There is continuity between the DNA carried by Paleoamericans and West Africans. Paleoamericans, like the Anzick child carried haplogroup D, which is the same as African M1, and R-M173. Both of these haplogroups are carried by West Africans.
There is no continuity between the Anzick man and contemporary mongoloid Native Americans. In A genomic view of the peopling of the Americas, by Pontus Skoglund, and David Reich:http://genetics.med.harvard.edu/reichlab/Reich_Lab/Welcome_files/SkoglundReich2016_Americas.pdf
the researchers noted that " The most surprising finding was that the Anzick individual is from a population more closely related to Central Americans and South Americans than to some northern North Americans (including all speakers of Algonquian languages studied to date), despite the apparent common ancestral origin of Native Americans across the continents. "
Look at how researchers make confusing statements,. If the Anzick man is not related to contemporary "northern North Americans (including all speakers of Algonquian languages studied to date)", there is in reality no "apparent common ancestral origin of Native Americans across the continents " .
Haplogroup M was a common Paleoamerican haplogroup. Most contemporary Native Americans carry mtDNA that belongs to the M macrohaplogroup, name A and B.
Given the fact that the other ancient Eurasians and Paleoamericans carried haplogroup M, e.g., the 5000 year old skeletons carrying haplogroup M from China Lake, British Columbia (Malhi et al., 2007), more than likely Naia of Mexico was D1 and Anzick child was D4.
The Anzick child and Naia carried the D haplogroup , which is the name for M1, in Asia. Haplotypes with HVSI transitions defining 16129-16223-16249-16278-16311-16362; and 16129-16223-16234-16249-16211-16362 have been found in Thailand and among the Han Chinese (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002) and these were originally thought to be members of Haplogroup M1. However, on the basis of currently available FGS sequences, carriers of these markers have been found to be in the D4a branch of Haplogroup D , the most widespread branch of M1 in East Asia (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002). The transitions 16129,16189,16249 and 16311 are known to be recurrent in various branches of Haplogroup M, especially M1 and D4.
The presence of SSA in North America suggests an African origin for the presence of y-DNA R-M173 among Native Americans. This results from the high frequency of haplogroup R1, among African populations across the African Continent, and especially in West Africa (Gonzalez et al., 2012; Winters, 2010, 2011b).
The pristine form of R1*M173 is found only in Africa (Cruciani et al., 2002, 2010). The frequency of Ychromosome R1*-M173 in Africa range between 7-95% and averages 39.5% (Coia et al., 2005). The R*- M173 (haplotype 117) chromosome is found frequently in Africa, but rare to extremely low frequencies in Eurasia. The Eurasian R haplogroup is characterized by R1b3-M269. The M269 derived allele has a M207/M173 background.
Y-chromosome V88 (R1b1a) has its highest frequency among Chadic speakers, while the carriers of V88 among Niger-Congo speakers (predominately Bantu people) range between 2-66% (Cruciani et al., 2010; Bernielle-Lee et al., 2009). Haplogroup V88 includes the mutations M18, V35 and V7. Cruciani et al., (2010) revealed that R-V88 is also carried by Eurasians including the distinctive mutations M18, V35 and V7. R1b1-P25 is found in Western Eurasia.
Haplogroup R1b1* is found in Africa at various frequencies. In Table 3, we present the frequencies of R-M269 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Berniell-Lee et al., (2009) found in their study that 5.2% of SSA carried Rb1*. The frequency of R1b1* among the Bantu ranged from 2-20. The bearers of R1b1* among the Pygmy populations ranged from 1- 25% (Berniell-Lee et al., 2009). The frequency of R1b1 among Guinea-Bissau populations was 12% (Carvalho et al., 2010).
Henn et al., (2011) was surprised by this revelation of R-M269 among this Khoisan population. As a result, he interviewed the carries of R1b1b2a1a, and learned that no members of their families had relations with Europeans.
The presence of R lineages among hunter-gatherer (HG) populations is not new. Wood et al., reported Khoisan carriers of R-M269 (Wood et al., 2005). Bernielle-Lee et al., (2009), in their study of the Baka and Bakola pygmies found the the R1b1* haplogroup (Bernielle-Lee et al., 2009). These researchers made it clear that the Baka samples clustered closely to Khoisan samples (Bernielle-Lee et al., 2009). The most common R haplogroup in Africa is V88. Given the interaction between hunter-gatherer (HG) groups and agro-pastoral groups they live in close proximity too, we would assume that African HG would carry the V88 lineage.
Yet, as pointed out above the HG populations carry R-M269 instead of V88 (Winters, 2011b). The implications of R-M269 among HG populations, and Henn et al., (2011) of shared African HG genome suggest that R-M269 may represent a HG genome thus an ancient African R lineage. The presence of R-M269 among HG human groupings fails to support a back migration of R-M269 from Europe.
