Eugenia D’Atanasio†, Beniamino Trombetta†, Maria Bonito, Andrea Finocchio, Genny Di Vito, Mara Seghizzi, Rita Romano, Gianluca Russo, Giacomo Maria Paganotti, Elizabeth Watson, Alfredo Coppa, Paolo Anagnostou, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Pedro Moral, Daniele Sellitto, Andrea Novelletto and Fulvio Cruciani. (2018).The peopling of the last Green Sahara revealed by high-coverage resequencing of trans-Saharan patrilineages. Genome Biology 201819:20 . https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-018-1393-5
Eugenia D’Atanasio et al, claim that Y-Chromosome R1 is of
Eurasian origin. They argue that “our data suggest a European origin of R-V88
about 12.3 kya, considering both the presence of two Sardinian R-V88 basal
clades (R-M18 and R-V35) and that the V88 marker arose in the R-M343
background, which in turn includes Near-Eastern/European lineages”. This
contention is more conjecture than, reality because it lacks any collateral
evidence from archaeology to support their claim. They believe that V88
returned to Africa via a back migration.
The major problem with this proposition is that the Bell
Beaker, Yamnaya and Caucasus hunter-gatherer populations who are believed to
have introduced agro-pastoral traditions into Europe, and carriers of R1b and
R1a were ḫЗšt, or Kushites. If the Bell Beaker , Corded Ware and early
Europeans farmers came from the levant and Anatolia they probably had acquired
these genes in Africa, before they migrated to Europe.
Beginning as early as 5000 years ago Kushites the ḫЗšt
, lived from the Nile Valley below Egypt, all the
way to the Levant and Anatolia. The Kushites belonged to the C-Group culture of
Nubia. The Kushites spoke Niger-Congo and Dravidian languages (1) . The
Niger-Congo (NC) Superfamily of languages is the largest family of languages
spoken in Africa. Researchers have assumed that the NC speakers originated in
West Africa in the Inland Niger Delta. The research indicates that the NC
speakers originated in the Saharan Highlands 12kya and belonged to the Ounanian
The Ounanian culture is associated with sites in central
Egypt, Algeria, Mali, Mauretania and Niger (1). The Ounanian tradition is
associated with the Niger-Congo phyla (1). This would explain the close
relationship between the Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan languages.
In the Eastern Sahara many individual types of tanged and
shouldered arrowheads occur on early Holocene prehistoric sites along with
Green Saharan/Wavy-line pottery (2-3) . 'Saharo-Sudanese Neolithic' wavy-line,
dotted wavy line and walking-comb pottery was used from Lake Turkana to Nabta
Playa, in Tibestim , Mauritania, on into in the Hoggar, in Niger. This pottery
evolved into the Beaker Bell ceramics of Europe.
The Kushites were called ḫЗšt
Africa and the Levant. Kushites had early settled in the Levant since Narmer
times. We find Narmer's name on jars and
serekhs from excavations in Israel and Palestine , for example Tel
Erani, Arad, 'En Besor, Halif Terrace/Nahal Tillah and more(4). A bulla dating
to this period makes it clear that this part of the Negev was called ḫЗts.t
("Kush") or ḫ3s.tj ("Kushite").
The tangled Ounanian points are also found at Foum Arguin .
These points were used from Oued Draa, in southern Morocco, to the Banc
d’Arguin and from the Atlantic shore to the lowlands of northwestern Sahara in
Mauritania . We now have DNA from Ounanian sites in Morocco.
The Kushites from the Levant and Anatolia took cattle domestication and millet
cultivation to Europe. There is no archaeological evidence of the herding of
Cattle and millet cultivation older than the Nabta Playa material (4).
At Nabta Playa the people herded cattle and cultivated crops. The Kushites
cultivated pennisetum millet at Nabta Playa (c. 7950 BC ) and probably herded
All the burials in Ifri n’Amr o’Moussa site IAM1-IAM7 , are
devoid of any artifacts, except for an original funeral ritual, which consists
of placing a millstone on the skull .
These burials were dated from 4,850 to 5,250 BCE, they carried U6, M1, T2, X
and K (8). This suggest that Africans were already carrying this mtDNA. The
spread of the Ounanians to Harif in the Levant explains the presence of these
Kushite clades in the Levant and Anatolia.
The Kushites were called ḫЗšt .Ta-Seti and Tehenu by the
Egyptians (1). The Egyptian Pharaoh Sahure referred to the Tehenu leader as
“Hati Tehenu” . The name Hati,
correspond to the name Hatti for a Kushite tribe in Anatolia. The Hatti people often referred to themselves as
The early hunter-gathers and farmers in Europe from the
Levant herded cattle, and cultivated millet.
A center of cattle worship was the Kiseiba -Nabta region in Middle Africa. At
Nabta archaeologists have found the oldest megalithic site dating to 6000-6500
BC, which served as both a temple and calendar. This site was found by J. McKim
Malville of the University of Colorado at Boulder and Fred Wendorf of Southern
As a result, we have in the archaeological literature the name Ounan-Harif
point. This name was proposed for the tanged points at Nabta Playa and Bir
Kiseiba. Harifian is a specialized regional cultural development of the
Epipalaeolithic of the Negev Desert. Harifian has close connections with the
late Mesolithic cultures of Fayyum and the Eastern Deserts of Egypt, whose tool
assemblage resembles that of the Harifian (9).
Y-chromosome V88 (R1b1a) has its highest frequency among
Chadic speakers, while the carriers of V88 among Niger-Congo speakers
(predominately Bantu people) range between 2-66% . Haplogroup V88 includes the
mutations M18, V35 and V7. Cruciani et al (10) revealed that R-V88 is also
carried by Eurasians including the distinctive mutations M18, V35 and V7.
