Tuesday, July 19, 2016

Melanesians did not cross Beringia to introduce mtDNA D4a to Paleoamerican





In the latest article by  Pontus Skoglund, and  David Reich. (2016).A genomic view of the peopling of the Americas,  the authors  claim that the Solutrean hypothesis should be rejected because the Anzick child carried mtDNA D4, which is also carried by the Australo-Melanesians. This hypothesis is groundless because some of the  Australo-Melanesians, especially the Fijians,  claim they came from Tanzania, where , some people carry mtDNA M1, which  Gonder claims cluster with peoples from Oceania.

 Skoglund and Reich (2016), argue that the earliest Native Americans crossed the Beringa into North America, and that this Beringian population is related more to South American Indians, instead of North American Indians[i]. They argue that this population 12,600 years ago, as represented by the ‘Anzick  child of Montana was related to the  Mal’ta population. Anzick child carried  mtDNA D4h3a, and Y-chromosome Q-L54*(xM3) .

In the picture above we see in the middle a reconstruction of the first Europeans, as represented by Mal'ta man. On the left we see Naia of ancient Mexico and to the left of the first European we see Luzia, of Brazil. Luzia and Naia are aleoamericans. Anzick  child would have resembled these Blacks.

It is interesting that Anzick-1 was found in 1968. The Anzick-1 remains were returned to the Anzick family and analyzed by Sarah Anzick who discovered that the skeleton carried mtDNA D4h3a, which is also carried by Native Americans on the West Coast, of North America[ii]. Skoglund and Reich (2016) wrote:
“The most surprising finding was that the Anzick individual is from a population more closely related to Central- and South Americans than to some northern North Americans (including all speakers of Algonquian languages studied to date), despite the apparent common ancestral origin of Native Americans across the continents. This suggests that the present-day population structure of the main ancestry in Native Americans [23] dates back to more than 12,600 years ago [25], and that this diversification divided the ancestry of present-day Native Americans into two main streams, one of which includes the ancestors of present-day Northern Native Americans analyzed (‘NNA’: Cree, Ojibwa, and Algonquin), and the other of which includes the Anzick individual and present-day Central- and South American groups (‘SA’: e.g. Mixe, Quechua, and Yaghan).”

 It is surprising that given the fact that the Anzick skeleton was in the possession of Sarah Anzick who is a genomic research her that no one has questioned the results of Sarah Anzick. Since the Anzick skeleton’s DNA could have been contaminated while under the protection of the Anzick family, these results may not reflect the true ancestry of Anzick.

Skoglund and Reich (2016), argue that since the Andamanese and Australo-Melanesians carry D4h3a, this haplogroup had to have entered America via the Beringa around 12,000 BC. The presence of this haplogroup among the Australo-Melanesians is not supported by archaeological evidence.
The Fijians, for example claim they came from Tanzania. The archaeological evidence indicate that the Melanesians recently entered Melanesia from Africa. And that the Melanesian languages have an African substratum and the place-names are identical to West African placenames[iii].

The archaeological evidence indicate that the Melenesians only arrived in their present habitation areas during the Lapita cultural expansion 3-4kya. As a result, the Australo-Melanesians were not in Eurasia 12kya, as assumed by  Skoglund and Reich (2016).

Haplotypes with HVSI transitions defining 16129-16223-16249-16278-16311-16362; and 16129-16223- 16234-16249-16211-16362 have been found in Thailand and among the Han Chinese (Fucharon et al., 2001)[iv], these haplotypes were originally thought to be members of Haplogroup M1. However, on the basis of currently available FGS sequences, carriers of these markers have been found to be in the D4a branch of Haplogroup D, the most widespread branch of M1 in East Asia (Fucharon et al., 2001; Gondor et al., 2006; Yao et al., 2002)[v]. The transitions 16129, 16189, 16249 and 16311 are known to be recurrent in various branches of Haplogroup M, especially M1 and D4. Gonder et al., (2006) for example, noted that the mtDNAs of Tanzanians belonging to haplogroup M1 cluster with peoples from Oceania[vi].

Given the fact that the Melanesians recently entered the Pacific from Africa they can not be the source of the Paleoamerican population that carried mtDNA D4 to the  Anzick child. The fact that the Anzick child carrid DNA related to Mal’ta man, who lived in Europe, supports the Solutrean hypothesis for some of the Paleoamericans[vii]. Since the Solutrean culture originated in Africa and was later taken to Europe it would explain the affinity between mtDNA D4a and  the M1 carried by the Tanzanians who are the ancestors of the Fijians.

