Uthman dan Fodio Institute
Controversy surrounds the role of the Blemmyans in the Dodekaschoinos . Torok has argued passionately that the Blemmyes were fairly recent settlers of the Dodekaschoinos. Dafa'alla on the otherhand, using historical records argue that their were two groups of Blemmyes in the area one nomadic and the other urban. Dr. Dafa'alla also believes that these urban Blemmyes may have been the "generals of the river" of the Meroitic and Demotic inscriptions.
Updegraff provides a good history of the later period of Blemmyan history . We learn from Updegraff that the Blemmyes may have been mentioned in a
New Kingdom onomasticon of Imn-m-ipt . This reference to the Blemmyes is disputed but we do recognize numerous references to the Blemmyes in Demotic texts as early as the 6th century B.C.
The Meroitic empire was a major power in
Africa during the classical period. After the decline of states appeared in Meroe
the area comprising the former Meroitic empire that were heavily influenced by the Meroites, e.g., the Ballana phase.
The role of the Blemmyes in the history of
Lower Nubia during the late Meroitic period is unclear . Monnert de Villard , and Hoffman, Tomandl and Zach believe that the Blemmyes were the principal Nubian people living in much of Lower Nubia in the first century A.D. . Torok, on the otherhand , believes that the Blemmyes could not have had a foothold in the Valley before 373 A.D., eventhough they are mentioned in the demotic inscriptions from Philae.
This has led many researchers to conclude that the Nobadae formed the successor Meroitic states after the decline of the Kusa or Kushites of Meroe. The Blemmyes are recognized as a nomadic people associated with the decline of
Torok believes that the Blemmyes did not occupy the area around Kalabsha until between the 390's and the middle of the 5th century . Although this view is held by many researchers, the Kalabsha Meroitic inscription (MI 94, REM 094) suggest that the Blemmyes controlled much of
Lower Nubia after the decline of the Meroitic empire.
The inscriptions of the Ethiopians make it clear that after the Ethiopians conquered the Kushites, the Nobadae were the probable successors of the Kusa in the southern Meroitic empire. But it would appear that the Blemmyes were the dominant power in
Lower Nubia when the Meroitic civilization declined.
The Napatan records make it clear that in the 7th c. B.C. the Blemmyes were entering
Lower Nubia. These records make it clear that these people recognized Napatan supremacy. And between the 5th-4th c. B.C. the Blemmyes are reported to be settled in Upper and Lower Nubia where they were defeated by King Harsiyotef .
The Classical sources make it clear that although the Kushites at
were the dominant power in Meroe and the Nubia at this time, there were also many independent states associated with, or part of the Meroitic empire . In the 3rd-4th c. B. C., Sudan Lower Nubia was scarcely populated. But by this time many Blemmyes were settled in Lower Nubia and, and Eratosthenes claims that they were recognized as subjects of the Meroitic Kings .
By the 1st century B.C., Strabo listed the Blemmyes as subjects of the Meroites . During this same period the Nobades were mentioned as living south of
on the west bank of the Meroe Nile .
The Blemmyes worshipped the god Mandulis and probably many of the Meroitic deities as they became acculturated to Meroitic civilization. Due to the large number of Blemmyes in
Lower Nubia, a chapel for Mandoulis was built between 206 and 186 B.C., at Kalabsha by King Arqamani.
The Blemmyes appear to have had very intimate relations with the Meroites. The Blemmyes were recognized by the Meroites as an important "subject" group within the Meroitic empire. This would explain Constantine Eusebius mention of the Meroite and Blemmy envoys visit to the Egyptian court , probably around 336. V. Christides, claims that the Blemmyes gave Ballana crowns to Emperor Constantine.
In the 370's we begin to hear more about the Blemmyes in Classical sources. In 373, the Blemmyes attacked the Romans in the Dodekaschoinos. This attack is recorded at
Philae in a demotic inscription Ph.371. By 374, the Blemmyes were also attacking the Sinai Peninsula.
