Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Haplogroup M May Have Spread Across Africa before 60kya OoA Event


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Sebastian Lippold1, Hongyang Xu12, Albert Ko1, Mingkun Li13, Gabriel Renaud1, Anne Butthof14, Roland Schröder1 and Mark Stoneking1 .(2014) Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences. Investigative Genetics 2014, 5:13 doi:10.1186/2041-2223-5-13. http://www.investigativegenetics.com/content/5/1/13
There is a new article out on the histories of the human mtDNA and y-chromosome. The striking finding of the study of Lippold et all (2014) is that haplogroup M, is dated to 65-70kya. They wrote:

quote:

The age of the mtDNA ancestor is estimated to be about 160 thousand years ago (kya), and the ages of the non-African mtDNA lineages M and N are about 65 to 70 kya, in good agreement with previous estimates [54]. Our estimate for the age of the NRY ancestor is 103 kya based on the fast rate, and 165 kya based on the slow rate; however these estimates do not include the recently-discovered ‘A00’ lineage [41], which would result in much older ages for the NRY ancestor. The close agreement between the slow NRY ancestor age (165 kya) and the mtDNA ancestor age (160 kya) might be taken as evidence in favor of the slow NRY mutation rate. However, the slow NRY mutation rate gives an estimated age for the initial out-of-Africa divergence of about 100 kya, and an age for the divergence of Amerindian-specific haplogroup Q lineages of about 20 kya, while the fast rate gives corresponding estimates of about 60 kya for out-of-Africa and about 12.5 kya for Amerindian haplogroup Q lineages, in better agreement with the mtDNA and other evidence for these events [54-57].

This finding is interesting because the authors date the out of Africa (OoA) event to 60kya. It is interesting because it indicates that haplogroup M may have already spread across Africa before the OoA exit. This finding supports may previous work illustrating that hg M, probably expanded across Africa before the OoA event.

Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Africans Discover Brazil 100,000 Years Ago

Fire unless the result of lightening is produced by man. The evidence that fire existed in Brazil 65kya is an indication that man was at the site 65,000 years ago, since researchers found charcoal, which is the result of fire making.
The New York Times, reported that humans were Brazil 100,000 years ago .

If you would see the New York Times video you would noted that Dr.Nieda Guidon supports her dating of human population in Brazil 100,000 years ago to ancient fire and tool making.
Look at the New York Times video: Human’s First Appearance in the Americas @:

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/28/world/americas/discoveries-challenge-beliefs-on-humans-arrival-in-the-americas.html?hp&_r=4


If you view the video you will see that human occupation of Brazil 100,000 years ago is supported by man made fire, e.g., the charcoal, and tools.

Dr. Guidon who conducted excavation at the site notes at 2:09 the site is 100,000 years old. At 3:17 in the video scientists proved that the tools are the result of human craftsmanship . So researchers reject this evidence because it proves that Blacks were here before the mongoloids.

It is interesting that it is becoming clear that people may have left Africa 100kya, instead of 60kya to settle the world. This may indicate that Australians made their way to America before the Khoisan.


Dr.Nieda Guidon hypothesized that man appeared in Brazil 100,000 years ago from Africa. She illustrated that her hypothesis was confirmed by 1) structures to make fire, i.e. hearths,2) stone tools and charcoal was found in the hearths that date back 100kya,3) the Ice Age prevented people from reaching Brazil from Asia, while the winds and currents would have carried people directly from Africa to Brazil.

Since the hypothesis was confirmed by scientific evidence, we can accept her hypothesis as valid and reliable.

The charcoal and tools were found in hearths, not generally on the site of proposed human habitation. If the charcoal and tools were made naturally the entire site would have been burned, instead of just artifacts found in the hearths.We can accept Dr.Nieda Guidon hypothesis because it is normal science to use charcoal recovered from hearths to date a human habitation site.

The question remains why did Africans 100kya discover South America. The best answer is the spirit of adventure and discovery.
At this time Africa was more wetter and the frequentcy of boat engravings in the Sahara indicate Africans had a high boat technology and navigation ability..

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100kya there were numerous lakes, rivers and streams in Africa that exited in the Atlantic Ocean. The distance from Lake Chad to Lake Congo was greater than the distance from Africa to Brazil. Any captains and sailors who had traded with cities and towns situated on these Lakes would have been familiar with storing enough foods to last the voyages.[b]

These ancient navigators were probably like Columbus. They may have not known about South America, but they were willing to take a chance to see what lands lay at the edge of the Sea.
We forget that the evidence of boats depicted throughout ancient Africa make it clear people were not afraid of traveling by sea.

