Monday, December 17, 2018

Haplogroup L3(M,N) Originated in Africa 70,000 Years Ago--Not Eurasia


Vicente M. Cabrera , Patricia Marrero, Khaled K. Abu-Amero and Jose M. Larruga. 2018. Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 basal lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago. Cabrera et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2018) 18:98 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1211-4
The authors said: “ Results: The coalescence ages of all Eurasian (M,N) and African (L3 ) lineages, both around 71 kya, are not significantly different. The oldest M and N Eurasian clades are found in southeastern Asia instead near of Africa as expected by the southern route hypothesis. The split of the Y-chromosome composite DE haplogroup is very similar to the age of mtDNA L3. An Eurasian origin and back migration to Africa has been proposed for the African Y-chromosome haplogroup E. Inside Africa, frequency distributions of maternal L3 and paternal E lineages are positively correlated. This correlation is not fully explained by geographic or ethnic affinities. This correlation rather seems to be the result of a joint and global replacement of the old autochthonous male and female African lineages by the new Eurasian incomers.“
This paper is unfounded. It lacks validity because there were no anatomically modern humans (AMH) in Eurasia, based on archaeological research until 44kya when the Cro-Magnon people migrated into Iberia.
The first Aurignacians in the Levant date back to 36-34kya from Ksar Akil.
The oldest Aurignacian remains come from Iberia/Spain. These sites vary in age from 41kya for the l'Arbreda Cave, and 43kya for Abric Romani, located in Catalonia, Spain.

The dates for the Aurignacian in Europe make it clear this culture spread from west to east. It is important to recognize that Aurignacian culture and Cro-Magnon people appears not to have reached the Levant, until 11ky after it was established in Spain.


These dates for sites where AMH were found in Western Europe make it impossible for claims of U6, M1 and etc., originating prior to 32kya in the Levant and entering Africa via a back migration 40kya.
If there were no AMHs in Eurasia  before 43,000 years ago how could they be carry L3(M,N)  back into Africa. As a result, if the “ coalescence ages of all Eurasian (M,N) and African (L3 ) lineages, both around 71 kya”, make it clear that this macrohaplogroup had to have originated in Africa where the AMH lived, because Eurasia before 43kya was occupied by Neanderthals.

References:
Demidenko Y.E., Otte M. & Noiret P. (dir.) - Siuren i rock-shelter. From Late Middle Paleolithic and Early Upper Paleolithic to Epi-Paleolithic in Crimea. Li├Ęge, ERAUL 129, 2012, p. 343-357. http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/bitstream/2268/135222/1/Chapter%2018%20Europe%20Aurignacian.pdf
Winters C.(2008). Aurignacian Culture: Evidence of Western Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans, South Asian Anthropologist, 81(1):79-81.
 Winters,C. (2010). Origin and spread of the Haplogroup N. Bioresearch Bull (2010) 3:116-122.
Winters C. The Gibraltar Out of Africa Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans. WebmedCentral BIOLOGY 2011;2(10):WMC002311 . http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/2311








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