End Notes

[i]  Pontus Skoglund, David Reich. (2016).A genomic view of the peopling of the Americas, BioRxiv, retrieved July 20,2016 at: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/06/15/058966

[ii]  Rasmussen, Morten; et al. (February 13, 2014). "The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana".Nature 506: 225–229. doi:10.1038/nature13025PMID 24522598. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
[iii] ______________African and Dravidian Origins of the Melenesians, https://www.academia.edu/10306654/AFRICAN_AND_DRAVIDIAN_ORIGINS_OF_THE_MELANESIANS

[iv] Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Horai S (2001). Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Thailand. Journal of Human Genetics 46 115-125
[v] Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Horai S (2001). Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Thailand. Journal of Human Genetics 46 115-125; Gonder MK, Mortensen HM, Reed FA, de Sousa A, Tishkoff SA (2006). Whole mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(3) 757-768; and Yao YG, Kong QP, Bandelt HJ, Kivisild T, Zhang YP (2002). Phylogeographic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Han chinese. The American Journal of Human Genetics 70 635-651.
[vi] Gonder MK, Mortensen HM, Reed FA, de Sousa A, Tishkoff SA (2006). Whole mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(3) 757-768.
[vii] Winters,C. (2015). THE PALEOAMERICANS CAME FROM AFRICA,jirr.htm2015 Vol. 3 (3) July-September, pp.71-83/Winter. https://www.academia.edu/17137182/THE_PALEOAMERICANS_CAME_FROM_AFRICA

Saturday, July 9, 2016

Shriner D and Keita SOY (2016) Migration Route Out of Africa Unresolved by 225 Egyptian and Ethiopian Whole Genome Sequences

Shriner D and Keita SOY (2016) Migration Route Out of Africa Unresolved by 225 Egyptian and Ethiopian Whole Genome Sequences.Front. Genet. 7:98. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2016.00098
This paper attempts to address the issue of the OoA event using contemporary Egyptian DNA. The
 results are useless. The fact that contemporary Egyptians are of predominant Arabian and 
Caucasian origin reflects the replacement of the ancient Egyptians over the past 1500 years.

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There are many ancient mummies. if the authors would have attempted to recover ancient DNA we 

might have gained insight into the OoA event, but since the ancient Egyptians have been replaced , 

contemporary Egyptian population can not tell us anything about ancient Egyptians DNA and the 

role ancient Egyptians played in the OoA event..

Sunday, June 26, 2016

Admixture into and within sub-Saharan Africa

https://elifesciences.org/content/5/e15266

Admixture into and within sub-Saharan Africa
2016

George BJ Busby et al,

Abstract
Similarity between two individuals in the combination of genetic markers along their chromosomes indicates shared ancestry and can be used to identify historical connections between different population groups due to admixture. We use a genome-wide, haplotype-based, analysis to characterise the structure of genetic diversity and gene-flow in a collection of 48 sub-Saharan African groups. We show that coastal populations experienced an influx of Eurasian haplotypes over the last 7000 years, and that Eastern and Southern Niger-Congo speaking groups share ancestry with Central West Africans as a result of recent population expansions. In fact, most sub-Saharan populations share ancestry with groups from outside of their current geographic region as a result of gene-flow within the last 4000 years. Our in-depth analysis provides insight into haplotype sharing across different ethno-linguistic groups and the recent movement of alleles into new environments, both of which are relevant to studies of genetic epidemiology.

Our genomes contain a record of historical events. This is because when groups of people are separated for generations, the DNA sequence in the two groups’ genomes will change in different ways. Looking at the differences in the genomes of people from the same population can help researchers to understand and reconstruct the historical interactions that brought their ancestors together. The mixing of two populations that were previously separate is known as admixture.

Africa as a continent has few written records of its history. This means that it is somewhat unknown which important movements of people in the past generated the populations found in modern-day Africa. Busby et al. have now attempted to use DNA to look into this and reconstruct the last 4000 years of genetic history in African populations.

As has been shown in other regions of the world, the new analysis showed that all African populations are the result of historical admixture events. However, Busby et al. could characterize these events to unprecedented level of detail. For example, multiple ethnic groups from The Gambia and Mali all show signs of sharing the same set of ancestors from West Africa, Europe and Asia who mixed around 2000 years ago. Evidence of a migration of people from Central West Africa, known as the Bantu expansion, could also be detected, and was shown to carry genes to the south and east. An important next step will be to now look at the consequences of the observed gene-flow, and ask if it has contributed to spreading beneficial, or detrimental, mutations around Africa.