Although the Meroitic and Classical evidence support the early settlement of the Blemmyes in
Lower Nubia by the 1st c. A.D., Torok believes that these people did not settle Lower Nubia before the 390's. He has based this hypothesis on Claudianus and Epiphanios.
Claudius Claudianus, mentions the Blemmyes in one of his poems. Claudianus was born in
. He later moved to Alexandria in 394. Rome
In 404 Claudianus returned to
to find a wife. In a poem written in 404, he located the Blemmyes between Egypt and Aswan . Meroe
Epiphanios makes it clear that by 395/6 the Blemmyes had control of Talmis/Kalabsha. He wrote that:" Now Beronike, as it is called is contiguous with the districts of
Elephantine and also with Telmis (=Kalabsha) which is now held by the Blemyi".
The Kalabsha Meroitic inscription support the view that the Blemmyes controlled much of
Lower Nubia after the decline of the Meroites. As mentioned earlier as early as 336 the Blemmyes and Meroites made joint embassies to . This illustrates that the Blemmyes were probably strongly Meroiticized and had some knowledge of Meroitic and could have written the Kalabsha inscription. Egypt
The Kalabsha inscription is 34 lines. It was found at the lower part of the Northernmost four column denoting the facade of the Kalabsha temple's pronaos.
The Kalabsha inscription is about King Kharamadoye. The location of the Kalabsha inscription suggest that the inscriptions was written before debris covered much of the temple.
Millet believes that Kharamadoye was a Nobadae ruler. Monneret de Villard believed that the stela was commemorating a King of the Blemmyes.
Most researchers accept the fact that Kharamadoye may have been a Blemmy, due to its similarity to Blemmy names in the Gebelen document. In the Gebelen document there are names of several Blemmyes including Kharakhen, and his sons Kharahiet and Kharapathkur dating to the 6th century.
Ll. Griffith deciphered the Meroitic script over 70 years ago. Up until recently the inscriptions could be transliterated, but we were unable to read the Meroitic records in their entirety because we did not know the Meroitic language. In 1984 C.A. Winters was able to find the cognate language of Meroitic: Kushana . As a result of this discovery we can read any Meroitic text.
The Kalabasha inscription is written in Late Meroitic. The grammar of Late Meroitic has been outlined elsewhere .
Below is the transliteration of the Kalabsha text. In this transliteration of Meroitic, the so called Meroitic separator sign ( : ) is given the meaning -ne. The Meroitic sign -ne, means 'good' and is used to change verbs into nouns.
1. hrmdoye ne qor ene ariteñ lne mdes ne mni-t kene
2. mk lebne ye re qe-ne q yi-thl-ne y es bo he-ne q r lebne tro.
3. s-ne ariteñ net er ek li s-ne d-b li lh ne q r kene
qor ene mnpte.
t h-ñ yi-ne qr-ne ariteñ li s-ne.
6. th-ñ yi-ne arette ne wos sl w-ne h i ret-te ñ yi-ne
hr ph ene mk e do.
7. ke li sl w-ne hr ph e ñ yi-ne. te ri s nem npte ne
p d ho s-ne tl-o.
8. li s ne k i d kete tene yimeniye ne qor e-l h-ene
yi ti IIII yo to-ne.
9. ptpotekye ne ab-l ene y wi tone s wi d-e-a q to ye- ne. Tep kene ye d ne mk lne te.
10. pk ene y ey k-ne w ye d ne-te pk ene p y k-ne h i w r nea d o-ne w sne phrs ne t o.
11. m ñ-ne-a s y ne ke d eb h ek y-ne qor-e ti k-ne d i k-ne pilqe y-te ne-b q ok.
12. lk s-ne sq y-e s-ne nsdoke s-ne tmeyye s-ne nhr e s- ne-b qo b h.
13. simlo k-ne d ik ne pilqe y tene b qo lne pr one d
ol ene pl w-ne penn-ne t.