In a recent article on the R1 clade, Gonzalez et al., (2012), argue that R1 probably spread across Europe from Iberia to the east given the distribution of R1 in Africa.
The M haplogroup was first introduced to the Americas by the Khoisan who introduced the Clovis and Solutrean tool kits in the Americas. The Khoisan carries the most ancient mtDNA and y-chromosome haplogroups in addition to haplogroups M and R1. This suggests that the paleoamericans were probably Khoisan as suggested by Coon (1962), Howells (1973, 1989) and Dixon (2001). These Paleoamericans introduced haplogroups M and R into the America.
The Khoisan people came to the Americas between 20-10kya. They began to settle Europe 44kya.
Berniell-Lee G, Calafell F, Bosch E, Heyer E, Sica L, Mouguiama-Daouda P, Van der Veen L, Hombert JM, Quintana-Murci L and Comas D (2009). Genetic and Demographic Implications of the Bantu Expansion: Insights from Human Paternal Lineages. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26(7) 1581- 1589; Available: doi:10.1093/molbev/msp069.
Carvalho M, Brito P, Bento AM, Gomes V, Antunes H, Costa HA, Lopes V, Serra A, Balsa F, Andrade L, Anjos MJ, Corte-Real F and Gusmão L (2011). Paternal and maternal lineages in GuineaBissau population. Forensic Sciences International Genetic 5(2) 114-6.
Coia V, Destro-Bisol G, Verginelli F, Battaggia C, Boschi I, Cruciani F, Spedini G, Comas D and Calafell F (2005). Brief communication: mtDNA variation in North Cameroon: lack of Asian lineages and implications for back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, (electronically published May 13, 2005; accessed August 5, 2005). (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/110495269/PDFSTART
Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Sellitto D, Massaia A, destroy-Bisol G, Watson E and Colomb EB (2010). European Journal of Human Genetics (6 January 2010), Available: doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.231: 1-8
Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Shen P, Macaulay V, Moral P and Olckers A (2002). A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa is supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics 70 1197-1214.
Coon CS (1962). The Origin of Races (New York: Knopf).
Dixon EJ (2001). Human colonization of the Americas: timing, chronology and process. Quaternary Science Review 20 277–99.
Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Horai S.(2001). Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Thailand. J Hum Genet , 46:115-125.
Gonzalez et al., (2012). The genetic landscape of Equatorial Guinea and the origin and migration routes of the Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88. European Journal of Human Genetics, advance online publication 15 August 2012; Available: doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2012.167.
Gonder MK, Mortensen HM, Reed FA, de Sousa A, Tishkoff SA.(2006).: Whole mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages. Mol Biol Evol., Dec 28.
Howells WW (1973). Cranial Variation in Man: A Study by Multivariate Analysis of Patterns of Difference among Recent Human Populations. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University 67.
Howells WW (1989). Skull Shapes and the Map: Craniometric Analyses in the Dispersion of ModernHomo. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Winters C (2011a). Comment: Genetic Evidence of Early Migrations into America. Retrived 2/18/2015:http://www.plosone.org/annotation/listThread.action?root=18395
Winters C (2011b). Is Native American R Y-Chromosome of African Origin?. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 3(6) 555-558.
Winters C (2011c). The Gibraltar Out of Africa Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans. Webmed Central Biology 2(10) WMC002319, Available: http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/2319
Winters,C. (2015). THE PALEOAMERICANS CAME FROM AFRICA,jirr.htm2015 Vol. 3 (3) July-September, pp.71-83/Winter.https://www.academia.edu/17137182/THE_PALEOAMERICANS_CAME_FROM_AFRICA
Winters,C. (2015a). AFRICAN ORIGIN OF NATIVE AMERICAN R1-M173. International Journal of Innovative Research and Review , 3 (1):21-29. http://www.cibtech.org/J-Innovative-Research-Review/Publications/2015/Vol-3-No-1/04-JIRR-004-CLYDE-AFRICAN.pdf
_________HLA-B*35 IN MEXICAN AMERINDIANS AND
AFRICAN , https://www.academia.edu/11789004/HLA-B_35_IN_MEXICAN_AMERINDIANS_AND_AFRICAN_POPULATIONS
___________Inference of Ancient Black Mexican Tribes and DNA, http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/4856
_______________. AFRICAN ORIGINS PALEOAMERICAN DNA .https://www.academia.edu/12231300/AFRICAN_ORIGINS_PALEOAMERICAN_DNA
Yao YG, Kong QP, Bandelt HJ, Kivisild T, Zhang YP.(2002). Phylogeographic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Han chinese. Am J Hum Genet , 70:635-651.
Sunday, February 12, 2017
Subscribe to: Post Comments (Atom)
Post a Comment