The DNA does not deny the possibility that 20% of African ancestry is of Native American origin. When Europeans got here there were already Black Native Americans, e.g., the Nanticoke that used Mande numerals.
During slavery many Indians North were sold into slavery. The
numerous laws regulating trade in Indian slaves in New England illustrate the
extensive nature of the trade. This provided ample opportunies for Indians to
mate with slaves. Other NA married free AA, many of European origin.
Indians from New England down into South Carolina and Virginia, were sold into
slavery. In INDIAN SLAVERY IN COLONIAL TIMES WITHIN THE PRESENT LIMITS OF THE
UNITED STATES, BY ALMON WHEELER LAUBER
we learn that the Black Native American tribes like the Nanticoke and Yamasse
were sold into slavery
Eventhough Kittle recognizes
less than 10%. The number is much higher. Lets not forget that the Native
American (NA) mtDNA haplogroups A2,B2,C1 and D1 are rooted in African L3. For
example, the NA haplogroup A2i is represented by the T3308A has a transversion
with an insertion of T3308C. This parallels the T3308C transition in the African
Henry Lewis Gates, joked about the fact that many AAs who
self identified themselves as having Indian heritage, ended up carrying
haplogroup R1-M173. As a result Gates claimed they must have European
I believe that Africans who carry R1, indicate their Indian
heritage. NA people carry R-M173.
The presence of R1, probably
denotes the African heritage of many North American Native American populations.
Some researchers claim that NA must have European heritage because some carry
Moreover the majority of Native America (NA)
haplogroup R is M-173, not M269. And lets not forget that Khoisan, Pgymy , Fula
and etc., carry M269, and in Equatorial Guinea 17% of Africans carry R1b1-P25.
This indicates that this y-chromosome was widespread in Africa. And could have
be transferred to NA by Pre-Columbian Blacks, Black Europeans or African slaves
who mainly came to the U.S., from the Senegambian and Guinea region of West
As a result, the presence of between 19-22% AA males carrying R1,
is probably evidence of their Native American heritage.
was never extensive intermarriage between Northeastern Native Americans and
Europeans so Europeans can not account for the spread of R-M173 among Native
Americans .The presence of R1 among NA probally accounts for a high percentage
of the 22% of AA that carry this haplogroup. You add these AAs to the 10% that
carry the Native American mtDNA, we would probably have 20% or more of AAs that
have a NA heritage.