Sunday, June 18, 2017

DID AFRICAN SLAVES BRING THE Y-CHROMOSOMES R1 CLADES TO THE AMERICAS?


ABSTRACT
Previous studies of the genetic structure of Afro-Americans have observed a considerable presence of European haplotype R1, among Afro-Americans in North America and the Caribbean. Researchers have assumed that these European genetic signals were probably the result of European males mating with Sub-Saharan African (SSA) females during the Atlantic Slave Trade. Even though this is the usual explanation for the presence of European clades carried by Afro-Americans (AA), recent studies show a high frequency of R haplogroup ancestry among SSAs in West Africa. This study illustrates that the existence of Y-chromosome R1a, and R1b (M-269 and V88) among Afro-Americans may be derived from SSAs instead of Europeans.



Clyde Winters. (2017). DID AFRICAN SLAVES BRING THE Y-CHROMOSOMES R1 CLADES TO THE AMERICAS?; International Journal of Innovative Research and Review , Vol. 5 (2) April-June, pp.1-10/Winters . http://www.cibtech.org/J-Innovative-Research-Review/Publications/2017/VOL-5-NO-2/01-JIRR-001-JUNE-WINTERS-DID-CHROMOSOME.pdf

Wednesday, June 7, 2017

300,000 Year Old human found in Morocco

 Recent research in Morocco is changing our view on where the first anatomically modern human AMH) originated.   We do not know when man first appeared on earth. But most scholars  agree that by 100,000 BC the first man was living in East and Southern  Africa, which was considered the  original homeland of mankind.  Modern man as we know him is suppose to have come from two earlier pre-man types called Homo habilis, who lived two million years ago, and Homo erectus, who lived 1.6 million years ago.

Now due to research  by Jean-Jacques Hublin of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig, Germany) and Abdelouahed Ben-Ncer of the National Institute for Archaeology and Heritage (INSAP, Rabat, Morocco)  that  uncovered fossil bones , animal bones stone tools in a cave  at Jebel Irhoud, Morocco indicate that  AMH appeared in North Africa 100,000 years before prehistoric AMH appeared in  East and South Africa.

Controversy surrounds the location where man originated in Africa. Formerly the birthplace of homo sapiens, was located in East and Southern Africa. In Ethiopia archaeologists found  evidence of AMH at Omo dating between 190-200 kya (thousand years ago). A cranium from Herto, Ethiopia dates back 154-160kya. This along with remains of AMH found in the Sudan and Tanzania supported the idea that the first man may have originated in East Africa .

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Other Archaeologists agree that AMH remains have also been found in southern Africa. One of the oldest fossil evidence of AMH in Southern Africa dates back to 110kya and was found at Broken Hill, South Africa (SA). Another series of AMH remains dating between 65-105 kya have been discovered in the Klasis River caves. The most archaic human remains come from Florished, SA, and date between 190-330 kys .

The Jebel Irhoud human remains are changing our view of man’s origins in Africa. The fossil remains found by Jean-Jacques Hublin at Jebel Irhoud include long bones,  skulls and teeth of  five individuals.  Using heated flints found at the site the researchers used the thermoluminescence  to date the site. This pushes back the date of AMH in North Africa 300,000 years.

Researchers used new techniques to date the remains found at Jebel Irhoud. Daniel Richter geochronology expert  at Freiberg Instruments GmbH and the  Max Planck Institute , noted that "Well dated sites of this age are exceptionally rare in Africa, but we were fortunate that so many of the Jebel Irhoud flint artefacts had been heated in the past. " Richter added that: "This allowed us to apply thermoluminescence dating methods on the flint artefacts and establish a consistent chronology for the new hominin fossils and the layers above them."

The remains found at Jebel Irhoud  indicate that the humans there made Levellois prepared tools. These tools were used by the Jebel Irhoudians to butcher gezelles that were hunted by people who left there remains in the cave.

The Jebel Irhoud remains  also corroborate the interpretation  of the Florisbad, South Africa crania dated between 190-330kya .The human remains from Jebel Irhoud  and  Florisbad  make it clear that AMH were widespread across Africa 300,000 years ago.

Source: The first of our kind.  Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary  Anthropology, Leipzig. https://www.mpg.de/11322481/oldest-****-sapiens-fossils-at-jebel-irhoud-morocco


Schlebusch et al (2017) argue that the Khoisan carry 9-22% Eurasian Genes

Schlebusch et al (2017), claim that " all modern-day Khoekhoe and San groups have been influenced by 9-22% genetic admixture from East African/Eurasian pastoralist groups arriving >1,000 years ago, including the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have very low levels of admixture ". This is ludicrous, there is no archaeological evidence, presented by these researchers of East Africans migrating into south Africa, we only have the Bantu speakers expanding into Southern Africa during the Iron Age. As I note in my Protocols to Evaluate genetics articles the absence of archaeological support is a clear sign the paper lacks any validity (web page). 


Schlebusch et al (2017) has it backwards. The so-called Eurasian admixture among the Khoisan is the result of the spread of khoisan into Eurasia, as the Cro-Magnon carriers of the Aurignacian civilization. Boule, M., H V Vallois in Fossil Man link the San people and the Aurignacians who are labled today Cro-Magnon.


The Khoisan formerly occupied an area from South Africa to North. This would explain the Khoisan domesticated cattle being of North African rather than Bantu type.
The most archaic AMH remains come from Florished, South Africa; they date between 190-330 kya. Other ancient fossil evidence of AMH in South Africa come from Broken Hill (c.110kya) and the Klasis River caves (c. 65-105kya).


The Khoisan early migrated into North Africa. As a result, we see shared cultural and behavioral traditions between 200-40kya among South Africans and Moroccans.



KHOISAN


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The Khoisan carry haplogroups L3(M,N). Before they reached Iberia, they probably stopped in West Africa.
Granted L3 and L2 are not as old as LOd, but Gonder et al (2006)provides very early dates for this mtDNA e.g., L3(M,N) 94.3; the South African Khoisan (SAK) carry L1c, L1,L2,L3(M,N) dates to 142.3kya; the Hadza are L2a, L2, L3(M,N), dates to 96.7kya.
The dates for L1,L2,L3, M,N are old enough for the Khoisan to have taken N to West Africa, where we find L3, L2 and LOd and thence to Iberia as I suggested in my paper (Winters,2011).
It is interesting to note that LO haplogroups are primarily found among Khoisan and West Africans. This shows that at some point in prehistory the Khoisan had migrated into West Africa on their way to Morocco.
The basal L3(M) motiff in West Africa is characterized by the Ddel site np 10394 and Alul site np 10397 associated with AF-24. This supports my contention that Khoisan speakers early settled West Africa on their way to Iberia.
The Khoisan may have introduced the L haplogroup to Iberia. The SAK populations carry haplogroups L2, and L3. Dominguez (2005) ,noted that much of the ancient mtDNA found in Iberia has no relationship to the people presently living in Iberia today and correspond to African mtDNA haplogroups .
The SAK carry haplogroups L1c, L1,L2,L3 M,N and dates to 142.3kya; the Hadza are L2a, L2, L3, M,N, and dates to 96.7kya.
The dates for L1,L2,L3(M,N) are old enough for the Khoisan to have taken N to West Africa and thence Iberia.
Dominguez (2005) found that the lineages recovered from ancient Iberian skeletons are the African lineages L1b,L2 and L3. Almost 50% of the lineages from the Abauntz Chalcolithic deposits and Tres Montes, in Navarre are the Sub-Saharan lineages L1b,L2 and L3. The appearance of phylogenetically related sequences of hg L3 present in many ancient Iberian skeletons suggest that this haplogroup may have a long history in Iberia. This would support the possibility that SAK populations early settled ancient Iberia.

The Neanderthal used Mousterian tools. These tools were also being used in Africa as early 130kya. This places Neanderthalers in North Africa.
The human types associated with the Neanderthal tools found at Jebel Ighoud and Haua Fteah resemble contemporaneous European Neanderthaler tools. The presence of Mousterian tools suggest that Neanderthalers mixed with Africans because we know that anatomically modern humans were living in the area at the time.

