Sunday, November 26, 2017

Meroitic and Berber

I do not accept Meroitic as a Afro-Asiatic language. But the Beja language which belongs to the Cushitic family is related to Meroitic. I believe Meroitic is genetically related to the Niger-congo Super Family of languages . Meroites used Tocharian as a lingua franca, because of the long existence of Buddhists in Egypt and the Meroitic empire.

Just because Blazek calls the Temehus Berbers does not make them Berbers. There are no Berbers in Egypt and scarcely any in Tunesia.  Moreover  Quellec and Jelinek visited the sites and said the Temehus were C-Group people based on cultural and ideological feature, while Blazek  just used traditional Eurocentric terminology to identify imaginary Berbers.

As noted above the most eastern “Berber” group the Tuareg claim they originated in the West not  the East.

The contemporary Berbers or Amazigh are all in the West. Western Berbers linguistically has borrowings from Latin, Arabic, French, Spanish, and other sub-Saharan languages. There is generally little or no intelligibility between the dialects. 

Diop in The African Origin of Civilization noted that: “Careful search reveals that German feminine nouns end in t and st. Should we consider that Berbers were influenced by Germans or the referse? This hypothesis could not be rejected a priori, for German tribes in the fifth century overran North Africa vi Spain, and established an empire that they ruled for 400 years….Furthermore, the plural of 50 percent of Berber nouns is formed by adding en, as is the case with feminine nouns in German, while 40 percent form their plural in a, like neuter nouns in Latin”

Diop wrote in The African Origin of Civilization :” Since we know the Vandals conquered the country from the Romans, why should we not be more inclined to seek explanations for the Berbers in the direction, both linguistically and in physical appearance: blond hair, blue eyes, etc? But no! Disregarding all these facts, historians decree that there was no Vandal influence and that it would be impossible to attribute anything in Barbary to their occupation” (p.69). In addition, Berber women today continue to wear traditional garments identical to German traditional dress.

Meroitic and Tokharian

My decipherment of Meroitic indicates that many terms alleged to be Meroitic by Griffith and others must be discarded. I am forced to ignore the proposed meaning for some proposed Meroitic lexical items because they do not agree with my research into Meroitic. But I accept some of the alleged Meroitic terms as being verified by my decipherment both due to their Egyptian origin, or affinity to Tokharian terms.

I explain in detail how to read Meroitic in my Book Meroitic Writing and Literature.

It must be remembered that most of the alleged Meroitic lexical items were simply guesses by the researchers. These terms become valid only when they can be read in all the Meroitic text and have consistent meaning. I found that some of these terms are homonyms, while other terms "discovered " by Griffith and others were good guesses that do not prove valid given our discovery of the cognate language of Meroitic.

There are several recognized Meroitic words (Hintze 1979).The following words correspond to Tokharian words:

Meroitic..................... Tokharian

Ø kadke / ktke # queen……………… Ø katak # master of the house

Ø ato # water ……………………………………… Ø ap

#Ø s # 'race'……………………………………………………… Ø sah # 'man'

Ø wide # youth ……………………………………………… Ø wir #

Ø qor # monarch ……………………………………………. Ø oroce # 'the grand king'

Ø parite # agent……………………………………………… Ø parwe # 'first'

Ø apote # 'envoy'………………………………………………..Ø ap # 'father'

It is obvious that apote and parite do not relate to Tokharian because these are Egyptian loan words adopted by the Meroites. But around 57% of these terms show agreement. This made it highly probable that Meroitic and Tokharian were cognate languages.

The grammar of Meroitic determined by Hintze (1979) allowed us to also make comparisons with Tocharian to test the Kushana hypothesis for reading Meroitic. This comparison of grammatical structures showed cognition between this language and Meroitic.

Hintze was sure that there were a number of Meroitic affixes including:






B.G. Trigger in his "Commentary" (Hintze 1979) mentioned several other possible Meroitic affixes including:




In addition , A. M. Abdalla in his "Commentary" (Hintze 1979)mentioned three possible verbal suffixes , including:



These alleged Meroitic grammatical elements encouraged me to seek out a language that contained these typological features as the possible cognate language for Meroitic. The Kushana language includes all of these affixes.

Researchers working on Meroitic determined several possible prefixes:





In Tokharian we find these prefixes: p(ä), the imperfect prefix and imperative, y- the Tokharian element joined to demonstratives, and yopsa ‘in between’.

There are other affixes that relate to the Meroitic suffixes including –te, the demonstrative ‘this, etc.’; -o, the suffix used to change nouns into adjectives. For example: aiśamñe ‘knowledge’, asimo ‘knowing; klyomñ ’nobility’, klyomo ‘noble’.

Other Tokharian affixes which agree with Meroitic include –te and -l. The Tokharian locative suffix is –te. The ending particle in Tokharian is –l.

