Thursday, January 29, 2015

Many Black Native Americans were sold into Slavery

The DNA does not deny the possibility that 20% of African ancestry is of Native American origin. When Europeans got here there were already Black Native Americans, e.g., the Nanticoke that used Mande numerals.

During slavery many Indians North were sold into slavery. The numerous laws regulating trade in Indian slaves in New England illustrate the extensive nature of the trade. This provided ample opportunies for Indians to mate with slaves. Other NA married free AA, many of European origin.

The Indians from New England down into South Carolina and Virginia, were sold into slavery. In INDIAN SLAVERY IN COLONIAL TIMES WITHIN THE PRESENT LIMITS OF THE UNITED STATES, BY ALMON WHEELER LAUBER (http://archive.org/stream/indianslavery00laubrich/indianslavery00laubrich_djvu.txt
), we learn that the Black Native American tribes like the Nanticoke and Yamasse were sold into slavery


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Eventhough Kittle recognizes less than 10%. The number is much higher. Lets not forget that the Native American (NA) mtDNA haplogroups A2,B2,C1 and D1 are rooted in African L3. For example, the NA haplogroup A2i is represented by the T3308A has a transversion with an insertion of T3308C. This parallels the T3308C transition in the African haplogroup L1b.

Henry Lewis Gates, joked about the fact that many AAs who self identified themselves as having Indian heritage, ended up carrying haplogroup R1-M173. As a result Gates claimed they must have European heritage.

I believe that Africans who carry R1, indicate their Indian heritage. NA people carry R-M173.


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The presence of R1, probably denotes the African heritage of many North American Native American populations. Some researchers claim that NA must have European heritage because some carry haplogroup R-M269.

Moreover the majority of Native America (NA) haplogroup R is M-173, not M269. And lets not forget that Khoisan, Pgymy , Fula and etc., carry M269, and in Equatorial Guinea 17% of Africans carry R1b1-P25. This indicates that this y-chromosome was widespread in Africa. And could have be transferred to NA by Pre-Columbian Blacks, Black Europeans or African slaves who mainly came to the U.S., from the Senegambian and Guinea region of West Africa.

As a result, the presence of between 19-22% AA males carrying R1, is probably evidence of their Native American heritage.


Finally there was never extensive intermarriage between Northeastern Native Americans and Europeans so Europeans can not account for the spread of R-M173 among Native Americans .The presence of R1 among NA probally accounts for a high percentage of the 22% of AA that carry this haplogroup. You add these AAs to the 10% that carry the Native American mtDNA, we would probably have 20% or more of AAs that have a NA heritage.

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3 comments:

Marsha Stewart said...

Dr. Winters: I have been following your work for years. And just recently started delving into this topic. If the current Native Americans didn't get to what we call America until 300BC, then who were the 56,000 --first Americans already here. I believe that the Eastern Part of the US had Black Tribes, and they were the ones sold into slavery. I believe the AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE may have happened but not to the extent that we are told because the slave trade was the Negro Native Tribes already in the US to Central and South America and not from AFRICA

African Mende Script has similar writing systems to American Native Cherokee Scripts. Cherokee Script (1832-33) is an Indigenous Script in North America connected with Sub-Saharan Africa Scripts of Liberia and Sierra Leone. Also included is a relatively modern script in Liberia which may have Cherokee influence. (Cherokee & West Africa: Examining the Origin of the VAI Script by Konrad Tuchscherer, Vol 29 2002, P. 427 to 486.)

Marsha Stewart said...

Some “card-carrying” Cherokees currently have NO ASIATIC DNA. The level of Haplogroup T in the Cherokee (26.9%) approximates the same percentage of 25% or what is found in Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Yemen. Egypt is one of the only lands where T attains a major position among the various mitochondrial lineages. Skin color and facial features are primarily like people who live in these countries. Genetically, they are more Jewish—like the Lemba Tribe of South Africa. In the Lemba Clan known as the Buba Clan, 53% of the males carry the unique DNA signature of Jewish priests. Males form the Lemba Tribe carry a higher incidence of the Jewish priestly DNA signature than today’s European and American Jewish population. Both Arabs and Jews share this DNA, but the Cohen Modal Haplotype, an indicator of Jewish ancestry, has been found among the males of one leadership clan at rates even higher than the general Jewish population than the typical American Jew of European ancestry.

Creek and Seminole descendants carry identifiable DNA markers from Mexico, Central America and South America. They have African DNA Roots. The Cherokees, for example, test with high levels of DNA markers associated with the Berbers, Native Egyptians (Remember, Egypt is a Greek word meaning BLACK), Turks, Lebanese, Hebrews, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and Mesopotamian.

Dr. Clyde Winters said...

The Cherokee script was just a copy of the Mande script. Look at the creator.s dress . He wears a turban. Turbans were usually worn by African Muslims. It is evident this Cherokee was heavily influenced by Africans.