No one disputes the points I made below with research articles they only give their personal opinions.
Here are the 22 undisputed proofs of Blacks in America when Columbus arrived in the Americas.
- 1) The original Maya beginning with the
Ocos , as illustrated by their the art, were Black Native Americans;
2) The Black Native Americans lived from Chiapas to Belize, Guatemala and Hondurus; Quatrefages and Rafinesque wrote about these Blacks
3) The root of the Mayan language is the Mande languages
4) The first Americans based on skeletal remains : Naia and Luzia were Negroes or Black
5) The Blacks according to researchers have been in Brazil since 100,000BC
6) The Khoisan took MtDNA haplogroups N and y-haplogroup E to Eurasia and the Americas
7) There are no “pure” Mexindians. Lisker noted that between 5-50% of Indian genes are African genes. See: Suarez-Diaz,(2014) Indigenous populations in Mexico. Medical anthropology in the Work of Ruben Lisker in the 1960’s. Studies in History and Philosop-hy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47 (p.117).
8) Mixe, Zenu , Wayuu and other Mexican groups with YAP+ associated A-G transition at DYS271, is of African origin.
10) Indian y-chromosome haplogroups C and D show African admixture at locus DYS271
11) The American haplogroups A and B are part of the haplogroup N macrohaplogroup Ch’ol and Chontal at Campeche carry R-M173, E1b1b, K and T.
12) Africans people carry mtDNA A common to mongoloid Native Americans and y-chromosome R, so they probably passed on these genes to mongoloid Native Americans
13) The Spanish explorers mentioned Black Nations and Black tribes in the Americas, they met, even before African slaves were landed in America
14) The Spanish said the Aztecs were Negroes.
15) Paul Gaffarel (2010) that when Balboa reached America he found "negre veritables" or true Blacks. Balboa noted "...Indian traditions of Mexico and Central America indicate that Negroes were among the first occupants of that territory." This is why so many Mexicans have "African faces".
16. Vasco da Gama is said to have found information about the West Indies from Ahmad b. Majid, whom he met along the West Coast of Africa . Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.
17)Majid wrote a handbook of navigation on the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, Sea of Southern China and the waters around the West Indian Islands. Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.
18) Majid is also said to be the inventor of the compassSee: Ferrand,G. (1928). Introduction a l’astrnomie nautique des Arabes, Paris.
19) Black Native Mayan people have left iconography in the sub-pyramids at Tikal, San Bartolo and Xultun murals which depict the creators of these monuments as Negroes or Blacks
20) Ancient Mayan Skeletons carried sickle cell.See: Wailoo, Keith. (2002). Drawing Blood: Technology and Disease Identity in Twentieth-Century America. JHU Press; and Whittington, S. L., & Reed, D. M. (1997). Bones of the Maya: Studies of ancient skeletons. Washington, D.C: Smithonian Institution Press.
21. There are no “pure” Mexindians. Lisker noted that between 5-50% of Indian genes are African genes. See: Suarez-Diaz,(2014) Indigenous populations in Mexico. Medical anthropology in the Work of Ruben Lisker in the 1960’s. Studies in History and Philosop-hy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47 (p.117).
22) The Mayan calendar was invented by the Xi, or Mande speaking Olmec people.