The African Neanderthal people used the common Levoiso-Mousterian tool kit originally discovered in Europe. The Nenderthal skeletons have come from Djebel Irhoud and El Guettar in Morocco (Ki-Zerbo,1981). Later Neanderthal people used the Aterian tool kit. It was probably in Morocco that Neanderthal and Khoisan interacted.
An exception to this norm are the Khoisan who share a phylogenic relationship with Altai Neanderthals (Prufer, et al, 2013). Many researchers claim that Africans have no relationship to the Neanderthals.But Prufer et al (2013) share more alleles with Altaic Neanderthal than Denisova.
In the Supplemental section of Prufer et al (2013) there is considerable discussion of the relationship between Neanderthal and Khoisan. In relation to the Altaic Neanderthal the non-Africans have a lower divergence rate than Africans between 10-20%. Prufer et al (2013) note little statistical difference between non-African and African divergence.
Researchers have observered a relationship between the Neanderthals, the Khoisan and Yoruba. Prufer et al (2013) detected a relationship between the Neanderthal and Mandekan. It is interesting to note that Yoruba traditions place them in Mande-speaking areas (Prufer et al,2013).
There is interesting information in Figure S7.1. In Figure S7.1 the maximum likelihood tree of bonobo, Denisova and Neanderthal, the closest present-day hmans are Africans, not Europeans. Reading the Tree Chart Graph, the neighbor joining tree of archaic and present day human individuals has the Khoisan following the Denisova.
An interesting finding of Prufer et al (2013) was that Altaic Neanderthal and Denisova are estimated to have similar split times. The divergence estimate for African Khoisan-Mandekan and Altaic is younger than the split between Africans and Denisova archaic individuals and modern African individuals. The split times between the Khoisan and Mandekan may be explained by the presence of AF-24 haplotype in West Africa.
The major problem with the paper is that the Prufer et al (2013)believe that there was a back-to-Africa migration of Eurasian genomes among West Africans people. This back migration probably did not occur. What we do know is that the ancient Kushite people belonged to the C-Group. The C-Group people spoke Niger-Congo and Dravidian languages.
The Kushites founded many civilizations in Eurasia including the Sumerian and Elamite civilizations. The Kushites may have spread L3(M) and y-chromosome R haplogroup in Eurasia. This suggest that so-called Eurasian genomes are the result of admixtures of Europeans and Kushites.
In summary the Khoisan early settled Morocco. From here they interacted with Neanderthal populations. Later the Khoisan migrated into Iberia an deposited many genomes of the L clade and L3(N) macrohaplogroup.

The Khoisan took the Aurignacian culture to Europe from North Africa.

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The craniofacial evidence makes it clear that the Aurignacian people came from Africa . The Aurignacian people are called Grimaldi Or Cro-Magnon.


Boule and Vallois, note that "To sum up, in the most ancient skeletons from the Grotte des Enfants we have a human type which is readily comparable to modern types and especially to the Negritic or Negroid type" (p.289). They continue, "Two Neolithic individuals from Chamblandes in Switzerland are Negroid not only as regards their skulls but also in the proportions of their limbs. Several Ligurian and Lombard tombs of the Metal Ages have also yielded evidences of a Negroid element.

Since the publication of Verneau's memoir, discoveries of other Negroid skeletons in Neolithic levels in Illyria and the Balkans have been announced. The prehistoric statues, dating from the Copper Age, from Sultan Selo in Bulgaria are also thought to portray Negroids.

In 1928 Rene Bailly found in one of the caverns of Moniat, near Dinant in Belgium, a human skeleton of whose age it is difficult to be certain, but seems definitely prehistoric. It is remarkable for its Negroid characters, which give it a reseblance to the skeletons from both Grimaldi and Asselar (p.291).

Boule and Vallois, note that "We know now that the ethnography of South African tribes presents many striking similarities with the ethnography of our populations of the Reindeer Age. Not to speak of their stone implements which, as we shall see later , exhibit great similarities, Peringuey has told us that in certain burials on the South African coast 'associated with the Aurignacian or Solutrean type industry...."(p.318-319). They add, that in relation to Bushman art " This almost uninterrupted series leads us to regard the African continent as a centre of important migrations which at certain times may have played a great part in the stocking of Southern Europe. Finally, we must not forget that the Grimaldi Negroid skeletons sho many points of resemblance with the Bushman skeletons". They bear no less a resemblance to that of the fossil Man discovered at Asslar in mid-Sahara, whose characters led us to class him with the Hottentot-Bushman group."

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in conclusion, the Khoisan carry Eurasian genes, not because of admixture. They carry Eurasian genes because they were the first Eurasians.


Sources:

Boule, M., HV Vallois . (1957). Fossil Man . Dryden Press New York

Barral,L. & Charles,R.P. (1963) Nouvelles donnees anthropometriques et precision sue les affinities systematiques des negroides de Grimaldi, Bulletin du Musee d’anthropologie prehistorique de Monaco, No.10:123-139.
Reference:

de Domínguez E.F. Polimorfismos de DNA mitocondrial en poblaciones antiguas de la cuenca mediterránea. Universitat de Barcelona. Departament Biologia Animal, 2005 (PhD thesis).

Gonder MK, Mortensen HM, Reed FA, de Sousa A, Tishkoff SA. (2006). Whole mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages. Mol Biol Evol. 2006 Dec 28.

Ki-Zerbo,J. (1981). Unesco General History of Africa Vol. 1: Methodology and African Prehistory (1981), pg.572.


Pruler,K, Racimo,F.,Patterson,N et al. (2014). The complete genome sequences of Neanderthal from the Altai, Mountains. Nature , 505/7481: 43-9. doi .10.1038/ Nature 12881.Epub.2013.Dec.18.

 Schlebusch C M, Helena Malmström, Torsten Günther, Per Sjödin, Alexandra Coutinho, Hanna Edlund, Arielle R Munters, Maryna Steyn, Himla Soodyall, Marlize Lombard, Mattias Jakobsson. (2017). Ancient genomes from southern Africa pushes modern human divergence beyond 260,000 years ago. bioRxiv 145409; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/145409


Scozzari, R, Massaia,A, Trombatta,B. et al.(2014). An unbiased resource of novel SNP markers provides a new chronology for human Y-chromosome and reveals a deep phylogenetic structure in Africa. Genome Research, January 6,2014, doi: 10.1101/gr./60785.113.

Verneaux,R: Les Origines de l’humanite. Paris: F. Riedder & Cie, 1926.

Winters C. The Gibraltar Out of Africa Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans. WebmedCentral BIOLOGY 2011;2(10):WMC002311 .http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/2311 

Sunday, June 4, 2017

The Geno-Hamitic Theory

The Geno-Hamitic theory is a variation of the Hamitic theory. The term Geno-Hamitic is made up of two words genetics and Hamitic.

Racist used the Hamitic myth in two ways. First it was used by racist to justify the enslavement of Africans, by claiming Black people were cursed.

Image result for hamitic theory

Historians also used the Hamitic myth to explain why great civilizations were found in ancient Africa. The Hamitic theory maintained that there existed in Africa Blacks who had facial features similar to Europeans that were  classified as a subgroup of the Caucasian race. These “black skinned whites” were imagined by 19th Century European scholars responsible for the spread of civilization across Africa.

Adherents to the Hamitic theory  claimed that the Kushites and ancient Egyptians , along with Semitic speaking East Africans , and the Fulani are modern representatives of the Hamites.

Although the Hamitic theory has been debunked Geneticists have revived this myth in their studies of African haplogroups. As a result, the East Africans are often referred too in the genetics literature as being distinct from other Sub-Saharan Africans. Sub-Saharan African (SSA)  is the name for the Negro race in modern Genetics articles. The Caucasian and Mongoloid populations are referred too in the Genetics literature, respectively as Western and Eastern Eurasians.


Thusly, we find that some Geneticists imply that East Africans, are distinct from West Africans because, they carry  allegedly Eurasian haplogroups which the Geneticists interpret as evidence of East African and Eurasian admixture. The idea that East Africans carry so-called Eurasian genes due to admixture lacks any historical and/or archaeological support. You see there is no historical and/or archaeological evidence of a back migration of any population to Africa from Eurasia.. In fact as late as 4000 BC, the population in the Levant was Sub-Saharan African, and the archaeological evidence makes it clear the migrations have been of SSA into Eurasia not vice versa.

Given the archaeological and historical evidence the presence of so-called  Eurasian genes among East Africans must be the result, of these genes originating in Africa, not Eurasia.. Moreover, the vast  majority of East Africans carry the same genes carried by the West Africans.

The genomic evidence makes it clear the Geno-Hamitic hypothesis for East africans must be abandoned, while researchers accept the fact that many so-called Eurasian genes evolved in Africa--not Eurasia.

Friday, June 2, 2017

Short History Black People 2


  • There is no monolithic African/Black population. There was a variety of anatomically modern African/Black populations.The four major Black populations were the Australian aborigine , Khoisan, Pygmy and modern African populations found in Ethiopia, East, West and South Africa today. Except for the Australians, remnants of these populations presently live in Africa today.
  • I accept the fact there were ancient Blacks in Asia. These Blacks were the Australian type people who mainly live in Australia and the Hill regions of Oceania.

    The Australians and Veddoids are the original settlers of EurAsia and the Americas (around 100kybp), and may represent members of the first out of Africa migrants. I never refer to these people as Africans, although I do recognize them as Blacks. The Australians were great navigators and probably sailed to Brazil and Crete 100kya

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    The Bushman/Khoisan probably represent the second African migration of homo sapien sapiens out of Africa. I would class these people with the CroMagnon/Grimaldi group who entered Iberia after 44kybp. Remnants of this great people were found on every continent when Europeans first explored the world.

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    The Khoisan introduced the Aurignacian and Salutrean cultures to Europe, and later the Americas.


    The Anu (Pygmy) type were the third migration out of Africa. The Anu began to migrate out of Africa after 20,000 and settled in the Levant which was first settled by Cro Magnon (Khoisan) people who early replaced the Neanderthal folk. The Anu began to replace the Khoisan in many parts of the Americas and Eurasia. It was the Anu who probably first crossed the Beringa straits to enter North America from East Asia.
    The major Anu centers of civilization were the Nile Valley and Mesopotamia. They established major centers of trade in the Americas and Eurasia and exported metals back to the Nile Valley and beyond.
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    The Anu are probably the ancestors of the Classical mongoloid people. Classical mongoloids are the Indonesians/Vietnamese/Filipinos and etc. were probably already settled in Anatolia. The classical mongoloids probably constructed Catal Huyuk. The close relationship between Sumerian and the AustroAsiatic languages suggest that the classical Mongoloid people may have also inhabited Mesopotamia by the time the Sumerians entered the area.
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    The Natufians would represent the fourth African migration into Eurasia. These Blacks came from East Africa and may represent a Proto-Bantu group.

