These maps indicate the movement of people from the highlands into the western Sahara and Sahel 8kya. not expansion of people from the Nile Valley westward and eastward.
The Ounanian culture associated with the Niger-Congo speakers, and the earlier Aqualithic culture associated with the Nilo-Saharan speakers predate 10kya.Neither the Ounanian or African Aqualithic began along the Nile. These cultures originated west of the Nile Valley.
There are similarities between Egyptian and Saharan motifs (Farid,1985). This show that the founders of Egyptian civilization migrated westward to settle the Nile Valley. It was in the Sahara that we find the first evidence of agriculture, animal domestication and weaving (Farid , 1985, p.82). This highland region is the Kemites "Mountain of the Moons " region, the area from which the civilization and goods of Kem, originated (Winters,2012).
The rock art of the Saharan Highlands support the Egyptian traditions that in ancient times they lived in the Mountains of the Moon. The Predynastic Egyptian mobiliar art and the Saharan rock art share many common themes including, characteristic boats(Farid 1985,p. 82), men with feathers on their head (Petrie ,1921,pl. xvlll,fig.74; Raphael, 1947, pl.xxiv, fig.10; Vandier, 1952, p.285, fig. 192), false tail hanging from the waist (Vandier, 1952, p.353; Farid, 1985,p.83; Winkler 1938,I, pl.xxlll) and the phallic sheath (Vandier, 1952, p.353; Winkler , 1938,I , pl.xvlll,xx, xxlll).
The first domesticated animals, plants and religious ideas are found in the Sahara not East Africa. Moreover, the majority of elements in Egyptian society are found first in the Sahara. None of these elements can be found in East Africa.
Look at the map, the sites for the earliest ceramics are all West of East Africa. The same is true for the first evidence of animal and plant domestication.
it is in the Saharan where plant and animal domestication was first achieved and since speakers of Negro-Egyptian share these terms their origin had to have been where the animals and plants were first domesticated.
The Negro-Egyptians speakers probably first domesticated millet. They probably learned to cultivate barley and wheat from the Anu people who early dominated the Nile Valley.
Millet was early collected by hunter gather groups in Africa . Millet has been found at various sites in Africa dating back to: 7000 BC at Fayum; 4500-3300 BC at Tenerean and 3310 BC at Kadero (Winters, 2000). McIntosh and McIntosh (1988) has shown that the principal domesticate in the southern Sahara was bulrush millet (pennisetum). Millet impressions have been found on Mande ceramics from both Karkarchinkat in the Tilemsi Valley of Mali, and Dar Tichitt in Mauritania between 4000 and 3000 BP. (McIntosh & McIntosh 1983a,1988; Winters 2000,2007; Andah 1981)
The Proto-Saharans had a mobile life style and cattle was the mainstay domesticate. Much of the evidence relating to this pastoral way of life comes from the discovery of cattle bones at excavated sites in the Sahara, and the rock drawings of cattle found at many of these sites.
Bones discovered at desert sites inhabited between 7000-2500 B.C., indicate that residents here not only farmed but herded sheep, goats and cattle, when the Sahara blossomed.
Animal domestication in much of the Saharan zone came in response to the decline in resources around lakes and river valleys after 5000 BC when the Sahara entered a dry phase.(McIntosh 1980) The Proto-Saharans probably domesticated sheep and goats initially, and supplemented these animals with cattle. (Camps 1974) The Proto-Saharans called the sheep *kari. A major Proto-Saharan site was Tadrart Acacus (9500-8500 B.C.). Here the people were reliant on pastoralism by 4000 B.C. They herded goat/sheep.
All of these sites are outside East Africa.
Because the speakers of Negro-Egyptian share the names for most plants and animals indicate that before they separated they had already invented pottery and domesticated most plants and animals.
There is no evidence of animal and plant domestication in East Africa, only the Sahara.
As a result, the origin of Negro-Egyptian probably took place west of the Nile Valley. It was in the Sahara that the first African civilization originated: the Maa Confederation. It was after the fall of this civilization that they people began to migrate into the Nile Valley.
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