The inhabitants of the Fezzan were round headed Africans. (Jelinek, 1985,p.273) The cultural characteristics of the Fezzanese were analogous to C-Group culture items and the people of Ta-Seti . The C-Group people occupied the
and Fezzan regions between 3700-1300 BC
The inhabitants of
were called Tmhw (Temehus). The Temehus were organized into two groups
the Thnw (Tehenu) in the North and the Nhsj (Nehesy) in the
South. (Diop 1986) A Tehenu personage is depicted on Amratian period pottery
(Farid 1985 ,p. 84). The Tehenu wore pointed beard, phallic-sheath and feathers
on their head.
The Temehus are called the C-Group people by archaeologists.(Jelinek, 1985; Quellec, 1985). The central
Fezzan was a
center of C-Group settlement. Quellec (1985, p.373) discussed in detail the
presence of C-Group culture traits in the Central Fezzan along with their
cattle during the middle of the Third millennium BC.
The Temehus or C-Group people began to settle Kush around 2200 BC. The kings of Kush had their capital at Kerma, in Dongola and a sedentary center on Sai Island. The same pottery found at Kerma is also present in Libya especially the Fezzan.
The C-Group founded the Kerma dynasty of Kush. Diop (1986, p.72) noted that the "earliest substratum of the Libyan population was a black population from the south
Sahara". Kerma was first inhabited in the 4th
millennium BC (Bonnet 1986). By the 2nd millennium BC Kushites at kerma were
already worshippers of Amon/Amun and they used a distinctive black-and-red ware
(Bonnet 1986). Amon, later became a major god of the Egyptians during the 18th
(1974). The African Origin
of Civilization. (ed. & Trans)
by Mercer Cook, Westport:Lawrence Hill & Company. This book outlines Diop's theory of the
African origin of Egyptian civilization. Diop, C.A.
Bonnet,C. (1986). Kerma: Territoire et Metropole. Cairo: Instut Francais D'Archeologie Orientale du Caire. This is a fine examination of the Kerma culture of Nubia which existed in Nubia before the Egyptians established rule in this area.
_______.(1986). "Formation of the Berber Branch". In Libya Antiqua. (ed.) by Unesco,(
UNESCO) pp.69-73. In this article Diop explains that the original inhabitants
of Libya were Blacks.
Jelinek,J. (1985). "Tillizahren,the Key Site of the Fezzanese Rock Art". Anthropologie (
Brno),23(3):223-275. This paper gives a stimulating account of the rock art of the Sahara and the
important role the C-Group people played in the creation of this art.
Quellec,J-L le. (1985). "Les Gravures Rupestres Du Fezzan (Libye)". L'Anthropologie, 89 (3):365-383. This text deals comprehensively with the dates and spread of specific art themes in the ancient Sahara.