    After 3500 BC, the Kushite people began to migrant into Eurasia and the Americas. The Great Flood had taken place and many Anu centers were placed under water by the flood.
    The Kushites belonged to the C-Group people of Nubia and the Maa Confederation. The Kushites were Niger-Congo and Dravidian speakers. They had originally belonged to Maa Civilization until aridity caused the Maaites to migrant into the Nile Valley to seek refuge from the dying Saharan zone, which could no longer support human habitation and the Agro-Pastoral lifestyle of the Maaites.
    It appears to have been a natural catastrophe, namely the Great Flood which caused the Classical mongoloids to migrate eastward. We know this because many of the former sites of the Classical mongoloids in Anatolia were occupied by the Kushites (Kaska) people after 3500 BC.
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    The Kushites replaced the Anu in Eurasia. Here they re-stablished the lucrative metals trade.
    In Mesopotamia , after 2000 BC, the Gutians began to move out of the Hills and attacked the Semitic speaking Akkadians. Eventually they established a City-State at Lagash.
    In 1400 BC the modern European tribes began to migrate out of Central Asia. They simultaneously began to invade Mesopotamia and India. From bases in Mesopotamia the Indo-Europeans expanded from Central Asia, all the way to the Nile Delta in Egypt.

    By 1200 BC the Classical mongoloids had become well established in East and Southeast Asia. Around this time they conquered the Dravidian people who founded the first Shang empire, and set up a new Shang Empire at Anyang, China. The Classical Mongoloids began to push the Dravidian and Mande speakers out of East Asia

    By 1000 BC the Hau/Han tribes came down from the mountains and pushed the classical mongoloids southward into Yunnan and eventually Southeast Asia. The Han began to make the Yueh and li min people their slaves. The Han often used the Qiang (another Black tribe) as sacrifice victims.
    The Han killed off as many Black tribes as they could. The only thing that saved the Anu or pygmies in East Asia, was the fact that they moved into the mountains in areas they could easily defend from Han attacks.

    This movement of Han and classical mongoloid people southward forced the Kushite/African (Qiang, li min and other African) tribes onto the Pacific Islands. It is these Africans who represent the coastal Melanesians.

    The coastal Melanesians , are descendants of recent African and Dravidian speakers who settled the area after being forced from Asia. The Melanesians belonged to the Lapita culture. They were a combination of Mande, Ethiopian (Naga), and Dravidian speakers.
    The Polynesians/Filipinos and etc. migrated to Islands in the Indian Ocean and Pacific, after the Lapita culture bearers. These people are known as the original Mongoloid people and called Classical Mongoloid in the literature and probably originated in Anatolia or Mesopotamia.

    The Sumerians, Elamites, Xia (of China), Harappans of the Indus Valley and coastal Melanoids are the Proto-Saharan or Maaites of the Maa Confederation. These people were known in History as the Kushites.
    These people originated in the Highland regions of Middle Africa, and began to occupy the former trade centers of the Anu in Eurasia and the Americas. It is for this reason that we find West African placenames in the Pacific and India.

    Given the origin of the classical mongoloids in Anatolia, and the Han Chinese somewhere in North China or Central Asia,the Southeast Asians are not descendants of the first African migration to Eurasia. This is why the Chinese and Classical mongoloid people share few if any genes with the Australians. The Classical mongoloids share genes mainly with the coastal Melanesians who are of African origin, but few genes with the Chinese of East Asia.

Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Eurasian Clades were already carried by Egyptians before Greco-Roman Period

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The problem with Coconuts/Negroes (people who are brown on the outside, but white inside) is that they don’t understand how to analyze data and form a conclusion. As a result, when they read a paper they accept what is written at face value without looking critically at the data and making their own interpretation.

First of all, Afro-American scholars have accepted that the Egyptians were Black/African people for the past 200 years, i.e., Carter G. Woodson, W.E.B. DuBois, and J.A. Rogers, and the Senegalese scholar Anta Diop ; but, Negro Apologist : Gates, Kittles and etc, spend their time parroting the status quo line that the Egyptians were a mixed race. This same group attempt to make it appear that the Fulani, Somalis and Ethiopians are black skinned whites, because of their facial features. This is stupid, because man originated in Africa, so the physical features of these populations are African features.

The article by Schuenemann et al, 2017 on the Abusir mummies is basically a discussion of the data that support a Greco-Roman origin for Egypt. But the data on the mummies dating between 992-749 BC, can offers us keen insight into haplogroups carried by Egyptians during this time.

The genomic data from this period is important because the people of Abusir at this time would have been primarily Egyptian. As a result, the mtDNA carried by the Egyptians confirms the reality that the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are nothing more than African haplogroups.

In Schuenemann et al, 2017, there were 100 mummies in the study. A total of 27 mummies were dated between 992-749BC. In Figure 1, you can see the clades carried by these Egyptians. Below are the frequencies of the haplogroups among Egyptians at this time:

  • Haplogroup Frequency
    U.......... 18.5
    T.......... 22.2
    J ..........18.5
    X.......... 0.0675
    M1a....... 0.0675
    H ..........0.0675
    I........... 0.0675
    HV......... 0.037
    RO......... 0.037
    K........... 0.037
    N.......... 0.037

The presence of these haplogroups among the Abusir population shows that the U,T, and J clades had a high frequency among the Egyptians, and that many of the so called Middle East clades were already present in Egypt before the Greco-Romans, Turks and etc. ruled Egypt.

In conclusion, the Abusir article provides more data on the African origin of Eurasian mtDNA. We know that these are African clades because there is no evidence of a massive migration of Eurasians into Egypt until the Greco-Roman period as supported by the research in Schuenemann et al.

Reference:

Schuenemann et al., Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods, Nature Communications 8, Article number: 15694 (2017), doi:10.1038/ncomms15694

Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Afro-American and Native American Shared R1 Y-Chromosomes

There are a number of Y-chromosome Haplogroups shared by mongoloid Native Americas and Afro-Americans.


I can not find any information on V88 among Afro-Americans. But I have found information on the frequency of haplogroup R among Afro-Americans.

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Haplogroup E-P1 is called E1b1a1 .In the Hammer et al (2006) study while 63% of Afro-Americans carry this haplogroup,1.3% Native Americans carry the same haplogroup. 
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The second most frequent Y-chromosome among Afro-Americans is R1b. In the Vallone and Butler (2004) study AAs carried around 0.3% R-M207, and 23% R1b.
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Miller et al (2006) did a detailed study of Afro-American and Native American Y-Chromosome. Miller et al (2006) revealed that NA and AAs share many R haplogroups including R-M17 and R-M207. It is interesting to note that in relation to R-M269, that 21% carried this haplogroup, while 17.0 of AAs carried the same haplogroup. This is interesting because there is very little statistical difference between 17% and 21%.

Sunday, April 9, 2017

Why We Find Discrepancies in African and Non-African Admixture/Structure Studies

We may never know the admixture between Native Americans and Africans if we wait to get the information from researchers because they are attempting to maintain the status quo.

Discrepancies take place because researchers do not want to tell the truth about the genetic histories of African people and their admixture with Native Americans and Eurasians. As a result, researchers have developed methods to exclude evidence of non-Africans carrying haplogroups mtDNA haplogroups L, and y-Chromosomes E and A.


This is due to the protocols of AdMixture and Structure programs that assume that Native Americans, Europeans and Africans only met after 1492. As a result researchers try to find methods to exclude African presence in European and Native Americans so evidence of this admixture will not be evidenced in the final results. Next researchers claim that if African people carry mtDNA haplogroups: N, R, M and D ; and Y-Chromosomes C, Q, I, J, and R, they are carrying Eurasians haplogroups, eventhough all of these haplogroups are found among African populations that have no history of admixture with Europeans. As a result, these haplogroups are probably of African origin--not a back migration.

Researchers believe this evidence should be excluded because any African admixture among these populations have to be recent.
The best example of how African admixture is excluded in research is Reich, D. et al, Reconstructing Native American population history. Nature 488, 370-374 (2012) Paper web page , the method used to exclude African admixture from this study is detailed in Supplementary Material 1.Reich, D. et al (2012) outlines the motivations for the exclusion of Africans from his study:

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  • (i) Motivation
    There were a number of populations for which we did not have access to unadmixed samples. To learn about the history of such populations, we needed to adjust for the presence of non-Native ancestry. We used three complementary approaches to do this. The concordance of results from all these approaches increases our confidence in the key findings of this study.

    (1) Restricting to unadmixed samples: We restricted some analyses to 163 Native American samples (34 populations) without any evidence of recent European or African admixture (Note S2). A limitation of these studies, however, is that we could not analyze 16 populations in which all individuals were inferred to have some degree of recent admixture.