Friday, November 7, 2014

New Book :Dravidian (Tamil) is the language of the Indus Valley Writing: A study of the most ancient Tamil Language





List Price: $18.99
8.5" x 11" (21.59 x 27.94 cm)
Black & White on White paper
194 pages
ISBN-13: 978-1503117204 (CreateSpace-Assigned)
ISBN-10: 1503117200
BISAC: History / Asia / India & South Asia

This book provides a detailed decipherment of the Indus Valley writing. It gives the reader an explanation of how Dr. Winters deciphered the Indus Valley writing and how the language of the Indus Valley seals is an ancient aspect of Tamil.
The book is divided into two parts one is an overview of the Indus Valley writing while part two provides a detailed account of how to read the seals and the grammar of the Indus Valley language. The book also provides a dictionary of over 200 signs that have been deciphered by Dr. Winters.


 





Monday, October 20, 2014

New video: The Ancient Tamilar Religion: the Inspiration for the Indus Valley








Who were the people that belonged to the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)? What did they want us to know about themselves through the over 4000 seals found in every city that made up the IVC? What do the seals and copper plates tell us about the religious traditions of the mysterious people who belonged to the IVC?

In my new video I answer these questions and more. Here I translate the Indus Valley seals (IVS), and reveal that they record the ancient Agamic traditions of the Tamil speaking Dravidians of the IVC. This video is important and should be seen by everyone because for the first time in history the Tamil of the IVS speak to us in their own words, and tell us their devotion to their totemic Gods, and the Tamilar cultural values that guided their interactions, between, and among each other.

Through the ancient voices recorded in the IVS we discover the Tamilar cultural values that inspired the production and wearing of IVS over 3000 years ago. After viewing this video you will understand why the Tamil of the IVC began to make the Talismanic IVS to express their desire to adhere to Goodness, and request from their individual God a balanced Karma and a righteous and glorious Fate.

Read more: http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/1786/new-video-ancient-tamilar-religion#ixzz3GgNxKfgp

Friday, October 10, 2014

Roots of West African Muslim Militants


What Muslim Africa is experiencing today I predicted back in the 1980’s.

Many people assume that since Africans became Muslims, they naturally adopted Arab ways. This is far from true.

To be a Muslim is to only declare there is one god and pray five times a day. To legislate within the Muslim lands you followed a particular fiqh. In the case of most of Black Africa it was Maliki.

Even up to the jihad of Uthman dan Fodio, African Islam had nothing to do with the Arab way of life. Uthman dan Fodio, after he returned from Mecca, preached against Wahhabism and he supported Freedom for women. This changed only in the 1980’s when Saudi Arabia was able to use oil money to spread the Wahhabi fiqh.

The Dark Age of Africa, then, only came after the 1890’s when European powers conquered African nations, and again in the 1990”s as greedy African Muslims sold their souls to the Saudis for a few silver pieces. The shame of Africa, is that although Europeans ruled African nations directly for less than 75 years, they continue to dominate the minds of African rulers and the African Muslim middle class who maintain a dark age in Africa up to today.

The Muslim elites in Africa abandoned their heritage to suck up to Europeans. This left African traditional Muslims leaderless. In the 1980’s the Wahhabis began to spend millions of dollars to spread their brand of Islam around the world. The failure to integrate common Muslims in the development of Nigeria led to the problems we are having in West Africa today.

The radical jihadism common to Africa will decline after the fall of Arabia as an economic power. After this traditional African Muslim tolerance will overcome Turkish/Indo-Aryan social customs which dominate the “Islamism” of African youth. This will hasten as more and more West African Mulims make the hajj and experience the deep racism Africam Muslims experience in Arabia and Egypt.

Below are some research papers I wrote on this theme back in the day.


https://www.academia.edu/8492644/The_West_African_Ulama_and_Islamic_Movements


https://www.academia.edu/8492480/Maitatsinism_in_Norther_Nigeria_we_need_to_know_more


https://www.academia.edu/8492457/Koranic_Education_and_Militant_Islam_in_Nigeria

Sunday, September 28, 2014

The ancestors of the Dravidians spoke a Niger-Congo language.