This paper is nonsense. It is found on hypotheses which do not reflect the African reality. Firstly,there is no Afro-Asiatic language family and the Bantu speakers did not originate in West-Central Africa. In addition, there is no discussion of archaeological evidence in support of any of the authors propositions, and as I pointed out in my article A PROTOCOL TO EVALUATE POPULATION GENETICS PAPERS the absence of archaeological data is the major indication that the paper lacks credibility.

Reading this paper is like reading any other racist Eurocentric article written at the turn of the 20th Century perpetuating the Hamitic myth.THE Hamitic myth states that everything of value ever found in Africa was brought there by the Hamites, allegedly a branch of the Caucasian race. Seligman formulated this hypothesis which led researchers to declare that the Fulani and Afro-Asiatic speakers were Hamites. As a result, when this study declares that the Fulani, who are not of Eurasian origin, and the Afro-Asiatic speakers have a high frequency of Eurasian (white) admixture, this paper is just reinforcing a hypothesis that lacks credibility. The results of this paper only perpetuates the Hamitic myth, many researchers had thought was abandoned--but has remained constant by geneticist who dress the hypothesis up in new clothes based on statistics, instead of actual archeaogenetics evidence.

The authors assume that the Bantu migrated out of Cameroon 2,5kya. This is ludicrous because the Bantu had been living in the Nile Valley long before 500BC.


In summary this paper is maintaining the status quo dogma that the Bantu and the rest of the Niger-Congo speakers are true Negroes, and the Afro-Asiatic speakers and Fulani are Hamites, i.e., dark skinned Caucasians. This paper offers nothing new in relation to African genetics, it is a throwback back to the 1930's racist anthropological studies.

Friday, June 24, 2016

West African Writing Systems


In this video we discuss the ancient writing system of West Africa. The video makes it clear that West African writing systems are not recent inventions, and the people who use these scripts have been literate for thousands of years. It explains that West African writing systems are maintained in West African Secret Societies, like the Poro Society. You can find out more about these writing systems in the articles below:

T.E. Beslow, From Darkness of Africa to the light of America).Gail Stewart,Notes on the present-day usage of the Vai script in Liberia (African Language Review 6,(1967)p.71)
 D. Dalby, Further indigenous scripts in West Africa and etc.,ALS,10,pp.180-181.
 David Diringer,The Alphabet (London,1968, pp.130-133)
K.Hau, Pre-Islamic writing in West Africa, Bulletin de l'IFAN, t35, ser.B,No.1 (1973)pp.1-45).
S.W. Koelle in Narrative of an expedition into Vy country West Africa and the Discovery of a system of writing,etc.(London,1849)
 S.W. Koelle, Outline grammar of the Vai language--and an account of the discovery and nature of the Vai mode of syllabic writing, London,1854).
Winters,C.A.(1983a)."The Ancient Manding Script",In Blacks in Science:Ancient and Modern, (ed) by Ivan van Sertima, (New Brunswick:Transaction Books ) pages 208-214.
Winters, Clyde. (2011.) Olmec (Mande) Loan Words in the Mayan, Mixe-Zoque and Taino Languages . Current Research Journal of Social Science Year, Vol: 3 Issue: 3 Pages/record No.: 152-179. http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjss/v3-152-179.pdf
Winters, Clyde. (2013). African Empires in Ancient America. Createspace, Amazon.
Winters, Clyde. (2013a). Atlantis In Mexico: The Mande Discovery of America. Createspace, Amazon.
Winters, Clyde. .(2015). Olmec Language and Literature. Createspace,Amazon.   


Thursday, April 28, 2016

Two New books on African and Dravidian Languages

I have just published two new books you may find interesting.

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The Dravidian Connections: The Extra Indian Linguistic Connections of the Dravidian Languages, is the first book to explore the linguistic relation of the Tamil and people in Africa and Eurasia. The Tamil speakers originated in Africa. Today there are still Tamil speakers' in Cameroon, a country in Central Africa. In The Dravidian Connection: The Extra Indian Linguistic Connections of the Dravidian Languages we tell the story of the Tamil speakers migration out of Africa into Eurasia. It explains why many Europeans carry the R haplogroup and the Tamil substratum in many Eurasian languages.




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In Archaeological Decipherment of Ancient Writing Systems I explain how archaeological evidence indicates that African literacy began in the Sahara over 5000 years ago . This earliest form of writing was a syllabic system , we call Thinite, that included hundreds of phonetic signs, which over time was shorten to between 22 and 30 key signs, and used as an alphabet by the Mande people of the Fezzan and Niger Valley, Dravidian speaking people in India, the Sumerians , Elamites, the Xi (Olmecs), Egyptians, Meroites, Phonesians and Ethiopians.