    (2) Local ancestry masking: We identified segments of the genome in each individual that had an appreciable probability of harboring non-Native American or Siberian ancestry. We then created a “masked” dataset that treated genetic data in these sections as missing (Note S4).

    (3) Ancestry Subtraction: We explicitly corrected for the effect of the estimated proportion of European and African in each sample by adjusting the value of f4-statistics by the amount that is expected from this admixture. This is discussed in what follows.

    (ii) Details of Ancestry Subtraction
    Assume that we have an accurate estimate of African and European ancestry for each sample (whether it is an individual or a pool of individuals). In practice, we used the ADMIXTURE k=4 estimates, because as described below, they appear to be accurate for Native American populations (with the possible exception of Aleuts as we discuss below). We can then define:

    a = % African ancestry in a test sample
    e = % European ancestry in a test sample
    1-a-e = % Native ancestry

    For many of our analyses, we are computing f4 statistics, whose values are affected in a known way by European and African admixture. Thus, we can algebraically correct for the effect of recent European or African admixture on the test statistics, obtaining an “Ancestry Subtracted” statistic that is what is expected for the sample if it had no recent European or African ancestry.

    The main context in which we compute f4 statistics is in our implementation of the 4 Population Test, to evaluate whether the allele frequency correlation patterns in the data are consistent with the proposed tree ((Unadmixed, Test),(Outgroup1, Outgroup2)), where the Unadmixed population is a set of Native American samples assumed to derive all of their ancestry from the initial population that peopled America, the Test population is another Native American population, and the two outgroups are Asian populations. An f4 statistic consistent with zero suggests that the Unadmixed and Test populations form a clade with no evidence of ancestry from more recent streams of gene flow from Asia. If the Test population harbors recent European or African ancestry, however, a significant deviation of this statistic from zero would be expected, making it difficult to interpret the results. We thus compute a linear combination of f4 statistics that is expected to equal what we would obtain if we had access to the Native American ancestors of the Test population without recent European or African admixture:

    S_1=(f_4 (Unadmixed,Test;Out1,Out2)-(a) f_4 (Unadmixed,Yoruba;Out1,Out2)-(e) f_4 (Unadmixed,French;Out1,Out2))/(1-a-e) (S3.1)

    Intuitively, this statistic is subtracting the contribution to the f4 statistic that is expected from their proportion a of West African-like ancestry (Yoruba), and their proportion e of West Eurasian-like ancestry (French). We then renormalize by 1/(1-a-e) to obtain the statistic that would be expected if the sample was unadmixed.

    A potential concern is that the African and European ancestry in any real Native American test sample is not likely to be from Yoruba and French exactly; instead, it will be from related populations. However, S1 is still expected to have the value we wish to compute if we choose the outgroups to be East Asians or Siberians. The reason is that genetic differences between Yoruba and the true African ancestors, and French and the true European ancestors, are not expected to be correlated to the frequency differences between two East Asian or Siberian outgroups. Specifically, the allele frequency differences are due to history within Africa or Europe, which is not expected to be correlated to allele frequency differences within East Asia and within Siberia.

    (iii) Ancestry Subtraction gives results concordant with those on unadmixed samples
    To compare the performance of our three approaches to address the confounder of recent European and African admixture, we computed 48 = 8×6 statistics of the form f4(Unadmixed, Test; Han, San). We choose “Unadmixed” to be one of 8 Native American groups from Meso-America southward that have sample sizes of at least two and for which all samples are inferred to be unadmixed by ADMIXTURE k=4 (Chane, Embera, Guahibo, Guaymi, Karitiana, Kogi, Surui and Waunana). We choose “Test” to be one of 8 Native American populations from Meso-America southward with at least two samples that are entirely unadmixed, and that also have at least two samples that have >5% non-Native admixture according to the ADMIXTURE k=4 analysis (Aymara, Cabecar, Pima, Tepehuano, Wayuu and Zapotec1). This allows us to compare results on admixed and unadmixed samples from the same population.

    If the Test population harbors European or West African admixture that we have not corrected, we expect to see a significant deviation of the statistic from zero. For example, f4(Karitiana, French; Han, San), corresponding to the statistic expected for an entirely European-admixed Native American population, is significant at Z = 45 standard errors from zero, and f4(Karitiana, Yoruba; Han, San), which gives the f4-value we would expect for an entirely West African-admixed Native American population, is significant at Z = 101.

    Figure S3.1 shows the scatterplots of Z-scores we obtain without Ancestry Subtraction, with Ancestry Subtraction, and with local ancestry masking (Note S4). The x-axis shows data for the unadmixed samples from each Test population, while the y-axis shows the results for the >5% admixed samples from the same populations. We find that:
    • Without Ancestry Subtraction there are significant deviations from zero (|Z|>3) (Fig. S3.1A)
    • With Ancestry Subtraction, there are no residual |Z|-scores >3 (Figure S3.1B)
    • With local ancestry masking (Note S4), there are again no residual |Z|-scores >3 (Figure S3.1C), showing that this method also appears to be appropriately correcting for the admixture.


Given the exclusion of Africans from studies like Reich, D. et al (2012), means that we are not really knowing the actual admixture among Africans and Native American that carry the accepted African haplogroups: i.e., haploroups E , L and etc.

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

The Basal Europeans were probably Sub-Saharan Africans


It has always been know that the first hunter-gatherers of Europe were  SSAs (Sub-Saharan Africans) . Now we can declare that the carriers of haplogroup R1, that introduced the European agro-pastoral cultures to Europe, i.e., Bell Beaker and Yamnaya were probably also SSAs because they carried V88.

This should not be surprising according to Turek,  the Bell Beaker culture probably began in Morocco. Neolithic migrants into Europe from the Levant were also SSA. Trenton W. Holliday, tested the hypothesis that if modern Africans had dispersed into the Levant from Africa, "tropically adapted hominids" would be represented in the archaeological history of the Levant, especially in relation to the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids.  This researcher found that the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids (20,000-10,000),were assigned to the Sub-Saharan population, along with the  Natufians samples (4000 BP). Holliday also found African fauna in the area. If they were Sub-Saharan Africans in the Levant.


Toomas Kivisild1 (2017).The study of human Y chromosome variation through ancient DNA. web page provides a detailed discussion of R1 in prehistoric Europe.

The article is interesting. It is most interesting because it places V88 in ancient Europe. It is sad that researchers fail to publish this reality.


Kivisild (2017) also made it clear that V88 is the earliest offshoot of R-M343 .
quote:



Late Neolithic, Early Bronze Age and Iron Age samples from Central and Western Europe have typically the R1b-L11, R1a1-Z283 and R1a-M417 (xZ645)
affiliation while the samples from the Yamnaya and Samara neighbourhood are different and belong to sub-clades R1b11-Z2105 and R1a2-Z93 (Allentoft et al. 2015; Cassidy et al. 2016; Haak et al. 2015; Mathieson et al. 2015; Schiffels et al. 2016).


 -


The R1b11-Z2015 lineage is today common in the Caucasus and Volga-Uralic region while being virtually absent in Central and Western Europe (Broushaki et al.2016). Interestingly, the earliest offshoot of extant haplogroup R1b-M343 variation, the V88 subclade, which is currently most common in Fulani speaking populations in Africa (Cruciani et al. 2010) has distant relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across wide geographic area from Iberia, Germany to Samara (Fig. 7).


The presence of the carriers of V88 in Europe makes it clear that Sub-Saharan Africans had been in Europe for an extended period of time. Moreover it is clear that 25kya SSAs carrying haplogroup R1 were in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas.
.

 -

The Basal Eurasians that are mixed into modern Europeans, who came from the Middle East, and North Africa were SSA's not Indo-European speakers.
.


quote:




Interestingly, the earliest offshoot of extant haplogroup R1b-M343 variation, the V88 sub-clade, which is currently most common in Fulani speaking populations in Africa (Cruciani et al. 2010) has distant relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across wide geographic area from Iberia, Germany to Samara (Fig. 7).


This quote makes it clear the V88 sub-clade, had relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across wide geographic area from Iberia, Germany to Samara. This would place carriers of V88 among the Yamnaya and Bell Beaker people. Given the wide distribution of M269 in Africa, the carriers of this haplogroup were probably also Africans since the Bell Beaker people/culture originated in Morocco as noted by Turek (2012) and the Neolithic people of the Levant were also SSA  as proven by Holliday (2000). 

Reference:

Holiday, T. (2000). Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia, American Anthropologist,102(1) .

Turek, J. 2012: Chapter 8 - Origin of the Bell Beaker phenomenon. The Moroccan connection, In: Fokkens, H. & F. Nicolis (eds) 2012: Background to Beakers. Inquiries into regional cultural backgrounds of the Bell Beaker complex. Leiden: Sidestone Press. https://www.academia.edu/1988928/Turek_J._2012_Chapter_8_-_Origin_of_the_Bell_Beaker_phenomenon._The_Moroccan_connection_In_Fokkens_H._and_F._Nicolis_eds_2012_Background_to_Beakers ._Inquiries_into_regional_cultural_backgrounds_of_the_Bell_Beaker_complex._Leiden_Sidestone_Press

Thursday, March 23, 2017

Rig Veda Proves the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) is not a Myth

The population of India is divided into two major populations: Ancient North Indians (ANI) and Ancient South Indians (ASI). The ANI live in North India and speak predominantly Indo-Arya languages. The ASI live is South India and speak  Dravidian languages.
  • The ANI Indo-Aryan speakers did not come into India peacefully, the Rig Veda supports the Aryan Invasion Theory

  • Image result for indo-Aryan warriors
  • Firstly, the Vedas talk about wars in North India between the Vedic and non-Vedic people who lived in pura or tripura (walled cities or forts). The Vedas make it clear that the Aryans invaded India.