B.B. Lal ("The Only Asian expedition in threatened Nubia:Work by an Indian Mission at Afyeh and Tumas", The Illustrated London Times , 20 April 1963) and Indian Egyptologist has shown conclusively that the Dravidians originated in the Saharan area 5000 years ago. He claims they came from Kush, in the Fertile African Crescent and were related to the C-Group people who founded the Kerma dynasty in the 3rd millennium B.C. (Lal 1963) The Dravidians used a common black-and-red pottery, which spread from Nubia, through modern Ethiopia, Arabia, Iran into India as a result of the Proto-Saharan dispersal.


B.B. Lal (1963) a leading Indian archaeologist in India has observed that the black and red ware (BRW) dating to the Kerma dynasty of Nubia, is related to the Dravidian megalithic pottery. Singh (1982) believes that this pottery radiated from Nubia to India. This pottery along with wavy-line pottery is associated with the Saharo-Sudanese pottery tradition of ancient Africa .


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Aravaanan (1980) has written extensively on the African and Dravidian relations. He has illustrated that the Africans and Dravidian share many physical similarities including the dolichocephalic indexes (Aravaanan 1980,pp.62-263; Raceand History.com,2006), platyrrhine nasal index (Aravaanan 1980,pp.25-27), stature (31-32) and blood type (Aravaanan 1980,34-35; RaceandHistory.com,2006). Aravaanan (1980,p.40) also presented much evidence for analogous African and Dravidian cultural features including the chipping of incisor teeth and the use of the lost wax process to make bronze works of arts (Aravaanan 1980,p.41).

There are also similarities between the Dravidian and African religions. For example, both groups held a common interest in the cult of the Serpent and believed in a Supreme God, who lived in a place of peace and tranquility ( Thundy, p.87; J.T. Cornelius,"Are Dravidians Dynastic Egyptians", Trans. of the Archaeological Society of South India 1951-1957, pp.90-117; and U.P. Upadhyaya, "Dravidian and Negro-African", International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics 5, no.1
) .


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There are also affinities between the names of many gods including Amun/Amma and Murugan . Murugan the Dravidian god of the mountains parallels a common god in East Africa worshipped by 25 ethnic groups called Murungu, the god who resides in the mountains .


There is physical evidence which suggest an African origin for the Dravidians. The Dravidians live in South India. The Dravidian ethnic group includes the Tamil, Kurukh,Malayalam, Kananda (Kanarese), Tulu, Telugu and etc. Some researchers due to the genetic relationship between the Dravidians and Niger-Congo speaking groups they call the Indians the Sudroid (Indo-African) Race (RaceandHistory,2006).

Dravidian languages are predominately spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka. There are around 125 million Dravidian speakers. These languages are genetically related to African languages. The Dravidians are remnants of the ancient Black population who occupied most of ancient Asia and Europe.

The major grain exploited by Saharan populations was rice ,the yam and pennisetum. McIntosh and McIntosh (1988) has shown that the principal domesticate in the southern Sahara was bulrush millet. There has been considerable debate concerning the transport of African millets to India. Weber (1998) believes that African millets may have come to India by way of Arabia. Wigboldus (1996) on the other hand argues that African millets may have arrived from Africa via the Indian Ocean in Harappan times.

Both of these theories involve the transport of African millets from a country bordering on the Indian Ocean. Yet, Weber (1998) and Wigboldus (1996) were surprised to discover that African millets and bicolor sorghum , did not reach many East African countries until millennia after they had been exploited as a major subsistence crop at Harappan and Gujarat sites.

This failure to correlate the archaeological evidence of African millets in countries bordering on the Indian Ocean, and the antiquity of African millets in India suggest that African millets such as Pennisetum and Sorghum must have come to India from another part of Africa. To test this hypothesis we will compare Dravidian and African terms for millet.

Winters (1985) has suggested that the Proto-Dravidians formerly lived in the Sahara. This is an interesting theory, because it is in the Sahara that the earliest archaeological pennisetum has been found.

Millet impressions have been found on Mande ceramics from both Karkarchinkat in the Tilemsi Valley of Mali, and Dar Tichitt in Mauritania between 4000 and 3000 BP. (McIntosh & McIntosh 1983a,1988; Winters 1986b; Andah 1981)

Given the archaeological evidence for millets in the Sahara, leads to the corollary theory that if the Dravidians originated in Africa, they would share analogous terms for millet with African groups that formerly lived in the Sahara.
The linguistic and anthropological data make it clear that the Dravidian speaking people were part of the C-Group people who formed the backbone of the Niger-Congo speakers. It indicates that the Dravidians took there red-and-black pottery with them from Africa to India, and the cultivation of millet. The evidence makes it clear that the genetic evidence indicating a Holocene migration to India for the Dravidian speaking people is wrong. The Dravidian people given the evidence for the first cultivation of millet and red-and-black pottery is firmly dated and put these cultural elements in the Neolithic. The evidence makes it clear that genetic evidence can not be used to effectively document historic population movements.