14. lte-ne br-ne ph i ñl-ne bh em ine ye de tene-b . ye ke lh d ik ne kdi mlo ye- ne.
15. sq kdi-ne pt p ot...yismeniye ne y sb e t ne-b
er so wi-ne mte ne w s-ne.
er so wi-ne mte ne w s-ne.
16. a y e ken l-ne yt p-ote ne y-e d ne y-kl
ene arohetye ne nl ene do lk.
ene arohetye ne nl ene do lk.
17. mte l-ne pi ke d el wi-ne y-e d ne ptpotekye ne w
kdi wi ke tene mte ws.
kdi wi ke tene mte ws.
18. qorh-ne th-ñ y-ene tk lwi-ne y sh e t ne-b er ek-
n wi-ne h.
n wi-ne h.
19. r ph ene de te lh l-ne w e ñ-ne y-e d ne w-o p ik
ene ti-l ye y ki ne.
ene ti-l ye y ki ne.
20. br lebne ke d e-b h ne. kdi lebne-m ro r
lebne s s lebne kb b.
lebne s s lebne kb b.
tene-m ro r b ene qe.
22. s w-ne-a d er ek ene-m tr-ne w s-ne h r w-ne
pilqe kene mt r-ne w s-ne.
pilqe kene mt r-ne w s-ne.
23. qor e IIIIIIII hr e s-ne wt e b ne ah ine d e ...
kl ene d e .
24. tene we d ine d h ene mte ne kdi ne aqtoyes II wb
25. tenen wi d o ne hr e s ye qo ne hresye qo ne wid
yishteteye qo ne b qo.
26. b h ne s ml ene w si ne tk b tene ste ne we s-
ne b qo b tene.
ne b qo b tene.
27. simlo k-ne d ik ne sl el ey tene-m ho ne temey ne
28. kdi a br ne nhbr e s ne kb h ne-m ho li-ne temey
li-ne d k-ne.
li-ne d k-ne.
29. p ro-ne d ol pl w-ne penn tl tene br-ne ph ol e ne b
h em ine.
30. ye d e tene hr w-ne-a d o ni li kete-ne yir e
q w nea.
q w nea.
31. r w-ne tere kete-ne hr w-ne sl el e kene-m tr-ne
ws yi r-e.
ws yi r-e.
32. q w nea d lo kene-m tr-ne w s-ne ws-ne. qor ene
pt si de ne tm ot-ne .
pt si de ne tm ot-ne .
33. m...es ne...pl-ñ pt mk . i d ene tm-o t ne ari
tel ene w o.
tel ene w o.
34. pl e .
Millet did an excellent job in discussing the major points of the Kalabsha inscription, relative to our knowledge about Meroitic in the 1960's. Below is our translation of the Kalabsha inscription now that we can read all the Meroitic words in the text.