The Meroitic –t, corresponds to the –t ‘you’. In Tokharian the pronouns are placed at the end of words: nas-a-m ‘I am’, träkä-s ‘he says’, träkä-t ‘you say’.

The –t element in Tokharian can also be used to represent the third person singular e.g., kälpa-t ‘he found’.The p-, element used to form the imperative in Tokharian and imperfect . This affix is used in both Tokharian A and B. For example,Tokh.A klyos "to hear, to listen"p(a)klyos "You listen"p(a)klyossu "s/he listens"Tokh. B klyausp(a)klyaus 'you listen"A. tatas, "to lay, to put"ptas 'you lay'B. tes, tas 'to put, to lay'ptes 'you put'.

The Tokharian -n-, has many uses in Tokharian. It can be used to form the subjuntive, e.g., yam 'to do', yaman 's/he do(es). It is also used to form the plural se 'son', pl. sewan 'sons; ri 'city', pl. rin 'cities'.The plural in Tokharian is formed by the –ñ. For example,are ‘plough’, pl. areñ‘ploughs’ ri ‘city’ , pl. riñ ‘cities.

Recognition of analogous structural elements in relation to Kushana and Meroitic allowed us to divide the Meroitic phonemes into words. Griffith provided us with evidenec for selected Meroitic nouns.

Abdalla (Hintze 1979, 149) was sure that he detected several common verbs in Meroitic including:








yi mde.

Following this lead we searched the Kushan language to determine if it possessed any verbs that might match the proposed hypothetical verbs of Abdalla. A comparison of Kushan and Meroitic proved to be successful. We now know that he was absolutely right about his interpretation of possible Meroitic verbs.

Below is the interpretation of these Meroitic verbs:

hr , to have dignity

the , suggested posssible to move

tk , to set in motion, to investigate

w-e , to give escort

pl , to boast, to praise

m-de , measure the offering

y i m-de go make (full) measure of the offering

Recognition of these Meroitic terms as verbs gave us any more confirmation that Kushana was probably the Meroitic cognate language. This discovery of Meroitic verbs and nouns, and cognate toponomies in Central Asia and Upper-Nubia-Sudan proved that Meroitic could be read using Kushana lexical items.

The discovery that Tokharian is cognate to Meroitic has led to the full decipherment of the Meroitic script. We can now translate Meroitic using Tokharian. This allows us to obtain new information about the Meroitic civilization.

My research into Kushana or Tokharian has led me to recognize that this language was probably used as a lingua franca or trade language in Central Asia by the diverse peoples living there in an intense bilingual environment (Winters 1996a, 1996b). C. A. Winters (1991) has illustrated how the Greek and Slavic terms in Tokharian were loanwords, absorbed by Tokharian after the Greek conquest of Bactria.

This borrowing pattern was consistent with the spread of the Greek language into Bactria by a small elite group of warriors.The classical and Egyptian sources make it clear that Upper Nubia and the Sudan was inhabited by numerous tribes. The possible early use of Kushan\Tokharian as a trade language made it an ideal candidate for use by the Meroitic elites who ruled an empire that was made up of many diverse ethnic groups as the language for literate Meroites


Abdalla, A.M. 1994. Personal Descriptions in Meroitic Funerary inscriptions. In Hommages a Jean Leclant, (ed.) by C. Berger, G. Clerc & N. Grimal, (Institute Francais d'Archeologie Orientale: Bibliotheque d' Etudes 106/2) pp.1-15.

Abdalla, A.M. 1978. The Meroitic Civilization:Its Mediterranean Contacts and Africaness. In Afrique Noire et monde mediterranean dans L'Antiquité Colloque de Dakar. (Dakar: Université de Senegal) 89-114.

Adams, W.Y. 1977. Nubia:Corridor to Africa. London: Penguin Ltd.

Adams, W.Y. 1975. "Meroitic North and South". Meroitica 2,Berlin:Akademie-Verlag.

Arkell, A.J. 1961. A History of the Sudan from earliest times to 1821. London: University of London Press.

Bakr, M. 1964. Drei Meroitische opfertafeln aus Qustul, Kush,12 , 293-296.

Bakr, M. 1966. Meroitische inschriften aus der umgebung von Aniba, Kush, 14, 336-346.

Griffith, F.Ll. 1909. Meroitic inscriptions. In Areika, (ed) by MacIver, D.R. & Woolley, C.L. Vol.1. Philadelphia.

Griffith, F.L.1911a. Karanog. The Meroitic Inscriptions of Shablul and Karanog. Philadelphia: Eckley B. Coxe Jr Expedition to Nubia. Vol.VI.

Griffith, F. Ll. 1911b. Meroitic Inscriptions: Part I. London: The Offices of the Egypt Exploration Fund.

Griffith, F. Ll. 1912. Meroitic Inscriptions: Part II. London: The Offices of the Egypt Exploration Fund.

