Vicente M. Cabrera , Patricia Marrero, Khaled K. Abu-Amero
and Jose M. Larruga. 2018. Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3
basal lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago. Cabrera
et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2018) 18:98 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1211-4
The authors said: “ Results: The
coalescence ages of all Eurasian (M,N) and African (L3 ) lineages, both around
are not significantly different. The oldest M and N Eurasian clades
are found in southeastern Asia instead near of Africa as expected by the
southern route hypothesis. The split of the Y-chromosome composite DE
haplogroup is very similar to the age of mtDNA L3. An Eurasian origin and back
migration to Africa has been proposed for the African Y-chromosome haplogroup
E. Inside Africa, frequency distributions of maternal L3 and paternal E
lineages are positively correlated. This correlation is not fully explained by
geographic or ethnic affinities. This correlation rather seems to be the result
of a joint and global replacement of the old autochthonous male and female
African lineages by the new Eurasian incomers.“
This paper is unfounded. It lacks validity because there
were no anatomically modern humans (AMH) in Eurasia, based on archaeological
research until 44kya when the Cro-Magnon people migrated into Iberia.
The first Aurignacians in the Levant date back to 36-34kya
from Ksar Akil.
The oldest Aurignacian remains come from Iberia/Spain. These sites vary in age
from 41kya for the l'Arbreda Cave, and 43kya for Abric Romani, located in
The dates for the Aurignacian in Europe make it clear this culture spread from
west to east. It is important to recognize that Aurignacian culture and
Cro-Magnon people appears not to have reached the Levant, until 11ky after it
was established in Spain.
These dates for sites where AMH were found in Western Europe make it impossible
for claims of U6, M1 and etc., originating prior to 32kya in the Levant and
entering Africa via a back migration 40kya.
If there were no AMHs in Eurasia
before 43,000 years ago how could they be
back into Africa. As a
result, if the “ coalescence ages of all Eurasian (M,N) and African (L3 )
lineages, both around 71 kya”, make it clear that this macrohaplogroup had to
have originated in Africa where the AMH lived, because Eurasia before 43kya was
occupied by Neanderthals.
Aurignacian Culture: Evidence of Western Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans, South
Asian Anthropologist, 81(1):79-81.
Winters,C. (2010). Origin and spread of the
Haplogroup N. Bioresearch Bull (2010) 3:116-122.