Sunday, May 20, 2012

Is the R y-chromosome a Hunter-Gatherer Genome

Henn et al presents conclusive evidence that African hunter-gatherer (HG) populations share a number of ancestral lineages including B264*; although they are geographically distinct populations situated among agropastorial groups (1). An interesting finding of Henn et al was the discovery of the Eurasian clade R1b1b1a1a among the Khomani San of South Africa (1).

 Henn et al was surprised by this revelation of R-M269 among this Khoisan population. As a result, he interviewed the carries of R1b1b2a1a, and learned that no members of their families had relations with Europeans. The presence of R lineages among HG populations is not new. Wood et al reported Khoisan carriers of R-M269 (2). Bernielle-Lee et al, in their study of the Baka and Bakola pygmies foud the the R1b1* haplogroup (3). These researchers made it clear that the Baka samples clustered closely to Khoisan samples (3).

 The most common R haplogroup in Africa is V88. Given the interaction between HG groups and agropastoral groups they live in close proximity too, we would assume that African HG would carry the V88 lineage. Yet, as pointed out above the HG populations carry R-M269 instead of V88 (1-3). The implications of R-M269 among HG populations, and Henn et al’s of shared African HG genome suggest that R-M269 may represent a HG genome.

The low frequency of this Eurasian clade among HG populations may not support this conclusion, the distribution of R-M269 among HG populations further research into the origins of the R y-chromosome among African populations.


 1. Henn BM, Gignoux CR, Jobin M, Granka JM, Macpherson JM, Kidd JM, RodrĂ­guez-BotiguĂ© L, Ramachandran S, Hon L, Brisbin A, Lin AA, Underhill PA, Comas D, Kidd KK, Norman PJ, Parham P, Bustamante CD, Mountain JL, Feldman MW. Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 29;108(13):5154-62. Epub 2011 Mar 7.

2. Wood,E.T., Stover,D.A., Ehret,C., Destro-Bisol,G., Spedini,G., McLeod, H., Louie,L., Bamshad,M., Strassmann,B.I., Soodyall,H., Hammer,M.F. 2005. Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa:evidence for sex-biased demographic processes. European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:867-876.

 3. Berniell-Lee G, Calafell F, Bosch E, Heyer E, Sica L, Mouguiama-Daouda P, van der Veen L, Hombert JM, Quintana-Murci L, Comas D. Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages. Mol Biol Evol. 2009 Jul;26(7):1581-9. Epub 2009 Apr 15.

Saturday, May 19, 2012

A back migration from Southeast Asia accounts for M31a2 in South India

The presence of M31a2 in South India is probably due to a back migration from Myanmar. Endicott et al said Without comprehensive data from Myanmar it is not possible to identify whether the Andaman M31a1 arrived from India or if the Indian M31a2 came from South-East Asia. But either scenario casts serious doubts on the concept that the Andaman Islands were settled at the time of the migrations out of Africa carrying the current Eurasian mtDNA diversity”.

Many Dravidian speakers in India formerly lived in Southeast Asia.Formerly intimate relations existed between South Indians and Southeast Asian people[1]. The Tamilian form of Saivism is known as Agamas, the esoteric and ritualistic parts of Agama is non-Vedic (not of Indo-European origin). Agama was also the Southeast Asian form of Hinduism [2].

The Proto-Tamil speakers in Central Asia and China were called the Yakshas in Indian literature (Yuehchih by the Chinese) and Kosars (Kushana in Chinese literature). They were forced from China due to first the classical Mongoloids who founded Shang-Yin , then the Zhou and succeeding mongoloid Chinese and Thai populations that invaded Indo-China . This forced the Proto-Tamil speaking Kosars and Yakshas to later invade southern India in search of a new homeland in addition to Southeast Asia [3]. In Southeast Asia Dravidian speakers probably encountered Proto-Andamanese carrying M31 and M32 who may have been the original settlers of the area.

The Dongson culture of Tokin and Annam was the first Indo-China culture. Founded by the Indo-Africans, this was a megalithic culture which extended from southern India into Southeast Asia. The people of Dongson made beautiful works of art from 800-111 B.C. They were defeated by the Mongoloid Chinese in 111 B.C. in the Tonkin area.

The Tamils of Dongson culture also took Dongson culture to the Southeast Asian islands [2]. The early metal period on the Islands dates from 500 B.C. , to A.D. 1000, on Taiwan, the Philippines, Talaud, Serawaki, Java and Timor.

The empire of Khmer and its people were called Kamboja [1]. The original Kamboja were not related to the present people that live in Kampuchea, the original Kamboja spoke a Dravidian language. The Kamboja according to Bagchi were members of the Kushana tribes of Central Asia. From here they invaded the Mekong Delta. The Kambojas are mentioned in the Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas. It was the Kamboja that later invaded Assam and Bengal[1-2].

The Kamboja wrote their literature in sanskrit. Sanskrit was seriously studied in the Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Kampuchea, Laos, Champa and Java. It is intersecting to note that the Kamboja inscriptions were written in the nagari style alphabet used formerly in eastern India [4].

The Khmer civilization was destroyed by advancing Thai races, while the Fou Nan culture was destroyed by the Annamites or Vietnamese. Most of these groups still show affinities to Indo-Africoid populations today.

After the Thai ethnic groups destroyed the chiefdoms of Khmer, the chieftains made an alliance in southern Siam and created the kingdom of Lavo. After the Mongols took control of much of Kampuchea, the Thai formed the state of Siam, which we call Thailand today.

Another state in Indo-China was Champa. Champa was ruled by Dravidians. Champa was later destroyed by Vietnamese nomads as they expanded southward into present-day Vietnam[2].

In summary the archaeological, and genetic evidence indicate that Dravidian speakers lived in Southeast Asia[1-2]. It indicates that the first civilizations in Southeast Asia were founded by Dravidian speakers [1]. The Khmer introduced various aspects of civilization in this region which precede the advent of the Thai speakers into this region. Upon their arrival in Indo-China ,the Thai- Vietnamese people conquered the blacks learned their culture and continued to perpetuate the same cultural traits [2].Thusly, we see that both the Vietnamese and Thai peoples learned their culture, architecture, religion and writing from the Khmers and other Indo-African people.

While the Dravidians lived in Southeast they probably mated with the inhabitants related to the Anamese. This mating pattern probably led to M31a2 entering the Dravidian gene pool when the Kamboja settled in Sengal and South India [1].


B.B. Lal,B.B. 20 April 1963.The Only Asian expedition in threatened Nubia:Work by an Indian Mission at Afyeh and Tumas", The Illustrated London Times .

1. V.Kanakasabhai, The Tamil Eighteen Hundred Years ago

, (Madras 1966).

2. Clyde A. Winters, "The Far Eastern Origin of the Dravidians", Journal of Tamil Studies, (1985) pp.66-92.

3, V.R.R. Dikshitar, Origin and Spread of the Tamil,


4.R.C. Majumdar, India and South East Asia, Delhi: B.R. Pub. Corp., 1979.

Sunday, May 6, 2012

Check Out my Latest Documents on Scrib

Below are new monographs published by the Uthman dan Fodio Institute

Scrib Documents
The Tochaian the Cognate Language of Meroitic

 The Tehenu

 Kusha-Dwipa : The Kushites of Asia

 Kushan: The Kushites of Asia

 The Olmec Language