    Thusly, Indra was called the puramdar “fort destroyer. There is nothing in the vedic literature that refers to South India.

    The term dasa referred to people, not spiritual matters as you alledge. In Ralph T.H. Griffth (trs) Rig Veda (1896) of Book 2 hymn X1:18 we read “Thou hast disclosed the light to light the Arya; on they left hand, O indra, sank the Dasyu. [19] May we gain wealth, subduing with thou succour and the Aryas, all our foes, the Dasyus”. This makes it clear the Arya/Vedic people were attacking the Dasa/ Dasyus to steal their wealth and legacy. The presence of Indo-Aryan speakers in the North illustrates their success.


    The name for cities, the term used in the Rigveda is pur, meaning a 'rampart', 'fort' or 'stronghold' ….. Indra, the Aryan god, is puramdar, 'fort destroyer'…. In brief, 'he rends forts as age consumes a garment'.


    In the Rig Veda, tr. by Ralph T.H. Griffith, [1896], at sacred-texts.com, provides many verses showing that the Aryans came into India in a violent manner.


    17 The Vārṣāgiras unto thee, O Indra, the Mighty One, sing forth this laud to please thee,
    Ṛjrāśva with his fellows, Ambarīṣa, Surādhas, Sahadeva, Bhayamāna.
    18 He, much invoked, hath slain Dasyus and Śimyus, after his wont, and laid them low with arrows.
    The mighty Thunderer with his fair-complexioned friends won the land, the sunlight, and the waters.
    19 May Indra evermore be our protector, and unimperilled may we win the booty.
    This prayer of ours may Varuṇa grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.
    HYMN C. Indra.


    5 He who is Lord of all the world that moves and breathes, who for the Brahman first before all found the Cows; Indra who cast the Dasyus down beneath his feet,—him girt by Maruts we invoke to be our Friend.


    HYMN CIII. Indra.
    1. THAT highest Indra-power of thine is distant: that which is here sages possessed aforetime.
    This one is on the earth, in heaven the other, and both unite as flag with flag in battle.
    2 He spread the wide earth out and firmly fixed it, smote with his thunderbolt and loosed the waters.
    Maghavan with his puissance struck down Ahi, rent Rauhiṇa to death and slaughtered Vyaṁsa.
    armed with his bolt and trusting in his prowess he wandered shattering the forts of Dāsas.t thy dart, knowing, Thunderer, at the Dasyu; increase the Ārya's might and glory, Indra.
    4 For him who thus hath taught these human races, Maghavan, bearing a fame-worthy title,
    Thunderer, drawing nigh to slay the Dasyus, hath given himself the name of Son for glory.
    5 See this abundant wealth that he possesses, and put your trust in Indra's hero vigour.
    He found the cattle, and he found the horses, he found the plants, the forests and the waters.
    6 To him the truly strong, whose deeds are many, to him the strong Bull let us pour the Soma.
    The Hero, watching like a thief in ambush, goes parting the possessions of the godless.
    7 Well didst thou do that hero deed, O Indra, in waking with thy bolt the slumbering Ahi.
    in thee, delighted, Dames divine rejoiced them, the flying Maruts and all Gods were joyful.
    8 As thou hast smitten Śuṣṇa, Pipru, Vṛtra and Kuyava, and Śambara's forts, O Indra.
    This prayer of ours may Varuṇa grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.

    Image result for indo-Aryan warriors

    HYMN CXXX. Indra.
    1. Come to us, Indra, from afar, conducting us even as a lord of heroes to the gatherings, home, like a King, his heroes' lord.
    We come with gifts of pleasant food, with juice poured forth, invoking thee,
    As sons invite a sire, that thou mayst get thee strength thee, bounteousest, to get thee strength.
    2 O Indra, drink the Soma juice pressed out with stones. poured from the reservoir, as an ox drinks the spring, a very thirsty bull the spring.
    For the sweet draught that gladdens thee, for mightiest freshening of thy strength.
    Let thy Bay Horses bring thee hither as the Sun, as every day they bring the Sun.
    3 He found the treasure brought from heaven that lay concealed, close-hidden, like the nestling of a bird, in rock, enclosed in never-ending rock.
    Best Aṅgiras, bolt-armed, he strove to win, as ’twere, the stall of kine;
    So Indra hath disclosed the food concealed, disclosed the doors, the food that lay concealed.
    4 Grasping his thunderbolt with both hands, Indra made its edge most keen, for hurling, like a carving-knife for Ahi's slaughter made it keen.
    Endued with majesty and strength, O Indra, and with lordly might,
    Thou crashest down the trees, as when a craftsman fells, crashest them down as with an axe.
    5 Thou, Indra, without effort hast let loose the floods to run their free course down,
    like chariots, to the sea, like chariots showing forth their strength.
    They, reaching hence away, have joined their strength for one eternal end,
    Even as the cows who poured forth every thing for man, Yea, poured forth all things for mankind.
    6 Eager for riches, men have formed for thee this song, like as a skilful craftsman fashioneth a car, so have they wrought thee to their bliss;
    Adorning thee, O Singer, like a generous steed for deeds of might,
    Yea, like a steed to show his strength and win the prize, that he may bear each prize away.
    7 For Pūru thou hast shattered, Indra ninety forts, for Divodāsa thy boon servant with thy bolt, O Dancer, for thy worshipper.
    For Atithigva he, the Strong, brought Śambara. from the mountain down,
    Distributing the mighty treasures with his strength, parting all treasures with his strength.
    8 Indra in battles help his Āryan worshipper, he who hath hundred helps at hand in every fray, in frays that win the light of heaven.
    Plaguing the lawless he gave up to Manu's seed the dusky skin;
    Blazing, ’twere, he burns each covetous man away, he burns, the tyrannous away.
    9 Waxed strong in might at dawn he tore the Sun's wheel off. Bright red, he steals away their speech, the Lord of Power, their speech he steals away from them,
    As thou with eager speed, O Sage, hast come from far away to help,
    As winning for thine own all happiness of men, winning all happiness each day.
    10 Lauded with our new hymns, O vigorous in deed, save us with strengthening help, thou Shatterer of the Forts!
    Thou, Indra, praised by Divodāsa's clansmen, as heaven grows great with days, shalt wax in glory.

    BOOK 2
    HYMN XI. Indra.
    1. HEAR thou my call, O Indra; be not heedless: thine may we be for thee to give us treasures;
    For these presented viands, seeking riches, increase thy strength like streams of water flowing.
    2 Floods great and many, compassed by the Dragon, thou badest swell and settest free, O Hero.
    Strengthened by songs of praise thou rentest piecemeal the Dāsa, him who deemed himself immortal.
    3 For, Hero, in the lauds wherein thou joyedst, in hymns of praise, O Indra, songs of Rudras,
    These streams in which is thy delight approach thee, even as the brilliant ones draw near to Vāyu.
    4 We who add strength to thine own splendid vigour, laying within thine arms the splendid thunder—
    With us mayst thou, O Indra, waxen splendid, with Sūrya overcome the Dāsa races.
    5 Hero, thou slewest in thy valour Ahi concealed in depths, mysterious, great enchanter,
    Dwelling enveloped deep within the waters, him who checked heaven and stayed the floods from flowing.
    6 Indra, we laud thy great deeds wrought aforetime, we laud thine exploits later of achievement;
    We laud the bolt that in thine arms lies eager; we laud thy two Bay Steeds, heralds of Sūrya.
    7 Indra, thy Bay Steeds showing forth their vigour have sent a loud cry out that droppeth fatness.
    The earth hath spread herself in all her fulness: the cloud that was about to move hath rested.
    8 Down, never ceasing, hath the rain-cloud settled: bellowing, it hath wandered with the Mothers.
    Swelling the roar in the far distant limits, they have spread wide the blast sent forth by Indra.
    9 Indra hath hurled down the magician Vṛtra who lay beleaguering the mighty river.
    Then both the heaven and earth trembled in terror at the strong Hero's thunder when he bellowed.
    10 Loud roared the mighty Hero's bolt of thunder, when he, the Friend of man, burnt up the monster,
    And, having drunk his fill of flowing Soma, baffled the guileful Dānava's devices.
    11 Drink thou, O Hero Indra, drink the Soma; let the joy-giving juices make thee joyful.
    They, filling both thy flanks, shall swell thy vigour. The juice that satisfies hath helped Indra.
    12 Singers have we become with thee, O Indra: may we serve duly and prepare devotion.
    Seeking thy help we meditate thy praises: may we at once enjoy thy gift of riches.
    13 May we be thine, such by thy help, O Indra, as swell thy vigour while they seek thy favour.
    Give us, thou God, the riches that we long for, most powerful, with stare of noble children.
    14 Give us a friend, give us an habitation; Indra, give us the company of Maruts,
    And those whose minds accord with theirs, the Vāyus, who drink the first libation of the Soma.
    15 Let those enjoy in whom thou art delighted. Indra, drink Soma for thy strength and gladness.
    Thou hast exalted us to heaven, Preserver, in battles, through the lofty hymns that praise thee.
    16 Great, verily, are they, O thou Protector, who by their songs of praise have won the blessing.
    They who strew sacred grass to be thy dwelling, helped by thee have got them strength, O Indra.
    17 Upon the great Trikadruka days, Hero, rejoicing thee, O Indra, drink the Soma.
    Come with Bay Steeds to drink of libation, shaking the drops from out thy beard, contented.
    Hero, assume the might wherewith thou clavest Vṛtra piecemeal, the Dānava Aurṇavābha.
    Thou hast disclosed the light to light the Ārya: on thy left hand, O Indra, sank the Dasyu.
    19 May we gain wealth, subduing with thy succour and with the Ārya, all our foes, the Dasyus.