(1) Kharamadoye the monarch and chief of the living Ariteñ, the great son and patron of Amani ,you (who) revitalizes (man). (2) The lord's voyage of discovery indeed gives the creation of Good. Act (now Amani) he travels to support good. Make a good welfare swell (for) the offering of the Chief, (he) desires indeed the restoration of eminence. (3) The patron of good Ariteñ bows in reverence (before Amani) to evoke exalted nourishment (for) the patrons to leave a grand and exalted legacy to behold good. (Oh Amani make indeed (a) revitalization (of) the monarch (and) commander of Great Napata. (4)Prop (up) good (and) glorify the monarch. (Amani) you give progressively much greatness now (and)the rebirth of the patrons glorification. Establish his grand eternal wish (for) Good, (Oh) exalted Ariteñ.(5) Glorified he wishes eternal and abundant life at this moment (as) is the exalted Way. Support (for) him a glorified and abundant eternal life and establish much Good and wonder (for) the king and commander. (6) He establishes the tradition (of) good Harendotes (Horus the Avenger of his father) (Oh)
Isis . The king and Commander go(es) to offer boon (and) unite here eternally Good. Mature dignity (for ) the Commander.God vouchsafe the donation(of Kharamadoye). (7) Revitalize the exalted king and Commander to aspire the gift of dignity (and) vouchsafe eternal good. Here in the city (Kalabsha) prop up the name of Good Napata. Pray to leave a legacy for the soul (of) the upstanding patron (Kharamadoye). (8) The exalted good son, as is obligatory, go(es) to leave a legacy (for) your revitalized rebirth (Kharamadoye). Yimeniye the (new king) to vouchsafe the great almsgiving (of Kharamadoye) on its voyage to (en)light(ent) (mankind) from a distance. The almsgiving go(es) to arrange 4 (times) the bowing for the rebirth (of Kharamadoye).(9) Good Patapotekaye the father (of) the Commander left vigorous honor (for Kharamadoye ).Prop up (Good that) will leave a legacy (that) acts to initiate (and) give form to Good. Announce in a lofty voice the beginning (of) the journey (for) good bequeathal. (Oh) living God, May it go forth! (10) take aim Commander to form (a) favor of existence (to) the Object of supplication. Guide the favor of existence (so as) to leave a legacy of your good. Take aim (at this goal) Commander. Pray to go revitalize the offer of alms, go indeed guide now the bequeathal's genesis , to guide and support good Faras. He will commence the bequeathal (now). (11) Much Goodness will be the king's existence. Act to bequeath a great cover and nourishment to form Good. The king go(es) to arrange the revitalize(ation) of Good. Go to leave a legacy of good (in our) good abode (at) Philae. You have made many good acts to produce (its revitalization now). (12) The Lak were defeated, the Shaqa (were) roll(ed over) and defeated. The Nasadoka were defeated (and) the Tameya (were) roll(ed over) and defeated. The Nakhabar (were) completely and totally defeated (and thereby) restor(ing) much great(ness) (to the Blemmyes). (13) The revitalized Shimalo leaves a legacy in the good place where (he) sojourn to Good Philae. You form much Good and restore the living, pray indeed for the accession (of) the grand donations of the righteous Commander to guide Good everywhere to please (the people).(14) The transmigration (of Kharamadoye) to bring Good with the intention (of) embarkation (of the alms). The Ba and the Kha to teach (us) as is the Way (and) give form to the donation's considerable rebirth. Give form to a grand revitalization (that) leaves a legacy in this good place (is the) duty (of) the innerheart bequeathal.(15) The good women of Shaqa praise and solicit esteem...Yisameniye he consecrates and vouchsafes the arrange(ment) of much good to produce life (for this) Object of Respect (Kharamadoye). Un;ock good and guide (it to the) patron.(16) He asks permission (for) the transmigration to be capable (of) prestige and Good. His existence leaves a legacy of Good, borne by the Commander. Good Arokhetaye retire the Commander's offering to behold (and) (17) unlock the transmigration. Go pray and ask permission to give this gift of good, his existence leaves a legacy of good. Good Patapotekye (has the) duty guide honor and ask permission (for) the rebirth (of Kharamadoye) to unlock and clothe (it). (18) The monarch's abstract personality it establishes the embarkation. Set in motion glorification he consecrates and vouchsafes much good to produce its nourishment. Good honor (for) the Kha .(19) Indeed with the intention of almsgiving your grand offering exist to guide and vouchsafe Goodness, his existence leaves a legacy of Good steering life to the place where the Commander sojourn(s). Go arrange (now) the journey (and) make (it in ) good order. (20) Sustain the restoration, revitalize the donation (of) the Ba and good Kha. the duty (of) his restoration unlocks indeed the restoration (of) the king. The King's restoration desires much. (21) the rebirth prays to leave a legacy the soul of the patron (of Ariteñ) a great restoration. the journey of the Kha (is) to open(up) the revitalization. You (Ariteñ) are capable (of) his
This inscriptions makes it clear that Kharamadoye was recognized as an important king in Lower Nubia.It would appear from the inscriptions that his father was Patatekaye and his son and successor was Yisameniye or Icemne.