Hakem,A.M.A. 1981. The civilization of Napata and Meroe. In General History of Africa, (London: Heinemann) 278-297.

Hakem, A.M.A. 1984. "Napatan-Meroitic Continuity", Meroitica, 19, 875-883.

Hakem, A.M.A. 1988. Meroitic Architecture. Khartoum: University of Khartoum.

Haycock, B.G. 1978. "The Problem of the Meroitic Language",Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning, no.5: 50-81.

Haynes, J.L. 1992. Nubia:Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston:Museum of Fine Arts.

Hinkel, F.W. 1994. Les pyramides de méroé. Les Dossiers D'Archeologie, no. 196, 60-63.

Hintze, F. 1959. Studien zur Meroitischen chronologie und zu den opfertafeln aus den pyramides von Meroe. Berlin: Akadamie-Verlag.

Hintze, F. 1962. Die inschriften,des lowentempel von Mussawwarat es Sufra. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Hintze, F. 1971. Mussawwarat es Sufra. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Hintze, F. (1974). "Some problems of Meroitic philology". In Studies in Ancient Langugaes of the Sudan, (ed.) by A.M. Abdalla, (Khartoum: Khartoum University Press) pp. 73-78.

Hintze,F. 1978. The Meroitic Period. In Africa in Antiquity: The Arts of Ancient Nubia and the Sudan Vol.I. (Brooklyn, N. Y. : Brooklyn Museum) 89-105.

Hintze, F. 1979. "Beltrage zur Meroitishen Grammatik",Meroitica 3, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Hoffmann, I 1991. Steine fur die ewigkeit meroitische opferlafeln und totenstelen. Beitrage zur Sudanforschung Beiheft, 6. Wien: Modling.

Hoffmann, I. 1981. Material fur eine Meroitische Grammatik.Veroffenthchungen der Institute fur Afrikanistik und Agyptologie der Universitat Wien, No. 16. Wien.

Hummel, S. 1992. Die Meroitische Sprache und das protoaltaische Spachsubstrat als Medium zu ihrer Deutung. Febri Verlag.Karanog, Wealthy Capital of a Lower Nubian Province . 1993.Expedition, 35(2), 62-63.

Kendal, T. 1982. Kush:Lost Kingdom of the Nile. Boston,Mass :Brockton Art Museum.

Kormysheva,E. 1990. Egyptian religion in Nubia: Some considerations. Etudes Nubiennes, Vol. II. 187-191.

Leclant,J. 1981. The Empire of Kush: Napata and Meroe. In General History of Africa II, G. Mokhtar (Ed.), (Heinemann:University of California Press) 298-325.

Lepsius, C.R. 1897-1913. Denkmäleraus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Leipzig. 5 Volumes.Lewczuk, J. 1990. Studies on the decoration of the West walls of the chapels at the pyramids in Meroe and Barkal. In Etudes Nubiennes ,Vol. IV, Ch. Bonnet (ed.). (Conference de Geneve Actes der V111e Congress International. Marquette: J. G. Ceconi) 157-158.

MacAdam,M.F.L. 1949. The Temples of Kawa I. The Inscriptions. London: Oxford University Press.

MacAdam,M.F.L. 1950. Four Meroitic inscriptions, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 36, 42-46.

MacIver, D.R. and Wooley, C.L. 1909. Areika. PhiladelphiaUniversity Museum. Philadelphia.

Millet,N.B.1969. Meroitic Nubia. Yale University, Ph.D. Dissertation.

Millet, N.B. 1974. Writing and literacy in the ancient Sudan. In Studies in ancient Languages of the Sudan, (ed.) by A. M. Abdalla ,(Khartoum: Khartoum University Press, 1974) pp.49-57.

Millet,N.B. 1984. Meroitic Religion, Meroitica 7,8,pp.111-121.

O'Connor, D. 1993. Ancient Nubia:Egypt's Rival in Africa. Philadelphia: The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.

Pope, M. 1975. The Story of Archaeological Decipherment, New York Charles Scribner & Sons.

Reisner,A. 1922. Historical Inscriptions from Gebel Barkal, Sudan Notes and Records , 4(2), pp.59-71.

Shinnie, P.L.1967. Meroe:A Civilization of the Sudan. London: Thames & Hudson.

Taylor,J.H. 1991. Egypt and Nubia. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Torok, L. 1990. Ambulatory Kingship and settlement history: a study on the contribution of archaeology to Meroitic history. Etudes Nubiennes, Vol.I, 11-126.

Torok, L. 1984. Meroitic Religion: Three Contributions in a Positivistic Manner", Meroitica 7,8, pp.156-182.

Trigger, B.G. 1970. The Meroitic Funerary Inscriptions from Armina West. New Haven, Philadelphia.

