I believe that the Sumerians, Harappans, Elamites and Manding speaking people all came from an ancient civilization that formerly existed in the ancient Sahara, of middle Africa.
The Fertile Saharan Crescent is an arc shaped series of highland regions in the Saharan zone of Africa. The Saharan zone is
bounded on the north by the Atlas mountains, the Atlantic Ocean in the West, the tropical rain forest in the south and the Red
Sea in the East. It was here that the ancestors of the founders of the river valley civilizations in Africa, the Middle East, China
and Indus Valley developed their highly organized and technological societies (Winters 1983a, 1985b).
The discovery of Intercultural style vessels from Susa (in Iran),Sumerian, Egyptian and Indus Valley sites suggest a shared
ideological identity among these people . In fact the appearance of shared iconographic symbols and beliefs within diverse areas suggest cultural and ethnic unity among the people practicing these cultures. The common naturalistic motifs shared by the major civilizations include, writing (symbols), combatant snakes , the scorpion, bull and etc. This evidence of cultural unity is explained by the origin of these people in the Proto-Sahara.
The Proto-Saharans similar terms for writing. In general the term for writing was formed by the labial stops /p/ and /b/. For example:
Dravidian par 'write'
Manding bo, bu 'make a stroke', sebe 'write'
Elamite tipu 'to write'
Galla tafa 'to write'
There are also other corresponding terms for 'mark', or 'draw' that begin with velar stops:
Dravidian kiri, kuri 'write, draw, mark'
Egyptian hti 'carve'
Manding kiri, kiti 'mark'
In Egyptian we have several terms for write 0 ss #, 0 zs # , and 0 ssw #. During the Old Kingdom writing was referred to as 0
iht # .
The Egyptian term for writing 0 ssw # is analogous to the Mande terms 0 sewe # or 0 sebe # 'writing, trace, design'. In
Dravidian among other terms we have rasu 'write', and shu 'writing' in Sumerian. The Egyptian term 0 zs # is also closely
related to Sumerian 0 shu #.
Writing systems among African people were mainly devised for two purposes. Firstly, to help merchants keep records on the
business venture they made. Secondly, the Proto-Saharan script was also used to preserve religious doctrines or write
The scarcity of documents, written for historical preservation among ancient African groups resulted from the fact that the keeping of history, was usually left in the hands of traditional (oral) historians. These historians memorized the histories of their nation and people for future recitation before members of their respective communities. This oral history was often accompanied by music or delivered in poetic verse and remains the premier source for the history of most African nations even today.
It is obvious that the first inscriptions were engraved in stone by the Proto-Saharans , or a stylus was used to engrave wet clay. The use of the stylus or stick to engrave clay is most evident in the pottery marks found on the pottery excavated at many ancient sites which possess similar symbols impressed on the pottery.
This view is supported by the fact that the term for writing in Dravidian and Egyptian include the consonants /l/, /r/ or /d/.
A "u", is usually attached to the initial consonants (Winters 1985b). For example:
Sumerian ru, shu
These terms agree with the Manding terms for excavate or hollow out 0 du #, 0 do #, 0 kulu #, 0 tura #, etc. The Sumerian term for writing was 0 du #. This show that the Proto-Saharan term for writing denoted the creation of impressions on wet clay and hard rock.
The origin of writing among the Proto-Saharans as an activity involving the engraving of stone is most evident in the Egyptian
language. This hypothesis is supported by the Egyptian words 0 m(w)dt #. The term 0 md t # means both '(sculptor's) chisel'
and 'papyrus-roll, book'. The multiple meanings of 0 md t # makes it clear that the Egyptian, and probably other descendants of the Proto-Saharans saw a relationship between engraving stone and the creation of books.
Other Egyptian lexical items also support the important role Proto-Saharans saw in engraving rocks, and writing. In addition to 0md t # we have, 0 hti # 'carve, sculpture' and 0 iht # 'writing'. The fact that iht is an Old Kingdom term for writing, almost identical to hti, is further evidence that writing involved the engraving of stone.
The ancient Proto-Saharan settlers of of Asia and Africa, as their ancestors in the Fertile African Crescent used the term Ko to denote a rock, stone, envoy and God. Ko, may have been a variation of the word Kos "horned ram". The ram among the dwellers of the Fertile African Crescent was the primordial symbol of the Deity who was usually called: Amma, Amon/Amun, Amen and etc. The earliest representation of this deity are found in the Sahara which predate the worship of Amon-Ra in Egypt by 1000 years. Also, an unexcavated ram headed sphinx much older than the Egyptian sphinx, believed to be a rock formation, is presently situated at Siwa, in the Eastern Desert.
Due to the fact that Ko, in the languages spoken by the Proto-Saharans meant 'stone', made it natural for this term to symbolize
God, since the Deity represents both stability and power. Moreover since the Fertile African Crescent and later the Carpathian Basin were settled during a Golden Age, characterized by stability and reason, gave the term Ko a double meaning among the Proto-Saharans 1) stability and 2) power, God.
………….Man child woman person
Dravidian al mog manuci, asa uk
Sumerian tin,mu, lu manus uku
Manding tye, molo musa musu moko
Magyar muki, el 'person' mag anyuci,asszony muki
ENGLISH SUMERIAN MANDING TAMIL
chief kal,kala kele-tigi gasa(n)
field gan ga kalan
eye(l) igi akki
eye(2) ini,en nya kan
arrow kak kala kakam
granary kur k'ur-k'ur kutir
road sila sila caalai
father pap pa appan
lord manus mansa mannan
male mu moko maakkal
to recite sid siti
to buy sa sa cel
grain se se
seed gen ge 'to sprout'
The linguistic data support the unity of NKSD civilizations.