The genetic prehistory of the Greater Caucasus, by Chuan-Chao Wang, Sabine Reinhold Reinhold, Alexey Kalmykov, Antje Wissgott, Guido Brandt, Choongwon Jeong, Olivia Cheronet, Matthew Ferry, Eadaoin Harney, Denise Keating, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Kristin Stewardson, Anatoly R. Kantorovich, Vladimir E. Maslov, Vladimira G. Petrenko, Vladimir R. Erlikh, Biaslan C. Atabiev, Rabadan G. Magomedov, Philipp L. Kohl, Kurt W. Alt, Sandra L. Pichler, Claudia Gerling, Harald Meller, Benik Vardanyan, Larisa Yeganyan, Alexey D. Rezepkin, Dirk Mariaschk, Natalia Y. Berezina, Julia Gresky, Katharina Fuchs, Corina Knipper, Stephan Schiffels, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovsky, Iain Mathieson, Thomas Higham, Yakov B. Berezin, Alexandra P. Buzhilova, Viktor Trifonov, Ron Pinhasi, Andrej B. Belinskiy, David Reich, Svend Hansen, Johannes Krause, Wolfgang Haak, https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/05/16/322347
This article, The genetic prehistory of the Greater Caucasus,, claims that the Steppe people carried Y-Chromosome R,R1a,Rl1b. These clades along with the Caucasus clades were all carried by the Kushites who settled these areas and expanded across Europe herding cattle and cultivating millet See: Article. These Kushites originally lived in Anatolia and the Levant. They introduced the Bell Beaker culture to Europe. The earliest evidence for Bell Beaker culture and Kushites comes from Africa.
DNA tests can accurately differentiate between individuals. But as noted by this article."To answer a specific question about individual ancestry, you need to supplement your mtDNA or Y chromosome genetic information with reliable historical records."See: Article
This is why when you take a DNA test you get percentages showing the various connections you have with different regions. Eurocentrists love to cite population genetics data to "refute" this or that claim but this is smoke and mirrors. See Article
This article explains why Eurocentrists make many claims about a so called Eurasian back migration to Africa, but they never support this claim with archaeological evidence. They can't support this claim because the Bell Beaker people were Kushites from Africa See web site. The Kushites did not speak Indo-European languages
It is interesting to note that all the papers published on the so-called Anatolian "Indo-Europeans", including the article being discussed in this post are written by the same authors, including Iain Mathieson,David Reich, Svend Hansen, Johannes Krause, and Wolfgang Haak, the only people missing are Lazaridis and Olalde. Moreover, in most cases the researchers are associated with David Reich and the Department of Archaeogenetics, Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany .
Upon reading these articles on the Early Hunter-Gatherers of Europe, and Early European Farmers you see that the references cited in the articles are written by the same people Iain Mathieson, David Reich, Wolfgang Haak , Lazaridis and Olalde or the researchers is from the Max-Planck Institute. There is nothing wrong with this . This is what researchers do they cite prior work to illustrate how the research is expanding.
But, readers ignore this fact. And act as if some new discovery has been made, when the articles are a rehash of earlier publications by these same authors. For example in this paper the authors cite their earlier research :
19. Haak W, et al. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522, 207-211 (2015).
23. Lazaridis I, et al. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature 536, 419-424 (2016).
24. Mathieson I, et al. The genomic history of southeastern Europe. Nature,(2018).
26. Lazaridis I, et al. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513, 409-413 (2014).
27. Mathieson I, et al. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians. Nature 528, 499-503 (2015).
35. Olalde I, et al. The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe. Nature, (2018).
42. Olalde I, et al. Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-
963 year-old Mesolithic European. Nature 507, 225-228 (2014).
47. Moorjani P, Sankararaman S, Fu Q, Przeworski M, Patterson N, Reich D. A genetic method for dating ancient genomes provides a direct estimate of human generation interval in the last 45,000 years. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113, 5652-5657 (2016).
66. Rohland N, Harney E, Mallick S, Nordenfelt S, Reich D. Partial uracil-DNA glycosylase treatment for screening of ancient DNA. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 370, 20130624 (2015).
It is worth noting that these authors can cite their on own research in the articles that they write and publish--but when I cite my earlier research , and other Afrocentrist authors some readers act as if I have committed a crime.
It appears that it is okay for Eurocentrists to cite their own research in their articles about the first Europeans who were in reality Black/Sub-Saharan Africans--not Indo-European. Readers accept as valid research by a Computer specialist such as Lazaridis; but other researchers, including myself who are non-geneticists is ignored. It appears that many people accept the promotion of "White Supremacist" ideas about the settlement of Europe by established researchers when they are not supported by archaeological, linguistic and other research. Shame on you.