The inscription implies that Patatekaye had been the founder of this Blemmy empire which Kharamadoye inherited (line 9). To illustrate that Kharamadoye was loyal to Patatekaye's trust
Kharamadoye repeats his victory over the Lak, Shaqa, Nasadoke, Temey and Nakhabara people, and his continued control of
Philaeand Faras in addition to Shimalo (Kalabsha) in line 12 of the Kalabsha inscription.
In line 8, we discover that Yismeniye was the son of Kharamadoye. Here the father requested that Yimeniye continue to uphold his honor by maintaining the empire founded by his grandfather Patatekaye. In addition we find that Yisameniye was expected to make the proper offerings to the gods, that would assure Kharamadoye's passage to a blessed hereafter.
There is evidence that Yisameniye was successful in maintaining the Blemmy empire. Most researchers believe that the pidgin Greek inscription in Kalabsha of Icemne, probably is a reference to Yisameniye.
In conclusion, the relationship between the Blemmyan and Meroite people is very contradictory. It is clear from the Kalabsha text, that by the end of the Meroitic period, Blemmyans were recognized not only as "generals of the river" but also monarchs in their own right.
The classical literature makes it clear that while some Blemmyes were enemies of
, other groups were assimilated in the Meroitic empire. This would explain, for example, reports of Meroites and Blemmyes in "mortal combat" in 291; and records dating to 297 detailing the triumph of Diocletian over Meroites and Blemmyes. Meroe
The disorders in
Lower Nubia and Upper Egypt in the second century which led to the Roman abandonment of this area, may reflect the Blemmyan rise to political importance in Lower Nubia. Much of the transitional material found in the Dodekaschoines may reflect the permanent settlement of Blemmyes in Lower Nubia along with their king. This hypothesis would correspond to the increasing influence of the Blemmyes in Lower Nubia beginning in Napatan times, and culminating in the joint Meroite-Blemmy embassy to the court of Constantine Eusebius in 336.
The Blemmyes left many inscriptions at Kalabsha. Shimalo may have been the Blemmy name for Kalabsha.
In the Kalabsha inscription Shimalo is described as ik "abode or place of sojourn". This may have been the central city of the Blemmy empire founded by Patatekaye. The hand made pottery of the mid-third century A.D. of Kalabsha may have been made by the acculturated Blemmyes who wrote the Meroitic and pidgin Greek inscriptions found in the temple at Kalabsha.
The textual evidence from Kalabsha rejects the hypothesis of Torok that the Blemmyes were primarially nomadic warriors in late Meroitic times. The Kalabsha text discussed above, and the Napatan text make it clear that after the 5th c. B.C. the Blemmyes were becoming more and more numerous in
Lower Nubia. This complements the classical and Meroitic evidence that make it clear that the Blemmyes were a major political power in Lower Nubia prior to the 5th c. A.D.
The Kalabsha text supports Dafa'alla's view that many of the Blemmyes were urban dwellers and that the Blemmy Kings probably had a capital at Shimalo. This is consistent with the view that the Blemmyes were the dominant Aethiopian group as early as the 1st c. A.D. in
Kalabsha Lexical Items
Below is a list of the Meroitic lexical items found in the Kalabsha (REM 094) inscription. The Meroitic script has 23 signs. The Meroitic script is a syllabic writing system. Each Meroitic consonant except when followed by the vowel sign /i/, /o/ and /e/ represents the consonant sound plus the vowel /a/. In the vocabulary items listed below we did not add the /a/ sound to the transliteration of the Meroitic characters . There are four syllables in Meroitic ne, se, te and to are represented by separate sounds.
The Kalabsha inscription is written in the late Meroitic style. Late Meroitic has the VSO pattern .