UNESCO. 1978. The peopling of ancient Egypt and the Decipherment of Meroitic Script. Paris: Unesco.

Villard, Ugo Monneret de.1960. Incrizioni della Regione di Meroe.Kush, 8, 93-113.

__________________.1959. Testi Meroitica della Nubia Settentrionale, Kush 7, 88-124.

Vychile, W. 1957. Le pays de kousch dans une inscription Ethiopiénne. Annales d'Ethiopie, 2, 177-179.

Williams, B.B. 1987. Meroitic Remains from Qustul cemetery Q Ballana Cemetery B, and A Ballana Settlement. Chicago,Il.:The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Windekens van, A.J. 1941. Lexique etymologique des dialectes.Louvain.

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Winters, Clyde . Meroitic Writing and Literature. Createspace, 2013.
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________________1999a. The inscription of Tanyidamani. Nubica IV und Nubica V.

_____________.(nd). The Meroitic Chamber Inscription. Nubica IV und Nubica V.

____________. n.d. Meroitic Inscriptions from Karanog. forthcoming Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities.

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________.1996b. Meroitic Decipherment. Ancient Near East Journal 3 (180). Chicago Oriental Institute. ANE Archive. 8 June.[On Line]

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Winters, Clyde Ahmad. (1999). The inscriptions ofTanyidamani. Nubica IV und Nubica V., pp.355-388.

I have written a short dictionary of Meroitic terms that you can find at the following web site:

My most recent article discussing Meroitic history and deciphering Meroitic documents titled theMeroitic Evidence for a Blemmy Empire in the Dodekaschoinos can be found at the following

Yellin, J. 1982. The role of Anubis in Meroitic religion. In Nubian Studies, J.M. Plumley (ed.), (Cambridge: Selwyn College), 227-234...

Meroitic Relationships to African Languages

     The great savant Cheikh Anta Diop (1974,1981) was convinced that many West African groups had formerly lived in the Egypto-Nubian region before they migrated to West Africa(Diop,1974). He supported this hypothesis with a discussion of the cognation between the names for gods in Egypt-Nubia and West Africa (Diop,1974), Egypto-Nubian and West African ethnomyns and toponyms common to both regions (Diop,1981)[1] and West African and Egyptian languages.

  In 1984, I deciphered the Meroitic script. I discussed this in my book Meroitic Writing and Literature . There are many relationships between Meroitic and other African languages. For example, In Oromo/Galla, the term for queen is 'gifti'; and both 'naaga-ta" in Somali and Wolof we find 'jigen' mean woman. These terms appear to be related to Kdi > gti/e.

  Yet even though we find cognition between some Cushitic and Nubian we can not use these languages to completely decipher Meroitic as proven by many past researchers. The Tocharian language on the otherhand, does allow us to read Meroitic and show  its relationship with other African languages.

   A comparison of Meroitic to African langauges indicate that Meroitic is closely related to languages spoken in West Africa. Like Meroitic, the pronoun is often a suffix in other African languages. This suffix of the third person singular is usually n-, in other African languages. For example:
     Bambara:    no  p r i   'his  house'
      Kpelle:     nyin        'his tooth'
      Akan:       ni dan      'his house'
  The Meroitic a- third person singular affix is also found in other African languages. For example:
          Swahili: (1) a-ta kwenda  'he's going to go'
                   (2) a-li-kwenda   'he is here'
          Manding: (1) ya zo  'he has come'
                (2) ya shirya mana 'he prepared (it) for us'.
  The use of -i particle to form nouns in Meroitic my correspond to the use of the -it and -ayy suffixes to form nouns in Wolof. The Wolof abstract noun formative suffix is -it, -itt, e.g., dog 'to cut', dogit  'sharpness'.

In Wolof abstract nouns are also formed by the addition of the suffix -ayy, and in Dyolo -ay, e.g.,
          baax 'good',  baaxaay  'goodness'.

     Prefixes are rarely used in Meroitic. The most common prefixes include the prefix of reinforcement -p, the intensive prefix -a and the imperfect prefix -b. The  p-, can be either the prefix of reinforcement e.g., ŝ 'patron', p-ŝ 'the patron' ; or the imperfect prefix e.g.,ŝiñ'satisfaction', p-ŝiñ  "continuous satisfaction'.

     The Meroitic p- affix, means ‘the’. This Meroitic grammatical element corresponds to the Egyptian demonstrative pi 'the'.

     In Meroitic, the –o element is used to change a noun into an adjective. The Meroitic –o suffix, agrees with the use affix –u, joined to a vowel, in other African languages to form adjectives.  In Swahili, many adjectives are formed by the k-  consonant plus the vowel -u : Ku. For example:
          (1) imba  'sing' ;   zuri  'fine'
               Kuimba  kuzuri    'Fine singing'
          (2)  -bivu  'ripe'    Kuiva  'to ripen'
          (3)   -bovu 'rotten'   Kuoza   'to rot'.