There is mtDNA data uniting Africans and Dravidians.


Can Parallel Mutation and neutral genome selection explain Eastern African M1 consensus HVS-1 motifs in Indian M haplogroup
http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?hg07022


Did the Dravidian Speakers Originate in Africa
http://academia.edu.documents.s3.amazonaws.com/1773184/PossibleDraOrigin.pdf


Origin and Spread of Dravidian Speakers

http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/IJHG/IJHG-08-0-000-000-2008-Web/IJHG-08-4-317-368-2008-Abst-PDF/IJHG-08-4-325-08-362-Winder-C/IJHG-08-4-325-08-362-Winder-C-Tt.pdf

Sickle Cell Anemia in Africa and India

http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_hematology/volume_7_number_1_40/article/sickle-cell-anemia-in-india-and-africa.html


Advantageous Alleles, Parallel Adaptation, Geographic Location and Sickle Cell Anemia among Africans and Dravidians


http://www.soeagra.com/abr/vol2/12.pdf

Y-Chromosome evidence of African Origin of Dravidian Agriculture

http://www.academicjournals.org/ijgmb/PDF/pdf2010/Mar/Winters.pdf


The most interesting fact about this evidence is that the Dravidian language is closely related to the Niger-Congo group. There are other linguistic groups that separate the Niger-Congo speakers from the Dravidians. The fact that they are genetically related indicates that the Dravidians recently came to India.

http://arutkural.tripod.com/tolcampus/drav-african.htm


Linguistic Evidence

1.1 Many scholars have recognized the linguistic unity of Black African (BA) and Dravidian (Dr.) languages. These affinities are found not only in the modern African languages but also that of ancient Egypt. These scholars have made it clear that lexical, morphological and phonetic unity exist between African languages in West and North Africa as well as the Bantu group.

1.2 K.P. Arvaanan (1976) has noted that there are ten common elements shared by BA languages and the Dr. group. They are (1) simple set of five basic vowels with short-long consonants;(2) vowel harmony; (3) absence of initial clusters of consonants; (4) abundance of geminated consonants; (5) distinction of inclusive and exclusive pronouns in first person plural; (6) absence of degrees of comparison for adjectives and adverbs as distinct morphological categories; (7) consonant alternation on nominal increments noticed by different classes; (8)distinction of completed action among verbal paradigms as against specific tense distinction;(9) two separate sets of paradigms for declarative and negative forms of verbs; and (l0) use of reduplication for emphasis.


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1.3 There has been a long development in the recognition of the linguistic unity of African and Dravidian languages. The first scholar to document this fact was the French linguist L. Homburger (1950,1951,1957,1964). Prof. Homburger who is best known for her research into African languages was convinced that the Dravidian languages explained the morphology of the Senegalese group particularly the Serere, Fulani group. She was also convinced that the kinship existed between Kannanda and the Bantu languages, and Telugu and the Mande group. Dr. L. Homburger is credited with the discovery for the first time of phonetic, morphological and lexical parallels between Bantu and Dravidians

1.6 By the 1970's numerous scholars had moved their investigation into links between Dr. and BA languages on into the Senegambia region. Such scholars as Cheikh T. N'Diaye (1972) a Senegalese linguist, and U.P. Upadhyaya (1973) of India , have proved conclusively Dr. Homburger's theory of unity between the Dravidian and the Senegalese languages.

1.7 C.T. N'Diaye, who studied Tamil in India, has identified nearly 500 cognates of Dravidian and the Senegalese languages. Upadhyaya (1973) after field work in Senegal discovered around 509 Dravidian and Senegambian words that show full or slight correspondence.

