubia, 1968. Dallas.
12.             Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H et al: Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes. J Hum Genet 2006; 51: 47–58. | Article | PubMed |
13.             Tajima A, Pan IH, Fucharoen G et al: Three major lineages of Asian Y chromosomes: implications for the peopling of east and southeast Asia. Hum Genet 2002; 110: 80–88. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
14.             Dupuy BM, Stenersen M, Egeland T, Olaisen B: Y-chromosomal microsatellite mutation rates: differences in mutation rate between and within loci. Hum Mutat 2004; 23: 117–124. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |
15.             Cinnioglu C, King R, Kivisild T et al: Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia. Hum Genet 2004; 114: 127–148. | Article | PubMed |
16.             Kayser M, Brauer S, Weiss G et al: Reduced Y-chromosome, but not mitochondrial DNA, diversity in human populations from West New Guinea. Am J Hum Genet 2003; 72: 281–302. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
17.             Su B, Xiao J, Underhill P et al: Y-Chromosome evidence for a northward migration of modern humans into Eastern Asia during the last ice age. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 65: 1718–1724. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
18.             Bergen AW, Wang CY, Tsai J et al: An Asian-Native American paternal lineage identified by RPS4Y resequencing and by microsatellite haplotyping. Ann Hum Genet 1999; 63: 63–80. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
19.             Karafet TM, Zegura SL, Posukh O et al: Ancestral Asian source(s) of new world Y-chromosome founder haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 64: 817–831. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
20.             Lell JT, Sukernik RI, Starikovskaya YB et al: The dual origin and Siberian affinities of Native American Y chromosomes. Am J Hum Genet 2002; 70: 192–206. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
21.             Seielstad M, Yuldasheva N, Singh N et al: A novel Y-chromosome variant puts an upper limit on the timing of first entry into the Americas. Am J Hum Genet 2003; 73: 700–705. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |
22.             Bortolini MC, Salzano FM, Thomas MG et al: Y-chromosome evidence for differing ancient demographic histories in the Americas. Am J Hum Genet 2003; 73: 524–539. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |
23.             Zegura SL, Karafet TM, Zhivotovsky LA, Hammer MF: High-resolution SNPs and microsatellite haplotypes point to a single, recent entry of Native American Y chromosomes into the Americas. Mol Biol Evol 2004; 21: 164–175. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |

24.             Darenko M, Malyarchuk B, Denisova G., Wozniak M, Grzybouski T, Dambueva I, Zakharov I. Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from South Siberia to Europe, J Hum Genet 2007, 52 (9), 763-770.

25.             Stevanovitch A, Gilles A, Bouzaid E, Kefi R, Paris,F. Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a Sedentary population from Egypt, Ann Hum Gent 2003; 68, 23-30.

26.             Caramelli,D.,Lalueza-Fox,C., Vernesi,C., Lari,M.,Casoli,A., Mallegni,B.C., Dupanloup, I., Bertranpetit,J., Barbujani,G., Bertorelle,G. Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000 year-old anatomically modern Europeans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003,;100 (11):6593-6597.

27.             Lindly LM,  G. A. Clark; O. Bar-Yosef; D. Lieberman; J. Shea; Harold L. Dibble;  Phillip G. Chase; Clive Gamble; Robert H. Gargett; Ken Jacobs; Paul Mellars; Anne Pike-Tay; Yuri Smirnov; Lawrence Guy Straus; C. B. Stringer; Erik Trinkaus; Randall White .(1990). Symbolism and Modern Human Origins [and Comments and Reply] Current Anthropology, 31( 3): 233-261.

