Sunday, December 29, 2019

Latest Books by Dr. Clyde Winters

African Origin World Writing Systems

In this book we discuss the African origin of the ancient writing systems used around the world. Africa has become recognized as the continent where man and language originated. In this book we explain that Africans have had writing for over 5000.It explains how writing originated in Africa and expanded from Africa to Eurasia through the spread of the ancient Kushites.

Meroitic Relations with Tocharian and the  Nile Valley Languages

Meroitic Relations with Tocharian and the Nile Valley Languages

The Meroitic script was used by the Kushites of the Nile Valley. In this book we explain that the cognate language of Meroitic was the Kushana or Tocharian language used by Buddhists to write their scriptures. Due to identification of the Meroitic language we can now read Meroitic and illustrates that it compares favorably to other languages spoken in the Sudan.

Friday, August 2, 2019

Paleoamericans carried the African M haplogroup--African mtDNA M and D are the same

The D haplogroup is nothing more than a African M haplogroup. The sub-clade D4, is the Asian name for the M1 haplogroup.

Haplotypes with HVSI transitions defining 16129-16223-16249-16278-16311-16362; and 16129-16223-16234-16249-16211-16362 have been found in Thailand and among the Han Chinese (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002) and these were originally thought to be members of Haplogroup M1

Haplogroup M was a common Paleoamerican haplogroup. Paleoamericans carried haplogroup M. the 5000 year old skeletons from China Lake, British Columbia carried the M haplogroup (Malhi et al., 2007). This was confirmed by Malhi et al (2007), who found that the skeletons belong to haplogroup M, exhibiting the AluI site gain at np 10397. He was unable to match the China Lake skeletons’ mtDNA to haplogroup C, D, or sub-haplogroup M7, M8, or M9. 

Although, these haplogroups are assigned an Asian origin Africans also carry these M subclades including , for example, haplogroups A and M7. Some Native American present Sub-Saharan African admixture. The Mande speakers carry mtDNA haplogroup A, which is common among Mexicans namely the Mixe and Mixtecs . In addition to the Mande speaking people of West Africa, Salas et al (2002) made it clear Southeast Africans also carry mtDNA A.

Naia of Mexico was D1 and Anzick child was also D4. Most contemporary Native Americans carry mtDNA that belongs to the M macrohaplogroup, namely A and B. The Olmec who were Mande speakers carried mtDNA A, like the Mande in Africa (Jackson et al, 2005).

The D haplogroup , is the name for M1, in Asia (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002). Haplotypes with HVSI transitions defining 16129-16223-16249-16278-16311-16362; and 16129-16223-16234-16249-16211-16362 have been found in Thailand and among the Han Chinese (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002) and these were originally thought to be members of Haplogroup M1. 

However, on the basis of currently available FGS sequences, carriers of these markers are now labled D4a branch of Haplogroup D . Given the transitions in haplogroup D, it is the most widespread branch of M1 in East Asia (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002). The transitions 16129,16189,16249 and 16311 are known to be recurrent in various branches of Haplogroup M, especially M1 and D4. Due to these transitions we can argue that Native Americans carrying D, are carrying African haplogroup M, especially M1 in the case of haplogroup D4.

Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Horai S.(2001). Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Thailand. J Hum Genet , 46:115-125.

Jackson BA, Wilson JL, (2005). Mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity among four ethnic groups in Sierra Leone  Sep;128(1):156-63

Malhi , R. et al. (2006) Mitochondrial haplogroup M discovered in prehistoric North Am J Arch Scien 34 (2007), ;

Yao YG, Kong QP, Bandelt HJ, Kivisild T, Zhang YP.(2002). Phylogeographic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Han chinese. Am J Hum Genet , 70:635-651.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Sao Paulo Reconstruction of Luzia is a fake

 The phenotype of Luzia was described as Melanesian, African or Australian.  Although this is the case a team of researchers at Sao Paulo decided to make a new reconstruction of Luzia and make this PaleoAmerican Caucasian looking

In 2018 Researchers from the University of Sao Paulo claimed that they made a new reconstruction of Luzia based on a new study. The University of Sao Paulo did not release a new study, the study , they used was a paper published by von Cramon-Taubadel N., Strauss A., Hubbe M. (2017) . 

The researchers at Sao Paulo made Luzia Caucasian looking eventhough the original model for the new reconstruction had negroid features. This is obvious when we compare the model to the final reconstruction This comparison shows that the eyes, lips and nose of the model were changed when the new reconstruction was popularized by the Sao Paulo team. 

The study by the Harvard researchers did not contradict the craniometric evidence that Luzia was Negroid/African .This is why von Cramon-Taubadel N., Strauss A., Hubbe M. (2017) wrote "There is mounting genetic and morphological evidence for at least two major waves of dispersal into Asia from Africa, with Australomelanesians representing modern descendants of the earlier migration (52, 53) ". If the Paleoamericans were Australomelanesians they were Negroid. Negroes came from Africa so Luzia was African, just like the Caucasians in america came from Europe and are thusly Europeans. von Cramon-Taubadel N., Strauss A., Hubbe M. (2017) Evolutionary population history of early Paleoamerican cranial morphology, Science Advances, 3 (2) ,…

Chatters said the Paleo-Americans were Negroid

The Paleo Americans were Blacks. Chatters presented no archaeological, ancient DNA or skeletal remains to support his theory there was continuity between paleoamericans and modern mongoloid native Americans or Beringa DNA.

Chatters noted that: “. Paleoamericans exhibit longer, narrower crania and smaller, shorter, more projecting faces than later Native Americans (7). In nearly all cases, they are morphologically most similar to modern peoples of Africa, Australia, and the southern Pacific Rim (7–9). Polymorphic dental traits currently found in East Asia also distinguish later Native Americans (10), who tend to exhibit such specialized (Sinodont) traits as winged, shovel-shaped upper incisors, three rooted lower first molars, and small or absent third molars; from Paleoamericans, who exhibit a less specialized (Sundadont) morphology (7). These differences suggest that America was colonized by separate migration events from different parts ofEurasia (11) or by multiple colonization events from Beringia (12), or that evolutionary changes occurred in the Americas after colonization (13). ”

Chatters continued that, “HN5/48 is among the small group of Paleoamerican skeletons, a group that is morphologically distinct from Native Americans. We extracted DNA from the skeleton’s upper right third molar and analyzed the mtDNA using methods developed for poorly preserved skeletal elements, with independent replication. The mtDNA haplogroup for the HN skeletal remains was determined through restriction fragment analysis, direct Sanger sequencing, and second-generation sequencing after target enrichment. The AluI 5176 site loss, in combination with Sanger and Illumina sequence data, confirm its placement in haplogroup D, subhaplogroup D1 (Fig. 3). Subhaplogroup D1 is derived from an Asian lineage but occurs only in the Americas, having probably developed in Beringia after divergence from other Asian populations (1).D1 is one of the founding lineages in the Americas (1). Subhaplogroup D1 occurs in 10.5% of extant Native Americans (23), with a high frequency of 29% in indigenous people from Chile and Argentina (24). This suggests that HN5/48 descended from the population that carried the D1 lineage to South America. The discovery of a member of subhaplogroup D1 in Central America, ~4000 km southeast of any other pre–10-ka DNA in the Americas, greatly extends the geographic distribution of Pleistocene-age Beringian mtDNA in the Western Hemisphere.”

Here we see that Chatters says that D1 is only found in America. If it is only found in America it can not be an Asian haplogroup. Chatters is just making a guess. He can not support this guess because there is no skeletons from Beringa that carry D1 nor is D1 found in Asia.