1.8 As a result of the linguistic evidence the Congolese linguist Th. Obenga suggested that there was an Indo-African group of related languages. To prove this point we will discuss the numerous examples of phonetic, morphological and lexical parallels between the Dravidian group: Tamil (Ta.), Malayalam (Mal.), Kannanda/Kanarese (Ka.), Tulu (Tu.), Kui-Gondi, Telugu (Tel.) and Brahui; and Black African languages: Manding (Man.),Egyptian (E.), and Senegalese (Sn.)
_________________________________________________________________
code:
COMMON INDO-AFRICAN TERMS

ENGLISH    DRAVIDIAN      SENEGALESE        MANDING
MOTHER        AMMA          AMA,MEEN          MA
FATHER    APPAN,ABBA       AMPA,BAABA         BA
PREGNANCY   BASARU          BIIR              BARA
SKIN          URI          NGURU,GURI         GURU
BLOOD       NETTARU         DERET             DYERI
KING       MANNAN          MAANSA,OMAAD        MANSA
GRAND      BIIRA           BUUR                BA
SALIVA     TUPPAL          TUUDDE              TU
CULTIVATE  BEY            ,MBEY            BE
BOAT       KULAM           GAAL                KULU
FEATHER    SOOGE           SIIGE               SI, SIGI
MOUNTAIN    KUNRU          TUUD                KURU
ROCK       KALLU           XEER                KULU
STREAM     KOLLI           KAL                 KOLI

6.1 Dravidian and Senegalese. Cheikh T. N'Diaye (1972) and U.P. Upadhyaya (1976) have firmly established the linguistic unity of the Dravidian and Senegalese languages. They present grammatical, morphological, phonetic and lexical parallels to prove their point.

6.2 In the Dravidian and Senegalese languages there is a tendency for the appearance of open syllables and the avoidance of non-identical consonant clusters. Accent is usually found on the initial syllable of a word in both these groups. Upadhyaya (1976) has recognized that there are many medial geminated consonants in Dravidian and Senegalese. Due to their preference for open syllables final consonants are rare in these languages.

6.3 There are numerous parallel participle and abstract noun suffixes in Dravidian and Senegalese. For example, the past participle in Fulani (F) -o, and oowo the agent formative, corresponds to Dravidian -a, -aya, e.g., F. windudo 'written', windoowo 'writer'.

6.4 The Wolof (W) -aay and Dyolo ay , abstract noun formative corresponds to Dravidian ay, W. baax 'good', baaxaay
'goodness'; Dr. apala 'friend', bapalay 'friendship'; Dr. hiri
'big', hirime 'greatness', and nal 'good', nanmay 'goodness'.

6.5 There is also analogy in the Wolof abstract noun formative suffix -it, -itt, and Dravidian ita, ta, e.g., W. dog 'to cut', dogit 'sharpness'; Dr. hari 'to cut', hanita 'sharp-ness'.

6.6 The Dravidian and Senegalese languages use reduplication of the bases to emphasize or modify the sense of the word, e.g., D. fan 'more', fanfan 'very much'; Dr. beega 'quick', beega 'very quick'.


6.7 Dravidian and Senegalese cognates.

code:
English                Senegalese            Dravidian
body                   W. yaram                 uru
head                   D. fuko,xoox              kukk
hair                   W. kawar                 kavaram 'shoot'
eye                    D. kil                   kan, khan
mouth                  D. butum                 baayi, vaay
lip                    W. tun,F. tondu          tuti
heart                  W. xol,S. xoor           karalu
pup                    W. kuti                  kutti
sheep                  W. xar                   'ram'
cow                    W. nag                   naku
hoe                    W. konki                
bronze                 W. xanjar                xancara
blacksmith             W. kamara               
skin                      dol                   tool
mother                 W. yaay                   aayi
child                  D. kunil                  kunnu, kuuci
ghee                     o-new                   ney

Above we provided linguistic examples from many different African Supersets (Families) including the Mande and Niger-Congo groups to prove the analogy between Dravidian and Black African languages. The evidence is clear that the Dravidian and Black African languages should be classed in a family called Indo-African as suggested by Th. Obenga. This data further supports the archaeological evidence accumulated by Dr. B.B Lal (1963) which proved that the Dravidians originated in the Fertile African Crescent.

Agricultural Evidence

One of the principal groups to use millet in Africa are the Northern Mande speaking people (Winters, 1986). The Norther Mande speakers are divided into the Soninke and Malinke-Bambara groups. Holl (1985,1989) believes that the founders of the Dhar Tichitt site where millet was cultivated in the 2nd millenium B.C., were northern Mande speakers.

To test this theory we will compare Dravidian and Black African agricultural terms, especially Northern Mande. The linguistic evidence suggest that the Proto-Dravidians belonged to an ancient sedentary culture which exitsed in Saharan Africa. We will call the ancestor of this group Paleo-Dravido-Africans.