    2. gain was that to Tṛta of our party thou gavest up Tvaṣṭar's son Viśvarūpa.
    20 He cast down Arbuda what time his vigour was strengthened by libations poured by Tṛta.
    Indra sent forth his whirling wheel like Sūrya, and aided by the Aṅgirases rent Vala.
    21 Now let that wealthy Cow of thine, O Indra, yield in return a boon to him who lauds thee.
    Give to thy praisers: let not fortune fail us. Loud may we speak, with brave men, in the assembly.

    HYMN XX. Indra.
    1. As one brings forth his car when fain for combat, so bring we power to thee—regard us, Indra—
    Well skilled in song, thoughtful in spirit, seeking great bliss from one like thee amid the Heroes.
    2 Indra, thou art our own with thy protection, a guardian near to men who love thee truly,
    Active art thou, the liberal man's defender, his who draws near to thee with right devotion.
    3 May Indra, called with solemn invocations. the young, the Friend, be men's auspicious keeper,
    One who will further with his aid the singer, the toiler, praiser, dresser of oblations.
    4 With laud and song let me extol that Indra in whom of old men prospered and were mighty.
    May he, implored, fulfil the prayer for plenty of him who worships, of the living mortal.
    5 He, Indra whom the Aṅgirases' praise delighted, strengthened their prayer and made their goings prosper.
    Stealing away the mornings with the sunlight, he, lauded, crushed even Aśna's ancient powers.
    2.
    3. He verily, the God, the glorious Indra, hath raised him up for man, best Wonder-Worker.
    He, self-reliant, mighty and triumphant, brought low the dear head of the wicked Dāsa.
    7 Indra the Vṛtra-slayer, Fort-destroyer, scattered the Dāsa hosts who dwelt in darkness.For men hath he created earth and waters, and ever helped the prayer of him who worships.
    8 To him in might the Gods have ever yielded, to Indra in the tumult of the battle.
    When in his arms they laid the bolt, he slaughtered the Dasyus and cast down their forts of iron.
    9 Now may that wealthy Cow of thine, O Indra, give in return a boon to him who lauds thee.

    Give to thy praisers: let not fortune fail us. Loud may we speak, with heroes, in assembly.


    BOOK 3

    HYMN XXXI. Indra.
    1. WISE, teaching, following the thought of Order, the sonless gained a grandson from his daughter.
    Fain, as a sire, to see his child prolific, he sped to meet her with an eager spirit.
    2 The Son left not his portion to the brother, he made a home to hold him who should gain, it.
    What time his Parents gave the Priest his being, of the good pair one acted, one promoted.
    3 Agni was born trembling with tongue that flickered, so that the Red's great children should be honoured.
    Great is their germ, that born of them is mighty, great the Bays' Lord's approach through sacrifices.
    4 Conquering bands upon the Warrior waited: they recognized great light from out the darkness.
    The conscious Dawns went forth to meet his coming, and the sole Master of the kine was Indra.
    5 The sages freed them from their firmbuilt prison: the seven priests drove them forward with their spirit.
    All holy Order's pathway they discovered he, full of knowledge, shared these deeds through worship.
    6 When Saramā had found the mountain's fissure, that vast and ancient place she plundered thoroughly.
    In the floods' van she led them forth, light-footed: she who well knew came first unto their lowing.
    7 Longing for friendship came the noblest singer: the hill poured forth its treasure for the pious.
    The Hero with young followers fought and conquered, and straightway Aṅgiras was singing praises,
    8 Peer of each noble thing, yea, all excelling, all creatures doth he know, he slayeth Śuṣṇa.
    Our leader, fain for war, singing from heaven, as Friend he saved his lovers from dishonour.
    9 They sate them down with spirit fain for booty, making with hymns a way to life eternal.
    And this is still their place of frequent session, whereby they sought to gain the months through Order.
    10 Drawing the milk of ancient seed prolific, they joyed as they beheld their own possession.
    Their shout of triumph heated earth and heaven. When the kine showed, they bade the heroes rouse them.
    11 Indra drove forth the kine, that Vṛtra-slayer, while hymns of praise rose up and gifts were offered.
    For him the Cow, noble and far-extending, poured pleasant juices, bringing oil and sweetness.
    12 They made a mansion for their Father, deftly provided him a great and glorious dwelling;
    With firm support parted and stayed the Parents, and, sitting, fixed him there erected, mighty.
    13 What time the ample chalice had impelled him, swift waxing, vast, to pierce the earth and heaven,—
    Him in whom blameless songs are all united: all powers invincible belong to Indra.
    14 I crave thy powers, I crave thy mighty friendship: full many a team goes to the Vṛtra-slayer.
    Great is the laud, we seek the Princes' favour. Be thou, O Maghavan, our guard and keeper.
    15 He, having found great, splendid, rich dominion, sent life and motion to his friends and lovers.
    Indra who shone together with the Heroes begot the song, the fire, and Sun and Morning.
    16 Vast, the House-Friend, he set the waters flowing, all-lucid, widely spread, that move together.
    By the wise cleansings of the meath made holy, through days, and nights they speed the swift streams onward.
    17 To thee proceed the dark, the treasure-holders, both of them sanctified by Sūrya's bounty.
    The while thy ovely storming Friends, O Indra, fail to attain the measure of thy greatness.
    18 Be Lord of joyous songs, O Vṛtra-slayer, Bull dear to all, who gives the power of living.
    Come unto us with thine auspicious friendship, hastening, Mighty One, with mighty succours.
    19 Like Aṅgiras I honour him with worship, and renovate old song for him the Ancient.
    Chase thou the many godless evil creatures, and give us, Maghavan, heaven's light to help me


    20 Far forth are spread the purifying waters convey thou us across them unto safety.
    Save us, our Charioteer, from harm, O Indra, soon, very soon, make us win spoil of cattle.
    21 His kine their Lord hath shown, e’en Vṛtra's slayer, through the black hosts he passed with red attendants.
    Teaching us pleasant things by holy Order, to, us hath he thrown open all his portals.
    22 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in this fight where spoil is gathered.
    The Strong who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers riches.



    HYMN XXXII. Indra
    1. DRINK thou this Soma, Indra, Lord of Soma; drink thou the draught of noonday which thou Iovest.
    Puffing thy cheeks, impetuous, liberal Giver, here loose thy two Bay Horses and rejoice thee.
    2 Quaff it pure, meal-blent, mixt with milk, O Indra; we have poured forth the Soma for thy rapture.
    Knit with the prayer-fulfilling band of Maruts, yea, with the Rudras, drink till thou art sated;
    3 Those who gave increase to thy strength and vigour; the Maruts singing forth thy might, O Indra.
    Drink thou, O fair of cheek, whose hand wields thunder, with Rudras banded, at our noon libation.
    4 They, even the Maruts who were there, excited with song the meath-created strength of Indra.
    By them impelled to act he reached the vitals Of Vṛtra, though he deemed that none might wound him.
    5 Pleased, like a man, with our libation, Indra, drink, for enduring hero might, the Soma.
    Lord of Bays, moved by sacrifice come hither: thou with the Swift Ones stirrest floods and waters.
    6 When thou didst loose the streams to run like racers in the swift contest, having smitten Vṛtra
    With flying weapon where he lay, O Indra, and, godless, kept the Goddesses encompassed.
    7 With reverence let us worship mighty Indra, great and sublime, eternal, everyouthful,
    Whose greatness the dear world-halves have not measured, no, nor conceived the might of him the Holy.
    8 Many are Indra's nobly wrought achievements, and none of all the Gods transgress his statutes.
    He beareth up this earth and heaven, and, doer of marvels, he begot the Sun and Morning.
    9 Herein, O Guileless One, is thy true greatness, that soon as born thou drankest up the Soma.
    Days may not check the power of thee the Mighty, nor the nights, Indra, nor the months, nor autumns.
    10 As soon as thou wast born in highest heaven thou drankest Soma to delight thee, Indra;
    And when thou hadst pervaded earth and heaven thou wast the first supporter of the singer.
    11 Thou, puissant God, more mighty, slewest. Ahi showing his strength when couched around the waters.
    The heaven itself attained not to thy greatness when with one hip of thine the earth was shadowed.
    12 Sacrifice, Indra, made thee wax so mighty, the dear oblation with the flowing Soma.
    O Worshipful, with worship help our worship, for worship helped thy bolt when slaying Ahi.
    13 With sacrifice and wish have I brought Indra; still for new blessings may I turn him hither,
    Him magnified by ancient songs and praises, by lauds of later time and days yet recent.
    14 I have brought forth a song when longing seized me: ere the decisive day will I laud Indra;
    Then may he safely bear us over trouble, as in a ship, when both sides invocate him.
    15 Full is his chalice: Glory! Like a pourer I have filled up the vessel for his drinking.
    Presented on the right, dear Soma juices have brought us Indra, to rejoice him, hither.
    16 Not the deep-flowing flood, O Much-invoked One! not hills that compass thee about restrain thee,

    Once here incited, for thy friends, O Indra, thou breakest e’en the firm built stall of cattle.
    17 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in this fight where spoil is gathered,
    The Strong who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers riches.

