Saturday, December 30, 2017

The Hyksos were Kushites not Asians

Most researchers accept the contemporary meaning of Gardiner's N25 symbol as "Rulers of foreign lands" not Kush”. But this was not the first meaning assigned this sign. Breasted translated N25, as "Negroland".

If Gardiner's N25 symbol meant "Rulers of foreign lands" we would read the Weni inscription as the following “His majesty made war on the Asiatic Sand-dwellers and his majesty made an army of many ten thousands; in the entire South, southward to Elephantine, and northward to Aphroditopolis [Busiris]; in the Northland on both sides entire in the [stronghold], and in the midst of the [strongholds], among the Irthet Rulers of foreign lands , the Mazoi Rulers of foreign lands , the Yam Rulers of foreign lands , among the Wawat Rulers of foreign lands, among the Kau Rulers of foreign lands , and in the land of Temeh.”

Semantically reading N25 as "Rulers of foreign land" is unintelligent, for example “Wawat Rulers of foreign lands” , is incorrect, because Wawat was the name of a nation, not a king. As a result, ḫ3st, was used to identify the nationality of the Wawat, Kau and other Kushite = ḫ3st.

Thusly, the inscription of Weni reads: “His majesty made war on the Asiatic Sand-dwellers and his majesty made an army of many ten thousands; in the entire South, southward to Elephantine, and northward to Aphroditopolis [Busiris]; in the Northland on both sides entire in the [stronghold], and in the midst of the [strongholds], among the Irthet khas [Kusites], the Mazoi khas [Kushites], the Yam khas [Kushites], among the Wawat Khas [Kushites], among the Kau khas [Kushites], and in the land of Temeh.”

Researchers have made it clear that the Hyksos included many different nationalities. The hyksos according to John Bright, "A History of Israel". Westminster John Knox Press ( p.60 ); and Robert Drews, "The Coming of the Greeks: Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East"( Princeton University Press [p.254] ) included Hurrians/Hattians, in addition to Canaanites. This means that the name Aamw, was a generic name for ‘Asians’, and did not denote a specific Asian tribe.

The Hyksos were called heqa khasut see:The World in Ancient Times: The ancient Egyptian world, by Oup Book. , not Habiru or Shepherd Kings.

The Hyksos ruled from 1650-1550. The New Kingdom lasted from 1549-1292. During the New Kingdom Egyptians used the name Aamw, as a generic name for the Asian, the term : Habiru, was ethnonym for one of the Asian tribes. It is clear that if the Habiru and Heqa Khasut were the same people, they would have had the same name given the fact the New Kingdom, began at the end of the Heqa Khasut Dynasty.

During the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt (2563-2423), namely during the reign of Sahure there is mention of the Tehenu people. Sahure referred to the Tehenu leader “Hati Tehenu” . These Hatiu, correspond to the Hatti speaking people of Anatolia. The Hatti/Hurrian people often referred to themselves as Kashkas or Kaskas.

This means that During the Old Kingdom the term heqa khasut, did not mean "ruler(s) of the foreign countries", as assumed by most Egyptologist. The term meaning of heqa khasut, was really "ruler(s) of the Kushites". If heqa khasut, meant "ruler(s) of the foreign countries", it would have been applied to every foreign country, but foreign kings were usually referrewd to as wr ‘King’, instead of heqa which was reserved for Egyptian rulers as noted by Camille DiBiase Dyson in, Foreigners and Egyptians in the Late Egyptian Stories (Boston,2013).

It does not matter if Kamose called the Hyksos Aamw, the Hyksos rulers referred to themselves as Heqa "ruler", i.e. Heqa Khasut, "Ruler of the Khasut/Kushites. In the Egyptian text from Avaris Kings like Apophis, made it clear that they were  ,

Egyptian Khas corresponds to Kashkas or Kaska, the name for the Hattians. The Egyptian term Khasut has three different elements the ethononym Khas: Kas(ka)/Kush. Plus, the /-u/ which and the Egyptian plural marker, while the Egyptian /-t/ was a suffix that signified 'land, people'.

The Old Kingdom rulers of Egypt called the Kushites Heqa Khasut. Since the Hyksos were called Heqa Khasut, instead of Habiru, proves that they were given this title because they were Kushites like the Kushite people living at Kerma in Nubia.

There are Egyptian text where the Hyksos called themselves KhasKushite. The Egyptian textual evidence include The primary evidence includes the Turin Royal Canon where the Hyksos were styled : heqa khasut, the same name they called the other Kushites in Nubia, during the Old Kingdom. During the New Kingdom, the Kushites were still being called Kash, the same name the Hattians called themselves:i.e.Kashka. "Rulers of Kushites.

The first four rulers of the Hyksos called themselves heqa khasut on their seals and a monumental doorjamb from Avaris. This is primary  contemporaneous AEL literature epigraphic documentation evidence indicating that they called themselves Khas.The Hyksos worshiped Ra.

Hyksos Kings were proud of their Kushite origin. in the Hyksos seals, the Kings wrote their names followed by the "Heqa Khasut", i.e. “King of the Kushites”. These sealings are primary  contemporaneous AEL literature documentation ,indicating that the Hyksos used this name to illustrate their Kushite ancestry and relationship to the Nubian Kushites. See; A History of Ancient Egypt by Marc Van De Mieroop.

The meaning of Khas, has to be Kush, because why would Hyksos kings refer to themselves as ‘foreign kings’, when they were native to the land they ruled.

In summary meaning of ḫ3st (Khas) is Kushite). My interpretation of N25 ḫ3st, is supported by the Classical scholars, the inscriptions of Weni and Sahure, and the use of the term ḫ3st, on the Hyksos sealings and inscriptions generally.

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