The Dravidian terms for millet are listed in the Dravidian Etymological Dictionary at 2359, 4300 and 2671. A cursory review of the linguistic examples provided below from the Dravidian, Mande and Wolof languages show a close relationship between these language. These terms are outlined below:

code:
Kol                sonna       ---             ---       ----

Wolof (AF.)        suna        ---            ----       ---

Malinke (AF)       suna      bara, baga     de-n, doro   koro

Tamil            connal     varaga           tinai      kural

Malayalam        colam      varaku           tina        ---

Kannanda          ---   baraga, baragu     tene    korale,korle

                 *sona      *baraga          *tenä     *kora 

It is clear that the Dravidian and African terms for millet are very similar. The Proto-Dravidian terms *baraga and *tena have little if any affinity to the African terms for millet.

The Kol term for millet `sonna', is very similar to the terms for millet used by the Wolof `suna' ( a West Atlantic Language), and Mande `suna' (a Mande language). The agreement of these terms in sound structure suggest that these terms may be related.

The sound change of the initial /s/ in the African languages , to the /c/ in Tamil and Malayalam is consistent with the cognate Tamil and Malayalam terms compared by Aranavan(1979 ,1980;) and Winters ( 1981, 1994). Moreover, the difference in the Kol term ` soona',which does retain the complete African form indicates that the development in Tamil and Malayalam of c < s, was a natural evolutionary development in some South Dravidian languages. Moreover, you will also find a similar pattern for other Malinke and Dravidian cognates, e.g., buy: Malinke `sa, Tamil cel; and road: Malinke `sila', Tamil `caalai'.


African Millets Carried to India by Dravidian Speakers

http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/letters/



Dravidians in Sri Lanka

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Videos on the African origin of Dravidian speakers:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IcC6WoUgHdU


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xeKj-toC3Uc


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5jta98KRKY

Lake MegaChad and the Rise of Egypt and the Maa Civilization

You can not support a Northeast African origin for contemporary Negro-Egyptian speakers. A complete literature review of the history of the climatic conditions in the Sahara and Northeast Africa over the past 20ky indicates that the Negro-Egyptian speakers originated in the Sahara.. You have not fully understood N. Drake’s work on the geography of Africa. As a result, you have failed to recognize that there were varying periods of “arid Sahara” and “Green Sahara”.

As I have outlined elsewhere there were two different African populations before the origination of Negro-Egyptian speakers: the Khoisan and the Pgymies. The Khoisan expanded out of Africa 40+kya, while the Pgymies probably began to exit Africa 22kya.


The Negro-Egyptian speakers probably originated in the Chad Basin near the MegaChad Lake. During the Holocene a giant lake, known as Lake Mega-Chad (LMC), extended over more than 350,000 km2 in southern Sahara.


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Lake Chad is the remnant of a former inland sea, palaeolake Mega-Chad. At its largest, sometime before 5,000 BC, Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan palaeolakes and is estimated to have covered an area of 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi), larger than the Caspian Sea is today. It was near these sites that the Aqualithic and Ounanian cultures existed.

The Chad Basin covers an area of approximately 2,434,000 square kilometers, equivalent to 8% of the total area of the African continent. The Chad Basin is surrounded by high mountain ranges which rise up to the highland of the North Equatorial Plateau. The Negro-Egyptian speakers lived in the plains and mountains around the Lake.
During the LGM there were many settlements in the Chad Basin and Highland regions of the Sahara.

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On the plains they founded the Maa civilization. The Maa civilization may have originated in the the Bodélé Depression. The Bodélé is the deepest part of the basin. It was around 155 meters above sea level.


Between 4,410 and 5,280 BP, the lake MegaChad started to contract The oldest archaeological sites found after the desiccation of Lake Megachad date to about 4,000 BP. This corresponds to the migration of Maa people into Upper Egypt, as illustrated by the rise of Amma/Ammon worshipers in Egypt. It was the refugees from Maa who founded the Egyptian 18 Dynasty.


While Saharan Africa was well watered during the rise of the Aqualithic and Ounanian cultures was well watered Northeast Africa was not.


Ethiopean Plateau was arid between 17,000-10,000 years ago. This is why we see the rise of the Aqualithic and Ounanian cultures---the homelands of the Negro-Egyptian speakers in the Sahara--- not Northeast Africa.


A good site discussing the climate and geography during the LGM in Africa is located at: http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/new_africa.html

.