     In Meroitic the plural case was made by the suffix -b, or reduplication. Reduplication was also used as a plural effect in Meroitic, e.g., d'donations',d-d 'considerable donations'.            Reduplication is also used in other African languages to express the idea of abundance and diversity. For example,
          Swahili: Chungu kikavunjika vipande vipnade.
                   "The cooking pot broke into pieces".

The Meroitic use of the -b suffix to make the plural number, corresponds to the use of the -ba- affix in African languages. In the Bantu languages the plural is formed by the ba- affix. In the Manding group of languages we see use of the -ba suffix. In Manding, the -ba affix is joined to nouns to denote the idea of physical or moral greatness. For example:
          (1) na-folo      'good, rich'
              na-folo-ba   'great fortune'
          (2) so-kalo      'piece'
              so-kalo-ba   'considerable quarter of a village'.

     In the Meroitic inscriptions there is constant mention of the khi 'body, spirit', the kha 'the abstract personality', the kho 'a shinning or translucent spirit soul'; and the Ba 'soul'. In many African languages the term Ba, is used to denote the terms  'soul or to be'. For example:
                Egyptian:  Ba
                Mbachi  :  Ba
                Coptic  :  Bai
                Bambara  :  Be
                 Fang    :  Be.

    The kha, existed within and without the human body. It would remain with the body until its flesh decayed, then it would either leave the tomb or hunt it. The Meroitic idea of Kha, as a spirit corresponds to Ka, in many African languages. For example:

           Egyptian :    Ka
           Manding  :    Ka
           Banda     :   Ka.

     The linguistic evidence makes it clear that some of the Meroites may have spoken languages that belonged to the Niger-Congo-Mande family of languages. This is supported by the linguistic evidence of shared grammatical forms and lexical items between Meroitic and Niger-Congo-Mande discussed in this chapter.


     The Kushites and Egyptians had a close relationship for millennia. As a result the Egyptians had a tremendous influence on the culture of the Kushites, especially in the area of religion[i].
     As early as the 12th dynasty the Egyptians controlled Nubia. After 1674 BC, the Kerma rulers regained control of Nubia until the raise of the New Kingdom. Pharaohs of the New Kingdom ruled Egypt for 500 years.
    Nubia gained independence after the decline of Egypt in 1085 B.C. During this period the Kushites developed a highly developed civilization at Napata and Meroe (880 B.C.-A. D. 350). Over time the Kushites became strong enough to conqueror Egypt and found the 25th Dynasty.
     The long association of Egypt and Nubia suggest that the Egyptians may have influenced more than the culture of the Kushites. In this paper we will review the affinities between the Egyptian and Meroitic languages.
       Ll. Griffith during his decipherment of Meroitic (M.) found many Egyptian (E.) terms . These terms were especially used in the political culture area e.g., E. p-sy-n-nsw  'son of king' >
M. pesto 'king's foothold/foundation of light' .
     Now that we have more evidence about the Meroitic  language we can now compare Egyptian and Meroitic to determine if there are any other similarities between these languages. Below are some Meroitic terms that illustrate the influence of Egyptian on Meroitic.

       Several aspects of Demotic grammar agree with Meroitic structure. This is especially true in relation to the formation of the adjective case and the use of pronouns.

    The Meroitic funerary tablets are written in the third or second person. Meroitic words are usually formed by the addition of post-positions or suffixes. The Meroitic pronouns are suffixed to Meroitic words. They include, -te  'you, thou'; -t  'her, he'; ne  'his'; -to 'your'; and the -n and a third person singular suffixes. For example:
         -n     s/he, it, her, his
          i "go", i-n  'he goes'
         de 'bequeathal', de-n  'his bequeathal'
         qe  'make'  , qe-n     'he makes'
     In Demotic we see use of suffixial pronouns. For example:
         sdm  'hear'  
         sdmy    'I hear'
         sdm .f   'he hear'
         sdm hr-f    'he will hear'
    In Meroitic the adjective is placed behind the noun. For example,
        e       'complete'
       ŝ on tene   'The king commence(s) the rebirth'.
       ŝ on tene-e  'The king commence(s) the complete rebirth'.
     Adjectives in Demotic are also placed behind the noun. For example:
           rmt    hm    ' small man'
           ŝy   nfr     ' good fate'
           ssw   sbk    ' few days'
     The -m suffix was used in Meroitic to denote the negative effect. The negative particle -m, is often joined to verbs along with the pronoun. For example:
          mi-n   'injure him', mi-m-n 'injure him not'.