28.             Winters C.(2008). Aurignacian Culture: Evidence of a Western Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans. South Asian Anthropologist , Forthcoming March.
29.             Diop, A.( 1991 ) . Civilization or Barbarism. Lawrence Hill Books.
30.             Diop,A.(1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Lawrence Hill Books .
31.             Boule, M., HV Vallois . (1957).  Fossil Man . Dryden Press New York Bordes, Francois.(1972 ). L’Origine de l’homme moderne.Paris, UNESCO. Bordes, Francois.(1972 ). L’Origine de l’homme moderne.Paris, UNESCO.
32.             Mellars, P.A. (1992).Archaeology and the Population-Dispersal Hypothesis of Modern Human Origins in Europe. The Origin of Modern Humans and the Impact of Chronometric Dating. .Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences,  337( 1280) : 225-234.
33.             Verneaux,R.(1926). Les Origines de l’humanite. Paris: F. Riedder & Cie.
34.             Holiday, T. (2000). Evolution at the Crossroads:Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia, American Anthropologist,102(1) .
35.             Haak W et al. 2005. Ancient DNA from the first European farmers 7500-year-old Neolithic sites. Science 310:1016-1018.

36.              Barral,L. & Charles,R.P. (1963) Nouvelles donnees anthropometriques et precision sue les affinities systematiques des negroides de Grimaldi, Bulletin du Musee  d’anthropologie prehistorique de Monaco, No.10:123-139.
37.             Brace, C.L. , Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B. Quintyn, Sherry C. Fox, A. Russell Nelson,|| Sotiris K. Manolis,** and Pan Qifeng. (2006). The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 January 3; 103(1): 242–247.
38.              Balter M. 2005. Ancient DNA yields clues to the puzzle of European origins. Science 310:964-965. Full text (subscription)
39.             Haak W et al. 2005. Ancient DNA from the first European farmers 7500-year-old Neolithic sites. Science 310:1016-1018.
40. Mellars,P.A. (2006).Going East:New Genetic and Archaeological Perspectives on the Modern Human Colonization of Eurasia. Science 333 (11 August):796-800.

41.  Brown, S.J. (2006). Neanderthals and modern humans in western Asia. Retrieved 2/7/2007 at: http://karmak.org/archive/2003/01/westasia.html

42. Steven,L.K. Stiner,M.C., Reese,D.S. & Gulec,E. (2001). Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic:New insights from the Levant. PNAS, 98(13):7641-7646.

43. Gilead,I.(2005). The Upper Paleolithic period in the Levant. Journal of World History, 5(2): 105-154.

44. Winters C.(2008). Aurignacian Culture: Evidence of Western Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans, South Asian Anthropologist, 81(1):79-81.





Tuesday, February 6, 2018

Old Sudanese Language and Meroitic

Anas Elbashir Ahmed Musa has used comparative linguistic methods to illustrate the genetic linguistic relationship between Old Sudanese Language (Colloquial Sudanese Arabic) and Meroitic. Brother Anas Elbashir has illustrated the continued use of classical Meroitic terms among contemporary Sudanese.



Meroitic Survivals The meaning*
Sudanese Arabic dialect
Meroitic word
Father
Ab
Ab, Ap    pa
long (time), olden times
Aro
Aro      URA
M: religious, SA: pray
As-l
As-l    LZA
give
Ada, Ade
d      D
M:transmission, deliver, SA: give me
d-ne
d-ne    :D
travel
mindli
dili      ILID
to teach; to direct
em
em      ME
Dignity, repute, esteem
hr
hr      RG
soul
ho
ho     UG
M: to desire, SA: want more
Kb
Kb     BK
M: lady, SA: expression said to the beautiful lady
Kdi
kdi    IDK
M: rain, SA: water, rain
Mi
Mi    IM
lord
Mk
Mk    KM
departure, emigration
nglni
ñl-ne   :LJ
M: bring good, SA: clear
ngy
ñy      YJ
admiration
ode
ode    UDE
M: guard, protection, SA: expression said in the terrifying situations
ps
ps      ZK
inclination
reto
reto      OER
to look, to search
rit
rit      TIR
to cover; to escort
rq
rq         QR
to spread, to extend
rs
rs         SR