Haplogroup R1b1-P25 was originally thought to be found only
in Western Eurasia. Haplogroup R1b1* is found in Africa at various frequencies.
Today R1b1 is called R-L278.
The first offshoot of R1b-M343 was V88. The Y-Chromosome V88
is a signature African haplogroup. Toomas Kivisild (11) noted: "Interestingly, the earliest
offshoot of extant haplogroup R1b-M343 variation, the V88 sub-clade, which is
currently most common in Fulani speaking populations in Africa (11-13), has
distant relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across wide geographic area
from Iberia, Germany to Samara ." The relative of V88 in ancient Europe
In 2010, R-V88 was originally named R1b1a. Today R-V88 is
named R1b1a2, and R1b1a is renamed R-L754.
The Kushite haplogroups in Crete and West Asia varied. The
Y-Chromosome among the Cretans and Anatolians were J,G, R1a1, R1b, T, K and H.
Martinez et al (14), observed that in the case of the R1
haplogroup, while frequencies of 19.2% and 21.7% are found in the Heraklion
Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, more than half
(56.1%) of the Lasithi Plateau individuals are R1-M306-derived.
In the case of Cretan E3b3-M123 (M34) chromosomes, they most
likely signal East African or Middle-Eastern gene flow rather than European,
due to the scarcity of this lineage in the latter area. Similarly, the presence
of E3b-M35* individuals in the Heraklion Prefecture population could probably
be attributed to an East-African or North-African contribution.
The finding that other Minoans carried haplotype T and K
also indicates that the Minoans were Blacks, not whites. There are a number of
shared African and Indian Y-chromosome haplotypes. These haplotypes include
Y-hg T-M70 and H1.
The Kushites spread cultivation of Pennisetum millet and
cattle herding into Anatolia, South Asia and Europe. As cattle herding Kushites
frequently moved from place to place millet was an ideal domesticate.
Millet was an especially favorite crop for the mobile
Kushites because the grains are 1) a high yield per plant; 2) millet is drought
tolerant and can be grown in various terrains; 3) millet has a short growing
season so pastoralists could grow and
harvest their crops in time to move their camp(s); and 4) the panicum millet
has shallow roots so Kushite farmers could cultivate the crop with a hoe (7).
Ounanians crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and settled
Iberia. Here they met Iberian hunter-gatherers.
Between 3200-2900 BC, African culture and people began to
migrate into Iberia and introduced
megaliths and the Bell Beaker culture (15). Spanish researchers accepted the
reality that the Iberia Peninsula owed the major parts of Neolithic Iberia to
African immigrants (15-17).
MacWhite (16) and Olalde
et al (18), claims there was a close relationship between Iberia and
Britain. These researchers admit that
Portugal and Brittany were settled by Megalithic Africans who founded
respectively the Mugem and Teviec sepultures ( 16).
Iñigo Olalde et al (18) discuss the spread of Bell Beaker
culture across Europe 2.7 kya. These researchers found limited genetic affinity between individuals
from Iberia and central Europeans. Iñigo
Olalde et al (18) concludes that
migration probably played an insignificant mechanism in the spread of R1 within
the two areas.
The African Sahara
and Morocco was a major source for the Bell Beaker and Corded Ware
cultural complex. The Proto-Beaker pottery dates back to 4500 BC in the Sahara
Daugas et al (19)
provides a number of radio carbon dates for the Bell Beaker complex in North
Africa. We find Beaker Bell ware dating
to 3700 BC in Morocco. By 2700 BC we see the expansion of Beaker complex into
Iberia (19). The Iberian Bell Beaker complex is associated with the “Maritime
There are numerous Bell Beaker sites in the Sahara and
Morocco. A center of the Moroccan Beaker complex ceramics and arrowheads come
from Hassi Ouenzga and in the cave of Ifri Ouberrid . Artifacts
found at these sites are similar to Iberian Beaker complex forms ( 23).
The interesting fact about the discovery of these artifacts is that they were
widespread across the Middle Atlas mountains at sites such as El-Kiffen,
Skhirat – de Rouazi, Kehf, That el Gher
and Ifri Ouberrid (23-25). This finding matches Turek (22); which explains the
spread of typically beaker style stamped decoration Bell Beaker culture pottery
from Morocco into Iberia, and thence the rest of Europe.
Toomas Kivisild (11)
and Mathieson et al (21) , provides a detailed discussion of R1 in
prehistoric Europe. One of the most interesting finding was the presence of V88
in ancient Europe (11,18,21). It is also interesting to note that the European
Agro-Pastoral populations associated
with Bell Beaker and Yamnaya carry the genomes associated with Africans
recorded in 2010 (17) .
This makes it clear that the V88 sub-clades R-L278 and
R-L754. , had relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across a wide
geographic area from Iberia, Germany to Samara (11,17-18). This would place
carriers of relatives of V88 among the Yamnaya and Bell
. Given the wide distribution of M269 in Africa, the carriers
of this haplogroup in Neolithic Europe were probably also Africans since the
Bell Beaker people/culture originated in Morocco as noted by Turek (22).
In summary, the research makes it clear
that the European Neolithic was began by Yamnaya and Bell Beaker people who
were Kushites that had migrated to Europe from the Levant and Anatolia. The
early European farmers cultivated millet and herded cattle. It is clear these
Neolithic "Europeans" from the Levant and Anatolia, were Africans who
took the Nabta Playa cultural traditions into the Levant and Anatolia, and
thence to Europe by the Bell Beaker and Yamnaya populations. This is supported
by the settlement of Kushites from Nabta Playa who took the R1 haplogroup, Ounan-Harifian cultural traditions, millet and
cattle domestication into the Levant; and from there into Europe.
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