In Meroitic tablets the negative suffix rarely appears.
     The Egyptian negative particle m, agrees with Meroitic. In Demotic the negative particle mn-, is prefixed, e.g.,
     mn lh gm hw  'no fool finds profit'. 
     In the short review above of Egyptian and Meroitic cognates we can see the obvious influence of Egyptian, especially Demotic on Meroitic. This influence was shown not only in vocabulary but also grammatical features.     
      This linguistic material discussed above clearly suggest some Egyptian substrata influence on Meroitic. It indicates  Egyptian influence on both the structure and vocabulary of Meroitic.
     It is very interesting to note that much of the affinity between Meroitic and Egyptian is based on Demotic examples. This may be explained by the fact that Demotic was used by the Kushites during the 25th Dynasty, and forms the foundation for the Meroitic writing.

[i].J.H. Taylor, Egypt and Nubia, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press,1991 and D. O'Connor, Ancient Nubia, Philadelphia: The University Museum, 1993)

Friday, November 17, 2017

Kumarinadu the Great Dravidian Empire in the Indian Ocean

     In ancient times there was a large Island the Indian Ocean called Kumarinadu. Kamarinadu  or Kumari-Kandam  formerly existed as a large Island in the India ocean which connected India with East Africa. The name "Kumari Kandam" first appear in Kanda Puranam, a 15th century Tamil version of the Skanda Purana, written by Kachiappa Sivacharyara (1350-1420). Some researchers claim that Kumari Kandam is actually a derivative of the Sanskrit words "Kumarika Khanda".

In 1903, V.G. Suryanarayana Sastri first used the term "Kumarinatu" (or "Kumari Nadu", meaning "Kumari territory") in his work Tamil Moliyin Varalaru (History of the Tamil language). The term Kumari Kandam ("Kumari continent") was first used to describe Lemuria in the 1930s.

 This landmass is mentioned in the Silappadikaram, which said that Kamarinadu was made up of seven nadus or regions. The Dravdian scholars Adiyarkunallar and Nachinaar wrote about the ancient principalities of Tamilaham, which existed on Kamarinadu.

    Kumarinadu was ruled by the Pandyans/Pandians at Madurai  before it sunk beneath the sea. The greatest king of Kumarinadu was Sengoon. According to Dravidian scholars tha Pandyans worshipped the goddess Kumari Amman. This Aman, probably corresponds to the ancient god Amon of the  Kushites.

 The Kalittokai 104, makes it clear that after the Pandyans were forced to migrate off their Island home into South India, “to compensate for the area lost to the great waves of the sea, King Pandia without tiresome moved to the other countries and won them. Removing the emblems of tiger (Cholas) and bow (Cheras) he, in their place inscribed his reputed emblem fish (Pandia’s) and valiantly made his enemies bow to him”.


     The mention of the fish emblem indicates the African origin of the Pandyans. The Proto-Saharans claimed that their great ancestor was Ma and that they belonged to the Ma (fish) clan. Fish tails were a common feature of the Egyptians, Elamites, Sumerians and Dravidians.



         The common god of the fish cult was the man-fish (of Eridu) in Mesopotamia and Syria , and the ithyphallic forms of Min, a proto-type of Amon (Amman) in Egypt, the goddess Minaaksi of Madura, Amma of the Dogon, the goddess of the fish eyes, the Malabar fish bearer of Maana ; and the sacred fishes of the Maapilla of the West coast of the Dekkan. At ancient Adulis, the Greeks claimed that the fish worshippers were called Icthyophagi or Poseidon.

      In fact the first kings of these people used the consonants MNS, in the term used for king: Menes, King Aha of Egypt, Mannan of the Dravidians, and the  Mansa of the Mande speaking people. The descendants of Ma, include this name in their ethnonyms: Mande= “the children of Ma”. And in Kannada, Tlugu and Tulu, the word Mandi= “people”.

       The Pandyans who probably spoke Malayalam, were worshippers of Posidon or Potidan of the Greeks. Just as the Kalittokai, mentioned that the totem of Pandia was the Fish, we find that Africans in areas ajoining the former lands associated with Kumarinadu also worshipped the Fish. As a result in ancient times Nubia and modern Ethiopia was called Poseidonia due to their worship of Poseidon the god of the sea and the mountains.

The major god worshipped by the Pandyans and East Africans is Murugan, the god of the mountains. This mountain god of the Dravidians: Murugan, has the same name among 25 east African ethnic groups.
     The Greek god Posidon of the East Africans parallels the Dravidian god Siva. The god Siva is sometimes referred to as the “Great Fish” and represented by Fish signs. In addition, throughout Tamilnadu, tridents are associated with temples dedicated to the worship of Siva. The trident was also associated with Siva.

    The final Dravidian speaking people to enter South India were the Tamil. The Tamil, who were early Kings of Shang China, were forced out of China by the Zhou dynast and other contemporary mongoloid groups, across Southeast Asia and Tibet into India. These people defeated the Pandyans , Cholas and Cheras and became the dominant group in South India.

