Sunday, March 12, 2017

The Native Americans Haplogroup D4 was Originally Haplogroup M1



The D haplogroup is nothing more than a African M clade. The sub-clade D4, is the Asian name for the M1 haplogroup.

Haplotypes with HVSI transitions defining 16129-16223-16249-16278-16311-16362; and 16129-16223-16234-16249-16211-16362 have been found in Thailand and among the Han Chinese (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002) and these were originally thought to be members of Haplogroup M1

Haplogroup M was a common Paleoamerican haplogroup. Paleoamericans carried haplogroup M. the 5000 year old skeletons from China Lake, British Columbia carried the M haplogroup (Malhi et al., 2007). This was confirmed by Malhi et al (2007), who found that the skeletons belong to haplogroup M, exhibiting the AluI site gain at np 10397. He was unable to match the China Lake skeletons’ mtDNA to haplogroup C, D, or sub-haplogroup M7, M8, or M9.

Although, these haplogroups are assigned an Asian origin Africans also carry these M subclades including , for example, haplogroups A and M7. Some Native American present Sub-Saharan African admixture. The Mande speakers carry mtDNA haplogroup A, which is common among Mexicans namely the Mixe and Mixtecs . In addition to the Mande speaking people of West Africa, Southeast Africa Africans also carry mtDNA A.

Naia of Mexico was D1 and Anzick child was also D4. Most contemporary Native Americans carry mtDNA that belongs to the M macrohaplogroup, namely A and B.

The D haplogroup , is the name for M1, in Asia (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002). Haplotypes with HVSI transitions defining 16129-16223-16249-16278-16311-16362; and 16129-16223-16234-16249-16211-16362 have been found in Thailand and among the Han Chinese (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002) and these were originally thought to be members of Haplogroup M1. 

When the Yao et al, and Fucharoen et al, articles were published the combination of mutations within polymorphic sites were not called haplogroup M1, or D(4). The D(4) designation came later when the "experts" made East Asian M clade into D, and renamed East Asian M1 into D4. This was much the same way researchers renamed African R1, V88.

However, on the basis of currently available FGS sequences, carriers of these markers are now labled D4a branch of Haplogroup D . Given the transitions in haplogroup D, it is the most widespread branch of M1 in East Asia (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002).

The transitions 16129,16189,16249 and 16311 are known to be recurrent in various branches of Haplogroup M, especially M1 and D4. Due to these transitions we can argue that Native Americans carrying D, are carrying African haplogroup M, especially M1 in the case of haplogroup D4.

References:

Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Horai S.(2001). Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Thailand. J Hum Genet , 46:115-125.

Malhi , R. et al. (2006) Mitochondrial haplogroup M discovered in prehistoric North Am J Arch Scien 34 (2007), http://public.wsu.edu/~bmkemp/publications/pubs/Malhi_et_al_2007.pdf ; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222693166_Haplogroup_M_discovered_in_prehistoric_North_America

Yao YG, Kong QP, Bandelt HJ, Kivisild T, Zhang YP.(2002). Phylogeographic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Han chinese. Am J Hum Genet , 70:635-651.

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