The Meroitic language include both prefixes and suffixes, but, suffixes are used extensively in the writing. The popular sentence pattern in late Meroitic inscriptions is -->VP NP or S--> VP NP VP. For example,
wto si lit. to guide you satisfaction
"You guide (me) to satisfaction".
terike lo wi-ne s lit. Fashion dispatch the Awe patron
"Fashion (and) dispatch the Awe of the patron".
Meroitic was probably a lingua franca used by the Meroites to unite the diverse ethnic groups which lived in the Meroitic empire. Although much of the vocabulary of Archaic Meroitic was used to write Late Meroitic text, the Late Meroitic structure is less complicated than Archaic Meroitic.
Many Meroitic words are homophone signs. A homophone sign has the same phonetic value as another. The interchangeable Meroitic homophones include b=/=p, t=/=d, k=/=g, s=/=s and
n=/=ñ , e.g., tb / tp 'announce in a lofty voice'.
The Meroitic separator sign (:) has the phonetic value -ne. This sign in the Meroitic script was used to change verbs into nouns, or signify the word "good". The element -ne-, although it is occasionally used in the initial formation of words, the separator sign -ne, was primarially used as a suffix.
a1, intensive prefix 'to'; element used to form the future tense
a2, third person suffix 'he, it, she'.
ah, teach, to learn, to study
ab, ancestor, father
arrette, Harendotes (Horus the Avenger of his father)
Ariteñ, name of a god
b, Ba (aspect of Man)
b2, plural element, 'many, much , abundant
bo, all; to swell, to inflate
br1, man men
br2, sustain, bring
bh, mature, ripe
d, give, bequeath; to leave a legacy
db, leave a grand legacy
de, indeed; give the offering
do, donation, offering; consecrate
e1, vouchsafe; give; grant a boon
e2, masculine nominative singular accusative suffix for
e3, complete, complement; register
e-t, vouchsafe the arrangement
ene, Commander, Chief;
em, to teach; to direct
es, welfare, manisfestation
es, welfare, manifestation
h, great; h-ne 'greatness'
h, offer alms
er, produce, evoke
h, offering; grand, great
hr , repute, esteem
ine, tradition, (as) is the Way
ik, place, spot, ; abode, sojourn, place where (one) sojours
k, as is obligatory,k-ne, Object of supplication
kb, to desire
ke, to revitalize; ask permission
kene, origination, revitalization
ki, the order, work
kdi, lady; duty
kl, tolerate, bear; borne
-l, meroitic ending particle;
l, verb "to be" ; lne 'living, existence'
leb, to restore; leb-ne "restoration".
li, exalted; li-ne 'transmittal, transmit,
lh, behold; grand, great
lk, Lak , a tribal name
lw, to have glory; lw-ne, gloriy
m1 ,measure,; great
m2, much, many
m3, third person singular maculine pronoun him , his
mde1, great son
mde2, proceed, progressively
mde2, proceed, progressively
mk, lord, god
mni, Amani, a Meroitic god
mt, break open
neb, much good
ne, good; intruth
neh, at this moment
net, bow in reverence
Nsdoke, Nasadoke ( a tribal name)
Nhbr, Nkhabara (tribal name)
ñ2, third person personal pronoun 'his, him'
-ne,particle used to change verbs into nouns
o, commence, begin, open ; o-ne, genesis
ot, to esteem; ot-ne 'approbation'
ote, admiration, wonder
p, beg, solicit, pray
penn, span, extend, spread; penn-ne 'everywhere'
pi, go pray
pk, take aim
pl, praise, righteous; pl-ñ 'righteous good'
ph, with the intention; to aspire
q, make, form; act; desire
qe creation, qe-ne Creator
qo, honorable, restore