    In Summary , Dravidian literature makes it clear that the Dravidian people came to South India from the North, South and East. These people took away the South from the Naga (ancient Ethiopians), who along with the Dravidians worshipped the gods Amon and Murugan. Moreover, it was the Ethiopians who probably introduced Sanskrit writing to the Indians. It is due to this history of Dravidian speaking people that explains the close, genetic unity between the language and cultures of the people.



Saturday, November 11, 2017

21 Points Proving Blacks were in Ancient America before Mongoloids ..

21 Points Proving Blacks were in Ancient America before Mongoloids

1)      The first Americans, the Paleoamericans were Blacks. This reality is based on the skeletal remains of  Naia and Luzia were Negroes or Black

2)      Black Africans according to researchers have been in Brazil since 100,000BC. The evidence that fire existed in Brazil 65kya is an indication that man was at the site 65,000 years ago, since researchers found charcoal, which is the result of fire making. The New York Times, reported that humans were Brazil 100,000 years ago .

If you would see the New York Times video you would noted that Dr.Nieda Guidon supports her dating of human population in Brazil 100,000 years ago to ancient fire and tool making.

3.       The original Maya beginning with the Ocos , as illustrated by their the art, were Black Native Americans;
The Mayans were originally Black Native Americans. The ancestors of the original Maya  were PaleoAmericans.
In Belize , around 2500 B.C., we see evidence of agriculture. The iconography of this period depicts Africoids. And at Izapa in 1358 B.C., astronomer-priests invented the first American calendar. In addition numerous sculptures of blacks dating to the 2nd millennium B.C, have been found at La Venta, Chiapas, Teotihuacan and Tlatilco.

  Chiapas Blacks

The earliest culture founded by Blacks in the Pacific coats region was the Mokaya tradition. The Mokaya tradition was situated on the Pacific coast of Mexico in the Soconusco region. Sedentary village life began as early as 2000BC. By 1700-1500 BC we see many African communities in the Mazatan region. This is called the Barra phase or Ocos complex. 

During the Barra phase these Blacks built villages amd made beautiful ceramic vessels often with three legs. They also made a large number of effigy vessels.

The figurines of the Ocos are the most significant evidence for Blacks living in the area during this period. The female figurine from Aquiles Serdan is clearly that of an African woman.

Ocos Female

The Blacks of the Mokaya traditions were not Olmec. The civilization of the Mokaya traditions began 700 years before the Olmec arrived in Mexico.


In most history text the Ocos are presented as the original founders of Mayan civilization. As you can see from the art they do not look like native Americans they look negro like other Africans.

The Mongoloid Mexicans do not look like the Olmecs either

4.       The Black Native Americans lived from Chiapas to Belize, Guatemala and Hondurus; Quatrefages and Rafinesque wrote about these Blacks They are called the The Negrocostachicanos claim that they have never been slaves and are indigenous to Guererro and Oaxaca on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The 1990 Mexican census recorded 66,000 Negrocostachicanos. These Mexicans live in African style huts and practice rituals which may be of African origin (Vaugh,2005a).

Most researchers believe that the Negrocostachicanos are descendants of marrons or runaway slaves (Aguirre Beltran, 1972; Vaugh,2005a). But none of the Blacks of Costa Chica have songs about slavery and its hardships ( Negrocostachicanos say “they are not they insist, the descendants of African slaves. There was never slavery here, even in ancient times” (,2005). Bobby Vaugh (2005b) noted that he found “no consciousness of slavery among people in Costa Chica” (p.5). Another researcher, noted that “Housewives in San Jose Estancia Grande and Santiago Tapextla [in Costa Chica] say their ancestors did not come from Africa, that their families have always lived right here” (, 2005, p.6).

5. The Olmec came from West Africa. They spoke the Mande language. The traditions of Mexican Indians make it clear that the founders of civilization in Mexico, came from the East, and arrived in Mexico as a result of a shipwreck. This is interesting because Bobby Vaugh (2005b) said that the Negrocostachicanos claim they arrived in Mexico as a result of shipwrecks.


The Stela No.5 from Izapa makes it clear that the Olmec arrived in Mexico by boat. The fact that Stela No.5, depicts 12 roots as part of ‘the tree of life’ support the Mexican tradition that the Easterners who brought civilization to Mexico came in 12 waves.

The Mexican traditions that support the spread of the Olmec from the east coast of Mexico to the west coast make it clear that the Olmec lived in Oaxaca and Guererro, in addition to Veracruz. The fact that the Olmec mention coming to America by boat may explain the Negrocostachicano claim that they arrived in America as a result of a shipwreck, and never were Spanish slaves. 

5) The Olmecs spoke a Mande languages.  Using the Vai language I was able to decipher the Olmec language.
 As a result The root of the Mayan language is the Mande languages The Mayan and Mande languages share vocabulary items and culture terms.