    HYMN XXXIV. Indra.
    1. FORT-RENDER, Lord of Wealth, dispelling foemen, Indra with lightnings hath o’ercome the Dāsa.
    Impelled by prayer and waxen great in body, he hath filled earth and heaven, the Bounteous Giver.
    2 I stimulate thy zeal, the Strong, the Hero decking my song of praise forth; Immortal.
    O Indra, thou art equally the Leader of heavenly hosts and human generations.


    Reading, his band Indra encompassed Vṛtra; weak grew the wily leader of enchanters.
    He who burns fierce in forests slaughtered Vyaṁsa, and made the Milch-kine of the nights apparent.
    4 Indra, light-winner, days' Creator, conquered, victorious, hostile bands with those who loved him.
    For man the days' bright ensign he illumined, and found the light for his joy and gladness.
    5 Forward to fiercely falling blows pressed Indra, herolike doing many hero exploits.
    These holy songs he taught the bard who gaised him, and widely spread these Dawns' resplendent colour.

    6 They laud the mighty acts of him the Mighty, the many glorious deeds performed by Indra.
    He in his strength, with all-surpassing prowess, through wondrous arts crushed the malignant Dasyus.


    7 Lord of the brave, Indra who rules the people gave freedom to the Gods by might and battle.
    Wise singers glorify with chanted praises these his achievements in Vivasvān's dwelling.
    8 Excellent, Conqueror, the victory-giver, the winner of the light and Godlike Waters,
    He who hath won this broad earth and this heaven, -in Indra they rejoice who love devotions.

    9 He gained possession of the Sun and Horses, Indra obtained the Cow who feedeth many.
    Treasure of gold he won; he smote the Dasyus, and gave protection to the Āryan colour.
    10 He took the plants and days for his possession; he gained the forest trees and air's mid-region.
    Vala he cleft, and chased away opponents: thus was he tamer of the overweening.
    11 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in the fight where spoil is gathered,
    The Strong, who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers treasures.

    HYMN XXXV Indra.
    1. MOUNT the Bay Horses to thy chariot harnessed, and come to us like Vāyu with his coursers.
    Thou, hastening to us, shalt drink the Soma. Hail, Indra. We have poured it for thy rapture.
    2 For him, the God who is invoked by many, the two swift Bay Steeds to the pole I harness,
    That they in fleet course may bring Indra hither, e’en to this sacrifice arranged completely.
    3 Bring the strong Steeds who drink the warm libation, and, Bull of Godlike nature, be thou gracious.
    Let thy Steeds eat; set free thy Tawny Horses, and roasted grain like this consume thou daily.
    4 Those who are yoked by prayer I harness, fleet friendly Bays who take their joy together.
    Mounting thy firm and easy car, O Indra, wise and all-knowing come thou to the Soma.
    5 No other worshippers must stay beside them thy Bays, thy vigorous and smooth-backed Coursers.
    Pass by them all and hasten onward hither: with Soma pressed we will prepare to feast thee.
    6 Thine is this Soma: hasten to approach it. Drink thou thereof, benevolent, and cease not.
    Sit on the sacred grass at this our worship, and take these drops into thy belly, Indra.
    7 The grass is strewn for thee, pressed is the Soma; the grain is ready for thy Bays to feed on.
    To thee who lovest them, the very mighty, strong, girt by Maruts, are these gifts presented.
    8 This the sweet draught, with cows, the men, the mountains, the waters, Indra, have for thee made ready.
    Come, drink thereof, Sublime One, friendly-minded, foreseeing, knowing well the ways thou goest.
    9 The Maruts, they with whom thou sharedst Soma, Indra, who made thee strong and were thine army,—
    With these accordant, eagerly desirous drink thou this Soma with the tongue of Agni.
    10 Drink, Indra, of the juice by thine own nature, or by the tongue of Agni, O thou Holy.
    Accept the sacrificial gift, O Śakra, from the Adhvaryu's hand or from the Hotar's.
    11 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in the fight where spoil is gathered,
    The Strong, who listens, who.gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers riches.


    HYMN XXXIX. Indra.
    1. To Indra from the heart the hymn proceedeth, to him the Lord, recited, built with praises;
    The wakening song sung forth in holy synod: that which is born for thee, O Indra, notice.
    2 Born from the heaven e’en in the days aforetime, wakening, sting aloud in holy synod,
    Auspicious, clad in white and shining raiment, this is the ancient hymn of our forefathers.
    3 The Mother of the Twins hath borne Twin Children: my tongue's tip raised itself and rested silent.
    Killing the darkness at the light's foundation, the Couple newly born attain their beauty.
    4 Not one is found among them, none of mortals, to blame our sires who fought to win the cattle.
    Their strengthener was Indra the Majestic he spread their stalls of kine the Wonder-Worker.
    5 Where as a Friend with friendly men, Navagvas, with heroes, on his knees he sought the cattle.
    There, verily with ten Daśagvas Indra found the Sun lying hidden in the darkness.
    6 Indra found meath collected in the milch-cow, by foot and hoof, in the cow's place of pasture.
    That which lay secret, hidden in the waters, he held in his right hand, the rich rewarder.
    7 He took the light, discerning it from darkness: may we be far removed from all misfortune.
    These songs, O Soma-drinker, cheered by Soma, Indra, accept from thy most zealous poet.
    8 Let there be light through both the worlds for worship: may we be far from most overwhelming evil.
    Great woe comes even from the hostile mortal, piled up; but good at rescue are the Vasus.
    9 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in the fight where spoil is gathered,
    The Strong, who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers riches.


    HYMN XLIX. Indra.
    1. GREAT Indra will I laud, in whom all people who drink the Soma have attained their longing;
    Whom, passing wise, Gods, Heaven and Earth, engendered, formed by a Master's hand, to crush the Vṛtras.
    2 Whom, most heroic, borne by Tawny Coursers, verily none subdueth in the battle;
    Who, reaching far, most vigorous, hath shortened the Dasyu's life with Warriors bold of spirit.
    3 Victor in fight, swift mover like a warhorse, pervading both worlds, rainer down of blessings,
    To he invoked in war like Bhaga, Father, as ’twere, of hymns, fair, prompt to hear, strength-giver.
    4 Supporting heaven, the high back of the region, his car is Vāyu with his team of Vasus.
    Illumining the nights, the Sun's creator, like Dhiṣaṇā he deals forth strength and riches.
    5 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in the fight where spoil is gathered;
    The Strong, who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers treasure.



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Thursday, March 16, 2017

What Happened to the Blacks of China ?

The first Blacks to settle China were the Anu or pgymies. After great flood the Anu, retreated to the Kunlun Mountains.

The Kushites after the flood made their way to China from two directions. The Megalithic Kushites came to East Asia by Sea between 3000-2500 BC. They spread across China depositing the megalithic and pyramid building culture in China from the coast up into North and Central China.

By 2300 BC the Elamites (Mande speakers) and Dravidians from the Indus Valley began to migrate through Central Asia into North China. They founded the Xia Dynasty recovered much of the land that was covered by water.

The Xia Dynasty declined and the Dravidians founded the first Shang dynasty. Most of the descendants of the Xia Dynasty that did not remain with Shang became the Qiang tribes.

In the Chinese literature the Blacks were called li-min, Kunlung, Ch'iang (Qiang), Yi and Yueh. The founders of the Xia Dynasty and the Shang Dynasties were blacks. These blacks were called Yueh and Qiang. There are many beautiful artifacts depicting these Blacks in the Shaanxi and Xian Museum: http://hua.umf.maine.edu/China/xian3.html#02

In accordance with the oral traditions of China, the founders of Chinese civilization were Huangdi and Fu Xi. These legendary rulers like Dai Hao, were all buried in zhiu (burial mounds). The presence of this mound culture in China supports the traditions of burial of elects in mound tombs.

The skeletal remains from southern China are predominately negroid. (Chang 1964, p.70) The people practiced single burials.
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In northern China the blacks founded many civilizations. The three major empires of China were the Xia Dynasty (c.2205-1766 B.C), Shang/ Yin Dynasty (c.1700-1050 B.C) and the Zhou Dynasty.The Zhou dynasty was the first dynasty founded by the Mongoloid people in China called Hua (Who-aa).

The founders of Xia and Shang came from the Fertile African Crescent by way of Iran. According to Chinese legends the first man Pan Gu, used a hammer 18,000 years ago to make man.
The Chinese legends designate various culture heroes as the inventors of various aspects of Chinese civilization. 