r, indeed, certainly
re, indeed; give indeed
rone, unlocking good
s, son; to protect , to support; s-ne prop up
s, King, patron ; to protect, to support
sne, defeated, destroyed
so, life, to live
sh, to consecrate
sh, spirit body
sq, Shaqa (a tribal group)
t2, third personal pronoun 'he, it, her'
t3, to arrange, to establish
ti, go arrange
tke, set in motion
tk, set in motion
tl, elevate; tl-o 'upstanding'
tm, to produce, to be born; tm-o 'open up the rebirth
Tmey, Tameya ( a tribal group)
tr, to be eminent, tr-o 'emminence';tr-ne "Eminent"
-te, second person pronoun usually used with males 'you, your'
te, to place, to put
tel, to elevate,
tep, to announce in a lofty voice
ter, to erect
-to, second personal feminine suffix 'you, your'
to, light, to initiate, to kindle; to shine; tone vigorous
toh, to establish
w, to guide, to leade, to steer; w-ne "Commander, Steward, Chief;
w-o, 'steering, guiding'
wb, to prepare
we, to give escort
wi, honor; wi-ne "Object of Respect, Awe'; good honor'
wid, leave honor as the legacy
ws, dress, clothe
wt, place, put
y, to make, to form
ye, to be capable
y-ne, form good
yi, to travel, to journey
yi-ne, progressively; eternal
yir, cleanse, purify
yete, it is capable
.L. Torok, Late Antique Nubia, Antaeus, Communicationes Instituto Archaeologico Academie Scientiarum Hungaricae.
.Samia B. Dafa'alla, The historical role of the Blemmyes in Late Meroitic and Early X-Group periods, Beitrage zur Sudanforschung 2 (1987), pp. 34-40.
.Ibid., p. 38.
. R. T. Updergraff, "The Blemmyes I: The rise of the Blemmye and the Roman withdrawal from
under Diocletian". In Rise and Decline of the Roman World, (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1988) pp.44-96. Nubia
.Ibid. , p.57.
.David O'Connor, Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa,
: The University Museum, Philadelphia ,1994; and Samia B. Dafa'alla, " Art and Industry: The achievements of University of Pennsylvania ", Expedition 35, no.2 (1993), pp.15-27. Meroe
Adams, "Medieval Nubia:Another Golden Age", Expedition 35, no.2 (1993), pp.28-39.
.Fritze Hintze, "The Meroitic Period". In
Africa in Antiquity I, Brooklyn:The , 1978. Brooklyn Museum
.Ugo Monneret de Villard, Storia della Nubia cristiana.
: Pont. Institutim Orientalium Studiorum, 1938. Rome
.L. Torok, "Summary discussion", Meroitica 10, (1986) pp.365-379.
.E. Bresciani, Grafffiti demotiques du Dodekaschene. Le Claire, 1969.
.See N.B. Millet, Meroitic Nubia, Ph.D Dissertation,
. UMI Dissertation Service,1988 . Yale University
, Corridor to Adams, Nubia Africa,( London:Penguin,1977) p.388 and Torok, "Late Antique Nubia", p.45.
.L. Torok, "The Blemmyes I:Additional remarks". In Rise and Decline of the Roman World, (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1988) pp.97-106; and L. Torok, "A contribution to post Meroitic Chronology: The Blemmyes in
Lower Nubia, Meroitic Newsletter , 24 (1985), pp. 1-96.
.F. Ll. Griffith, Meroitic Inscriptions II, London, 1912; Updegraff, p.79; Millet , Op Cit.; and Torok, "Late Antique Nubia ".
. Torok, Late Antique Nubia, p.44.
. Stela Cairo JE 48864.
. Dafa'alla, p.36.
.Eratosthenes in Strabon, XVll, 1,2.
. Strabo, Geography 17.1.52-53.
.Pliny, N.H.,Vl, 192.
. Procopius, De Bello Persico, I,19. 27ff.
.Eusebius, V.C.,1V, 7.
.Torok, "Late Antique Nubia, p.31.
.V. Christides, The Image of the Sudanese in Byzantine Souces, Byzantinoslavico, 43 (1982), pp.8-17.