6) The Khoisan took MtDNA haplogroups  the mtDNA  L3 (M,N) and y-haplogroup E to Eurasia and the Americas
7) There are no “pure” Mexindians. Lisker noted that between 5-50% of Indian genes are African genes. See: Suarez-Diaz,(2014) Indigenous populations in Mexico. Medical anthropology in the Work of Ruben Lisker in the 1960’s. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47 (p.117).
This is why many Mexicans look like Africans or Negroes
8) Mixe, Zenu , Wayuu and other Mexican groups with YAP+ associated A-G transition at DYS271, is of African origin.

9) Indian y-chromosome haplogroups C and D show African admixture at locus DYS271
10) The American haplogroups A and B are part of the haplogroup N macrohaplogroup Ch’ol and Chontal at Campeche carry R-M173, E1b1b, K and T.
11) Africans people carry mtDNA A common to mongoloid Native Americans and  y-chromosome R, so they probably passed on these genes to mongoloid Native Americans 
12) The Spanish explorers mentioned Black Nations and Black tribes in the Americas, they met, even before African slaves were landed in America
13) The Spanish said the Aztecs were Negroes.
14) Paul Gaffarel (2010) that when Balboa reached America he found "negre veritables" or true Blacks. Balboa noted "...Indian traditions of Mexico and Central America indicate that Negroes were among the first occupants of that territory." This is why so many Mexicans have "African faces".
15. Vasco da Gama is said to have found information about the West Indies from Ahmad b. Majid, whom he met along the West Coast of Africa . Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.
16)Majid wrote a handbook of navigation on the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, Sea of Southern China  and the waters around the West Indian Islands. Bazan, R.A.G. (1967). Latin America the Arabs and Islam,,Muslim World, pp.284-292.

17)  Africans had the boats capable of sailing to the Americas. Abubakari the King of Mali led thousands of Africans to settle America.
18) Black Native Mayan people have left iconography in the sub-pyramids at Tikal, San Bartolo and Xultun murals which depict the creators of these monuments as Negroes or Blacks
The most exciting archaeological fine has to be the Xultun murals. The xultun murals depict not only Black Mayan royalty—but also Mayan commoners and elites.

Below we see some Black atrchitects and engineers that built the Xultun pyramids.

These colorful llustrations are by Dr. by Heather Hurst. The illustrations of Dr. Hurst, of the Xultun figures show that the Black people there dressed in bright colors and wore various scarves and other hats to cover their hair/heads.

Below are the architects and engineers that built Xultun

The Stylized reproduction of Black Mexicans from the Bonampak Murals at Chiapas, Mexico are also colorful.

The colorful outfits of the Latin Americans continue to be worn today.

19) Ancient Mayan Skeletons carried sickle cell.
20. There are no “pure” Mexindians.

There is a high frequency of African-Mestizo admixture ranging between 20-40% .
The admixture rate between Africans and indigenous Mexican Indians ranges between 5-50% .

Some Mestizos may hate themselves. Their light and white skins betry their origin as the products of white French, Spanish and German men who exploited their Black and Mongoloid grandmothers to make the Mestizo raza.

Many Mestizos declare viva la raza, when in reality their faces and features tell the story of exploited indigenous Black and mongoloid women who were raped to satisfy the sexual desire of their white fathers, who murdered the husbands and lovers of their poor mistreated and abused indigenous grandmothers. Mestizos like their grandfathers seek to steal the history of Black Native Americans, because they are ashamed that their real history is the history of the criminals and sexual deviants who made their race.

That is why when they say viva la raza, they are celebrating the rape and exploitation of the indigenous Black and mongoloid people. To be proud of Mestizo heritage, while denying the history of the Black indigenous Americans is just them paying homage to the evil history of their grandfathers.

21) The Black Africans took their writings systems with them to America. The first Africans to introduce writing to the Americas were the Olmecs. They took writing into Mexico around 1200 BC.
The first researcher to recognize that the Olmec writing was Mande was Leo Wiener, in Africa and the discovery of America. He recognized that the writing on the Tuxtla statuette was written in Mande characters.

Mojarra Stela

Tuxtla Statuette

Many of these Blacks continued to use the Vai script to write into Mayan times.
The Vai script was also taken to America by the the Malian explorers led by Abubakari in 1310. They left inscriptions across the United States.

Check out this article on the inscription Abubakari left in South America. See: Sea-Farers from the Levant: Do Ancient Inscriptions Rewrite History of the Americas? - Part 2
During the Atlantic Slave trade African slaves used traditional writing systems to communicate with each other. For example the Djuka , who I believe speak a creole language, with an Akan dialect substratum . The Djuka had their own writing system in Surinam.


Herskovits also recorded some Djuka text. K. Hau did considerable research on the Djuka script. Research done by K. Hau indicate that the script was in use in Surinam prior to 1910.