Tuesday, January 25, 2022

R1 haplogroup an ancestral genetic signature of East Asia

  In addition to craniometric evidence we also have genetic evidence for the African origin of the Chinese.

      The genotype data provides clear evidence of the phylogenetic relationship of  Africans and East Asians. It is clear that African derived haplogroups R1b1, E, DE and R1b1b2 are found in East Asia. Y-haplogroup is found among many Chinese Muslims or Huis.

There is evidence of R1 in East Asia. Zhong et al (2011) reported a number of y-chromosome markers in East Asia including R1a1 (29.41%0, R1b* (3.2%), R1b1b2 (1.6%) and R2 (3.21%).

It is interesting to note that Zong et al (2011) tested for the M335 marker which was first discovered in Turkey and classified as R1b. The M335 marker is a brother clade to R1b1* (M343+V88-M73-M269). This is interesting because R1b1* pursuant to ISOGG is R1b1 or V88.


Zhong H, Shi H, Qi XB, Duan ZY, Tan PP, Jin L, Su B, Ma RZ. Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into East Asia via the northern route. Mol Biol Evol. 2011 Jan;28(1):717-27. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msq247. Epub 2010 Sep 13. PMID: 20837606.

Saturday, January 22, 2022

Anzick and Luzia People are related


Posth et al (2017) in their genetic study noted that “  Genome-wide analysis of 49 Central and South Americans up to  11,000 years old d Two previously unknown genetic exchanges between North and South America d Distinct link between a Clovis culture-associated genome and the oldest South Americans d Continent-wide replacement of Clovis-associated ancestry beginning at least 9,000 years ago “.



Some researchers have used this article to claim that the Paleoamericans, the most ancient Native Americans are related to contemporary mongoloid Indians. This view is false. Posth et al, in their study supported the view that Anzick child and Luzia culture folk were related.

Posth et al (2018), did not make this finding. The researchers reported that “The oldest individuals in the dataset show little specific allele sharing with present-day people. For example, a 10,900 BP individual from Chile (from the site of Los Rieles) shows only slight excess affinity to later Southern Cone individuals. In Belize, individuals from two sites dating to 9,300 and 7,400 BP (Mayahak Cab Pek and Saki Tzul) do not share significantly more alleles with present-day people from the region near Belize than they do with present-day groups elsewhere in Central and South America. In Brazil, genetic data from sites dating to 9,600 BP (Lapa do Santo) and 6,700 BP (Laranjal) show no distinctive shared ancestry with present-day Brazilians (Figures 2 and S1Table S1)”.. The authors added, “The distribution of this statistic f4(MbutiTestUSR1Anzick-1) confirms previous findings that Anzick-1 relatedness is greatest in Central and South Americans and lowest in North American groups” noted that “(Posth et al, 2018).

As a result, there was no continuity between Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans. Posth et al (2018)  noted that “ However, the fact that the great majority of ancestry of later South Americans lacks specific affinity to Anzick-1 rules out the hypothesis of a homogeneous founding population”.

Paleoamericans are related to Australians, Africans or Melanesian, in other words a cranial morphology of the Negro/Black people.

This view was supported by the Posth et al (2018) who noted that  Our finding of no excess allele sharing with non-Native American populations in the ancient samples is also striking as many of these individuals—including those at Lapa do Santo—have a “Paleoamerican” cranial morphology that has been suggested to be evidence of the spread of a substructured population of at least two different Native American source populations from Asia to the Americas”.

Although, some researchers claim that the Paleoamericans came from Asia, this finding is not supported by the genetic evidence that make it clear that the oldest inhabtants of East Asia are not related to the Paleoamericans. Posth et al (2018) wrote “Our failure to find significant evidence of Australasian or Paleolithic East Asian affinities in any of the ancient Central and South American individuals raises the question of what ancient populations could have contributed the Population Y signal in Surui and other Amazonian groups and increases the previously small chance that this signal—despite the strong statistical evidence for it—was a false-positive.”.


Posth C, Nakatsuka N, Lazaridi I, et al. (2018) Reconstructing the Deep Population History of Central and South America. https://www.cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0092-8674%2818%2931380-1

Anzick DNA


Researchers often compare aDNA to modern groups. When DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy compared Anzick boy DNA to modern groups they found it was related to Y-hap R2. (https://dna-explained.com/2015/01/05/anzick-matching-update/  ) the current Anzick kit, F999919, and found at 5cM and below that there were 4 haplogroup M matches.



Haplogroup R2, or R-M479, is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker M479. It is one of two primary descendants of Haplogroup R (R-M207), the other being R1 (R-M173).


R-M479 has been concentrated geographically in South Asia and Central Asia since prehistory. It appears to reach its highest levels among the Burusho people in North Pakistan.[2] However, it also appears to be present at low levels in the Caucasus, Iran, Anatolia and Europe.[citation needed]


It has two primary branches: R2a (M124) and R2b (R-FGC21706).

Originally Chatters thought they were Europeans, since his research into Naia he has come around. 12kya the paleoamericans carried the D haplogroup, which in reality is really an M haplogroup, namely M1. This is obvious when we look at the extract profile of Anzick man.

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Es Haplogroup M
    M – discovered in prehistoric sites, China Lake, British Columbia – 2007 Malhi, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

    M1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

    M1a1b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M1a1b

    M1a1e – USA – Olivieri, many Eurasian in Genbank

    M1b1 – Anzick Pr ovisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

    M2a3 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M2a3)

    M23 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Madagascar – Recaut and Debut, Madagascar Motif

    M3 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

    M30c – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

    M30d1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M30d1)

    M51 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

    M5b3e – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

    M7b1’2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M7b1’2)

    M9a3a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913tes January 2015 – (7 D with no subgroup

    Haplogroup D and M1 are just about the same as shown by the Anzick extractions. See: http://dna-explained.com/2013/09/18/native-american-mitochondrial-haplogroups/

As laymen we assume that when geneticist extract DNA, they automatically determinw what haplogroup the ancient skeleton carried, but as you can see from these provisional extractions the results are varied.

A few years ago I made a blanket statement in an article that there were no M haplogroups in America. One of the peer reviewers commented that there were M haplogroups in the Americas, and this statement was false. I had not found any literature on M groups in the Americas , so I was surprised to hear this. Some propagandists are upset about the provisional Anzick data because it supports the discovery of M at China Lake in Canada. Claiming the Native Americans belong to the D clade, is just a way of denying the presence of haplogroup M in the Americas.

Archaeologist do not like to talk about the fact that M clades were carried by Native Americans, because then you are able to link the paleoamericans and later groups to Africa.

See: http://dna-explained.com/2015/01/05/anzick-matching-update/

The paleoamericans, c. 25-10kya were Khoisan. The Khoisan introduced the Solutrean culture into the Americas and Europe. The discovery of M haplogroups in the Americas is further support for my theory that the Khoisan spread L3(M,N) into Europe. See:



Looking at the Anzick extractions can show you how geneticist make the decision on what group a population belongs too based on their own ideology.