The Chinese term for emperor is Di. Huang Di (Yellow Emperor), is the Chinese culture hero credited with introducing boats, carts 'chariots, the bow and arrow, ceramics, wooded houses and writing.

Chinese civilization began along the Yellow river . Here the soil was fertile and black Chinese farmers grew millet 4000 years ago, and later soybeans. They also raised pigs and cattle. By 3500 B.C., the blacks in China were raising silkworms and making silk.

The culture hero Huang Di is a direct link of Africa. His name was pronounced in old Chinese Yuhai Huandi or Hu Nak Kunte. He was supposed to have arrived in China from the west in 2282 B.C., and settled along the banks of the Loh river in Shanxi. This transliteration of Huandgi, to Hu Nak Kunte is interesting because Kunte is a common clan name among the Manding speakers.

The Africans or blacks that founded civilization in China were often called li min "black headed people" by the Zhou dynasts. This term has affinity to the Sumero-Akkadian term sag- gig-ga "black headed people". These li min are associated with the Chinese cultural hero Yao.

In the Annals of the Bamboo Books, we learn that Yao devised a calendar to help regulate agrarian work through proper use of ritual and music and created a rudimentary government. The Annals of the Bamboo Books, makes it clear that Yao "he united and harmonized the myriad states [of his dominion], and the [li min] black headed people were reformed by his cordial agreement".

We also read that Shun, the successor of Yao, distinguished by his reputation as an obedient devoted son, noted to : "Ki [that] the Black headed people are suffering the distress of hunger". To help relieve the people Shun gave his throne over to Yu, the founder of the Shang Dynasty. Yu, in the Annals of the Bamboo Books, is reported to have noted that "...when a sovereign gives response to the people, he is kind, and the Black headed people cherish him in their heart". P> The first dynasty of China was Xia (She-ya). The Xia dynasty lasted from 2205 to 1766 B.C. According to the Guben zhu Shu zhi Nien, the Xia dynasty "from Yu to Zhieh had seventeen kings... and lasted 471 years". (Chang 1987)

Archaeologists believe that the major Xia sites are located in Shanxi and Henan. According to Chang (1987) northern Henan towards the end of the Longshan period was the eastern part of the Xia culture.

Xia was probably situated in the Yihe and Luohe river valleys, and along the Yinghe and Ruhe rivers. The capital of Xia was located in the Sangshan mountains.

The origins of Xia go back to the Longshan period. During the Longshan period burial goods included a large number of weapons, including stone lanceheads and arrows. This suggests that intersocial conflict was at its height during the Longshan periods, and warfare may have played a role in the rise of Xia. The Longshan neolithic is characterized by wheel-made pottery, bronze working, ceramics, wheeled vehicles, writing, rich grave goods and furnishings.

The Chinese histories tell us much about Xia. According to Chinese tradition the Xia built their settlements near rivers, lakes and streams. The Xia Dynasty is mentioned in the oracle bone records.

The leaders of Xia were granted rule based on their Ssu (clan) membership. The Xia naming system employed the ten celestial stems the same as the Shang people. (Chang 1980,p.353)

The national tree of the Xia li min was the pine. This tree was used in the earth ritual.
Xia social organization, and life was based on the clan . 


The totems of the major Xia clans were aquatic animals: fish, tortoise, turtle and etc. This view is supported by the myth recorded in the Annals of the Bamboo Books, which claims that Yu's mother swallowed a spirits pearl before the birth of Di (Lord) Yu, founder of the Xia Dynasty. Moreover , the dragon motif is common at Xia sites. A pan vessel was found at Taosi, with a red painted dragon motif.

The Chinese histories make it clear that the Xia had writing and tortoise books. This view can be supported by the pottery marks on the Longshan and Erlitou pottery. (Chang 1987, p.265)

Xia is considered the first dynasty of the sandai (three Dynasties) of ancient China: Xia, Shang and Zhou. There are many references to the Xia people. The Xia people were recognized as westerners, because they settled the middle Yellow river region of China. As a result they were called the Hua Xia "the middle states people".

There are numerous textual references to Xia. Han Fei Tzu writing in the third century B.C., in his Shih Guo, observed that:
"Yu made the ritual vessels painting the interior black and the exterior in red."
The tradition recorded by Han, of the black-and-red ware for the Xia li min suggest some relationship of Xia to the Yangshao culture which also used BRW and analogous pottery signs.

Chang (1987) believes that the legendary sages and heroes of China, probably lived during the Lungshan culture period. The Lungshan culture had walled cities and evidence of rank and rituals. This clearly illustrates how archaeology can compliment textual history.
The artifacts of Erlitou include BRW, red-and-black and buff wares. These artifacts were made of stone, shell and bronze.

The bronze instruments found by archaeologists at Erlitou sites correspond to the descriptions by Yuan Kang, in the Yueh Zhueh Shu, quoting the philosopher Feng Hu Tzu of the tools made by the Xia. Yuan Kang wrote that:
"In the Age of Yu, weapons were made of bronze, for building canals...and..houses...."
The black-and-red ware (BRW) common to the Fertile African Crescent was also used in China. There is affinity between the BRW from Nubia, and the pottery from Yangshao sites in the Henan and Gansu sites of China.
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The textual history of Xia is synthesized in the Chinese book Shih Zhi. This evidence from the Shih Zhi, was used by Hsu Husheng , of the Chinese Institute of Archaeology, to find the xu (ruins) of Xia: the Xia xu. Hsu Husheng using this source hypothesized that the center for traditional Xia Dynasty towns was the Loyang plains and the Dengfeng river valley. This coincides with the Erlitou sites of this area which date to 2100- 1800 B.C.

The Xia people were recognized as being different people from the mongoloid Chinese they politically dominate China today as a people that came from the west (i.e., Iran), before they settled the middle Yellow river. A Zhou saying observed that :
"The rituals [or rules of] the Three Dynasties [sandai] are one".

The early Xia lived on mounds, in houses made of grass and mud. Pounded earth walls surrounded Xia villages to protect the li mim from attack. The Xia probably spoke a Manding language. This view is supported by the earlier discussion of the analogy between ancient Chinese and Manding.


The modern Chinese are descendants of the Hua tribes that founded Zhou. The second Shang Dynasty ( situated at Anyang) was founded by the Yin. As a result this dynasty is called Shang-Yin. The Yin or Oceanic Mongoloid type is associated with the Austronesian speakers ( Kwang-chih Chang, "Prehistoric and early historic culture horizons and traditions in South China", Current Anthropology, 5 (1964) pp.359-375 :375). 

The Classical Mongoloids, Austronesian or Oceanic Mongoloid type were called Yin, Feng, Yen, Zhiu Yi and Lun Yi.

The Classical mongoloids appear to may have originated in Anatolia. The Han and Mongolians (the taller) mongoloids originated in the Tian Shan mountains.

During the Anyang-Shang period, the Qiang lived in Ch'iang Fang, a country to the west of Yin-Shang . The Qiang people were often referred to as the Ta Qiang "many Qiang", they were used as agricultural workers, and used in Yin-Shang ancestral rites as sacrifice victims.


The Dravidians mated with Classical mongoloids. The Classical mongoloids conquered the Shang, and founded the Anyang-Shang Empire.

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The Yueh /Yue zhi or Dravido-Shang retreated into Yunnan. In Yunnan they founded several States. The principal States founded by these Blacks before the rise of the Qin Chinese Empire were the States of Yue-Wu and Ba-Shu.
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Yunnan Bronze

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The Yue-Wu state was part of the ‘geometric impressed pottey culture of South China. The Yue-Wu culture extended from the South China Sea to Taiwan. Yue-Wu was conquered by the Chinese King Weiwang of the Chu State.

Ba-Shu was a Black state established in the southwestern part of Sichuen and the Dian state of Yunnan. It appears that Ba-Shu was state founded by the Anu or Pygmy people. They were later joined by Mande and Dravidian speakers from Xia and Shang.


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The diversity of ethnic groups in Ba-Shu is made evident in the Buckle ornament with a ritual scene from Lijishan in Jiangchuan, China. The people of Ba-Shu were referred to as the southern Man. They represent the ancestors of the Baiman, Puman and Wuman.

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The Ba state was centered in the area of Chengdu, Sihcuan. The Shu state was separated from the Central plains by Qin and Ba. They were known as great seamen .

The Ba-Shu made ordinary earthen pit graves and boat coffins. They worked in bronze and had their own writing system. The artifacts from Dapona resemble the bronze from Lake Dian, a centre of the Dong-son culture.

After the Black states of Yue, Ba and Shu were defeated by Qin, the Yueh people fled to the southwest and into Annam. During the Han Dynasty the fragmented Yueh states and people were incorporated in the Han Empire.

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The Yueh (Dravido-Shang), who were not incorporated in the Han Empire. began to migrate southward into Southeast Asia. By this time the major power in Southeast Asia, were the Naga kings from Ethiopia.

The Han/Mongolians began to migrate out of the Tian Shan mountains and took control of Anyang-Shang. This forced the classical Mongoloid people to migrate into Indonesia.

Other classical mongoloids began to migrate into Southeast Asia and onto the Islands as they fled East Asia (China). The Classical mongoloids and the megalithic Kushites are probably the ancestors of the Polynesians.

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