Sunday, September 27, 2020

Anzick man and the Paleoamericans from Brazil show little specific allele sharing with present-day people


This Cell article, by Posth et al,  made it clear that Anzick man and the Paleoamericans from Brazil shared DNA. They wrote that   "The oldest individuals in the dataset show little specific allele sharing with present-day people.". 

Cosimo Posth et al wrote "To obtain an understanding of how the ancient individuals relate to present-day ones, we computed f3- and f4-statistics, which estimate allele sharing between samples in a way that is unbiased by population-specific drift (Patterson et al., 2012). The oldest individuals in the dataset show little specific allele sharing with present-day people. For example, a 10,900 BP individual from Chile (from the site of Los Rieles) shows only slight excess affinity to later Southern Cone individuals. In Belize, individuals from two sites dating to 9,300 and 7,400 BP (Mayahak Cab Pek and Saki Tzul) do not share significantly more alleles with present-day people from the region near Belize than they do with present-day groups elsewhere in Central and South America. In Brazil, genetic data from sites dating to 9,600 BP (Lapa do Santo) and 6,700 BP (Laranjal) show no distinctive shared ancestry with present-day Brazilians (Figures 2 and S1; Table S1), although the Laranjal individuals do show potential evidence of shared ancestry with a 5,800 BP individual from Moraes (Table S4), confirmed by the statistic f4(Mbuti, Brazil_Laranjal_6700BP; Brazil_LapaDoSanto_9600BP, Brazil_Moraes_5800BP), which is Z = 7.7 standard errors from zero. We detect long-standing continuity  "

Anzick man shares DNA with the paleoamericans in Brazil. The author's of this study noted that "The distribution of this statistic f4(Mbuti, Test; USR1, Anzick-1) confirms previous findings that Anzick-1 relatedness is greatest in Central and South Americans and lowest in North American groups (Table S4) (Rasmussen et al., 2014), with the exception of the California Channel Islands, where the earliest individuals from San Nicolas Island around 4,900 BP show some of the highest Anzick-1 relatedness, consistent with an early spread of Anzick-1-related people to these islands followed by local isolation (Scheib et al., 2018) (Figure S2D). "

The D haplogroup is the Asian name for the African M1 haplogroup. The South Anzick  and South Americans carried the D haplogroup.  Posth et al ,  wrote: " The D4h3a mtDNA haplogroup has been hypothesized to be a marker for an early expansion into the Americas along the Pacific coast (Perego et al., 2009). However, its presence in two Lapa do Santo individuals and Anzick-1 (Rasmussen et al., 2014) makes this hypothesis unlikely (Figure S7; Table S3; STAR Methods). "

Only skeletons 3000 years old show affinity to modern mongoloid Indians. This is not surprising because the earliest mongoloid Indian skeletons date to 6000 BC.

  Although  the the genetic evidence does not show that the Paleoamericans did not have affinity with the Melanesians, Australians,  researchers have tried to make a new reconstruction of Luzia. 

In reality the genetic evidence discussed by Posth et al,  makes it clear there was no reason for artists to make the fake construction Luzia . 

This is a fake reconstruction once you look at the reconstruction you can see that the face of the original reconstruction was negroid, while the final product looked Caucasian. Look at the reconstruction the lips are larger and the nose is wider.

In summary, the Posth et al articles makes it clear that the Paleoamericans do not look like modern mongoloid Indians. It also makes it clear the Paleoamericans carried the same DNA in North and South America.

Cosimo Posth ,Nathan Nakatsuka ,Iosif Lazaridis, Lars Fehren-Schmitz ,Johannes Krause . David Reich. (2018). Reconstructing the Deep Population History of Central and South America. Cell, VOLUME 175, ISSUE 5, P1185-1197.E22, NOVEMBER 15, 2018,

No comments: