Tuesday, November 16, 2021

Munda cultures in India and Iran share features


Shinde and Narasimhan et al.: "An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers" https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(19)30967-5

The Shinde and Narasimhan study is interesting because it maintains that based on human remains from Rakhigarhi support the view that the largest contributor to the ancestry among South Asians is Iranian ancestry. “But this new study shows that the lineage of Iranian-related ancestry in modern South Asians split from ancient Iranian farmers, herders, and hunter-gatherers before they separated from each other--that is, even before the invention of farming in the Fertile Crescent”.

 This finding indicates that farming did not spread into South India from the Middle East. "Ancestry like that in the IVC individuals is the primary ancestry source in South Asia today," says Reich. "This finding ties people in South Asia today directly to the Indus Valley Civilization."

This statement is false, because Rakhigarhi was not an Indus Valley Civilization. This was a Munda civilization, the IVC was founded by Dravidian speakers from the Nile Valley.

It  is not surprising that Southeast Asian hunterer-gatherers matched DNA from Iran and Turkmenistan because the Munda people or negrito people like the Annamese. The “little negroes”,  like the Anu people had spread from Africa into Eurasia after 10,000BC.

The Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi cultures are different from the IVC civilization. These sites are in blue on the map. These cultures like the cemetery are near the Ghaggar -Hakra River. These sites are pre-IVC the date back to 6000BC, 3500 years older than the IVC sites. As a result, artifacts from the Mehrgarh (7000 BC), Bhirra (7500BC),   and Rakhigarhi (6000BC ) sites that are as much as 3500 years older than sites and the artifacts from the IVC.

 Archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Dravidians were the founders of the Harappan culture which extended from the Indus Valley through northeastern Afghanistan, on into Turkestan. The Harappan civilization existed from 2600-1700 B.C. The Harappan civilization was twice the size the Old Kingdom of Egypt. In addition to trade relations with Mesopotamia and Iran, the Harappan city states also had active trade relations with the Central Asian peoples.

Fairservis  makes it clear that early cultures of Baluchistan are analogous to Early Dynastic Sumerian, this movement eastward of the ancient Kushites led to the rise of the Indus cultures.The Sumerians, Mande and Dravidians formerly belonged to the Maa Culture                         The Dravidians in the IVC made different figurines and made seals. The Dravidians in the IVC mainly cultivated millet--not wheat.

The Sumerians probably called the Indus Valley Dilmun. Dilmun was a rich trade center that provided Sumer with many valuable trade items.

The Gondi were originally Munda speakers. The Gond community is widespread because the ancestors of the people living in 8 states recognized that IVC culture was superior to the original semi-farming culture the Gondi  had practiced since the Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi cultures. The Tamil introduced to the Gondi an agro-pastoral culture and literacy. The Munda speakers today refused to abandon their original culture and adopt the new cultural elements introduced to the Indus Valley by the Tamil. The art from Mehrgarh and IVC show the connection between these people.

Mehgarh was a culture developed by the Munda people web page .In the sub-continent of India, there were several main groups. The earliest inhabitants of India were the Veddoid people, followed by the Negritos, Mongoloid, the Kushite-Dravidians and finally Aryan speakers.

The Negritos or Munda , Mongoloid and Africoid/ Mediterranean skeletal remains were all found at Harappan sites. The Munda or Australoid people are a mixed group that combines the classical Mongoloid and pygmy features. The speech of this Negrito group is believed to be Austric, a specimen of this language survives in the Munda speech. The Africoid/Mediterranean group is associated with Dravidian culture.

The Negritos founded the earliest culture in the Indus at Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi in 6000 B.C. They had domesticated goats and sheep and grew cereals, namely wheat. Find out more about munda in the following article: http://ispub.com/IJBA/4/2/5591

Wednesday, March 31, 2021

Africans took the Solutrean culture to USA

 In my paper the: The  Paleoamericans came from Africa , I explained that Khoisan from Africa took the Solutrean culture to North America. 

Recent research makes it clear that here is continuity between the DNA carried by Paleoamericans and Africans.


My research is confirmed by the DNA.

In On the peopling of the Americas: molecular evidence for the Paleoamerican and the
Solutrean models", by Dejian Yuan and Shi Huang this research confirms my proposition that Africans introduced the Solutrean culture to North America. The authors wrote that.

 "Morphological analyses of early skeletons in the Americas have suggested that characteristics
of some Pleistocene and early Holocene skeletons are different from present-day Native
Americans and fall within the variation of present-day indigenous people in South Pacific
(Australians, Melanesians, Polynesians, and Negritos) and certain sub-Saharan African groups
(1-3). This is particularly so for the first South Americans, while the first North Americans seem
to be somewhere in between modern South Pacific and Europeans. No resemblance was noted
between the first Americans and either Northeast Asians or modern Native Americans. This has
led to the Paleoamerican hypothesis that the initial pioneer population in the Americas had
common ancestry with indigenous people in South Pacific which was largely replaced by
populations with Northeast Asian affinities in the early Holocene but may have persisted in
some locations in South America such as the extinct PericĂșes and Fuego-Patagonians (4, 5).

We examined the Solutrean hypothesis by testing whether Anzick-1 may be specifically related
to the ~18720 year old El Miron from the Magdalenian culture in Spain (preceded by the
Solutrean) while the other two ancient Amerindians may not (35). In distance to EUR samples,
El Miron was the only ancient DNA among all examined that showed positive correlation only
with Anzick-1 but not with the other two ancient Amerindians Kennewick Man and Saqqaq (Fig.
4A). The correlation of other European aDNAs with Anzick-1 likely indicates a general European
element but not special ancestry relationship as they were also similarly correlated with the
other two ancient Amerindians. The ~7300 year old farmer CB13 from Spain was the most
correlated with Anzick-1 among European aDNAs, consistent with a special connection between
El Miron and Anzick-1 and local genetic continuity."

See: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/04/26/130989.full.pdf

.This new research supports the fact that foundational Black Americans are descendants of the first Americans.