. F. Ll. Griffith, Catalogue of Demotic Graffiti of the Dodekaschoenus,
. Torok, "Late Antique Nubia" p.46.
. Torok, "The Blemmyes I: Additional remarks", pp. 98-99.
.Torok, Ibid, p.44-46.
.Par. 244, PG XLlll 337; and T. Edide, T. Hagg, and R.H. Pierce, Greek, Latin and Coptic sources of Nubian
Texts Bulletin 2, (1980) 3-15: p.10. History, Sudan
.F. Ll. Griifith, Meroitic Inscriptions II.
: London Exploration Fund, 1917 ; Millet, Op Cit. Egypt
.Monneret de Villard, p.25.
.J. Krall, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Blemyer und Nubier. Wien: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1898.
.Griffth, Op. Cit.
.C.A. Winters, "A Note on Tokharian and Meroitic", Meroitic Newsletter, no.23 (1984), pp.18-21; and C. A. Winters, "Chiekh Anta Diop et le Dechiffrement de l'ecriture Meroitique", Revue Martiniquaise de Sciences Humaines et de Litterature, no.8 (1988),pp.141-153.
(1998). Meroitic funerary text. Part 1, Inscription Journal of Ancient C.A. , 1 (1), 29-34;Winters, Egypt (1998b). Meroitic funerary text. Part 2, Inscription Journal of Ancient C.A. , 1 (2), 41-55;Winters, Egypt (1999). Inscriptions of Tanydamani, Nubica et Ethiopica, IV/V, 355-388. C.A.
.Winters, "Inscriptions of Tanyidamani", passim.
.Winters, "Chiek Anta Diop et le dechiffrement de l'ecriture Meroitique" , Op Cit.
.This -t suffix is used to form the Meroitic adverb 'here', it can also serve as the Meroitic 3rd person singular suffix 'he,she,it'.
.This is use of the Meroitic -t element to form the 3rd person singular 'he'.
.Here we see use of the -t suffix to form the second person singular suffix 'you, your'.
. This -m suffix is sued in Meroitic to form the plural: 'much,many'.
.This is the 3rd person singular suffix 'he,it,she'.
. This -b suffix is used to form the plural in Meroitic.
.This b- prefix is used to form the imperfect in Meroitic.
.Millet believes that this word arette, may relate to Harendotes or Horus the avenger of his father.
.This -o suffix is used to change Meroitic nouns into adjectives, e.g., qo 'act', qo-o 'acting'; w 'to guide',
w-o 'guiding'. The Meroitic adjectives are placed behind the noun.
.The -a- affix has many uses in Meroitic. It can be used to form the preterit e.g., lo 'to dispatch', lo-a 'dispatched'; the plural e.g., Qoshne 'Kushite', Qoshne-a "Kushites'; and also the Meroitic subjunctive or future tense e.g., d e 'leave a legacy',
d-e-a 'will leave a legacy'.
.This -e suffix is used to form the singular nominative accusative in Meroitic.
.The -l element in Meroitic denotes the verb 'to be'.
.This -l, is the Meroitic ending particle.
.This -y is sued as an intensive prefix in Meroitic.
.Millet, Op Cit.
.Torok, "Late Antique Nubia", p.56.
.T. C. Skeat, E.G, Turner, and C.H. Roberts, "A Letter from the King of the Blemmyes to the King of the Nubians", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 63, (1977) pp.159-170.
.L. Torok, "The Historical Background: Meroe North and South". In Nubian Culture Past and Present, (Ed.) by Tomas Hagg (Stockholm:Almquist and Wisksell International, 1987), pp.139-230.
.Bruce Williams, "A Chronology of Meroitic Occupation below the Fourth Cataract", Journal of the American Research Center in
22, (1985) pp.149-195. Egypt
.Eusebius, V.C., IV,7.
.E. Strouhal, Wadi Qitna and Kalabsha--South,
, 1984. Prague
.Winters, " Inscriptions of Tanydamani ", passim.