Recent population genetics articles indicate that many of the haplogroups we associate with Europeans and Middle Easterners were first carried by African or Negro people. This results from the fact that the first homo sapien sapiens had migrated from Africa into Europe. These Negro Civilizations in Europe were: Aurignacian, Gravettian (31-26 ka ), Solutrean ( Spain and France c23-31ka), Magdalenian (France,Germany and Poland 18-15ka), Epigravettian (17-13ka) and the Neolithic (11-5ka). Posth et al (2023) argue that the genome carried by the : Aurignacian(44-31 ka) , Gravettian (31-26 ka ), Solutrean ( Spain and France c23-31ka), Magdalenian (France,Germany and Poland 18-15ka), Epigravettian (17-13ka) and the Neolithic (11-5ka) mtDNA haplogroups U2,U4 and R1b and Y-Chromosome haplogroups Q,R, and J. The population associated with these cultures, based on craniometric measurements were Negroes/African who migrated into Europe from Africa.
Numerous Sub-Saharan skeletons found in Europe (Boule, M., HV Vallois, 1957; Barral,L. & Charles,R.P. ,1963; Caramelli,D.,Lalueza-Fox,C et al, 2003;Verneaux,R.,1926; Diop,A.1974, 1991) . The Aurignacians and the early European farmers fail to share haplogroups found among contemporary Europeans. Ancient DNA found in the ancient skeletons dating back to the Aurignacian period belong to the N haplogroup (Brace, C.L. , Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B.et al, 2006).
The archaeological and craniometric measurements show that the Solutreans were Africans, namely Bushmen or Khoisan. The Aurignacian civilization was founded by the Cro-Magnon people who originated in Africa. They took this culture to Western Europe across the Straits of Gibraltar. The Cro-Magnon people were probably Bushman/Khoi. These Europeans were Negroes.
There have been numerous "Negroid skeletons" found in Europe. Marcellin Boule and Henri Vallois, in Fossil Man, provide an entire chapter on the Africans/Negroes of Europe Anta Diop also discussed the Negroes of Europe in Civilization or Barbarism, pp.25-68. Also W.E. B. DuBois, discussed these Negroes in the The World and Africa, pp.86-89. DuBois noted that "There was once an "uninterrupted belt' of Negro culture from Central Europe to South Africa" (p.88).
The Aurignacian civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in Europe. It dates back to 46,000 years ybp (Demidenko Y.E., Otte M. & Noiret P. (2012) . This is false the earliest sites for Aurignacian are found in Spain. The radio carbon dates for Bugalria, i.e., the Kozarnika Cave, date back to 39-36kya. Earlier researchers claimed that the artifactual material found at the Bacho Kiro cave, dating to 46kya was Aurignacian, but the remains that consist of a pair of fragmented human jaws, is disputed and researchers don’t know whether these were early humans Homo sapiens or Neanderthals.
The first Aurignacians in the Levant date back to 36-34kya from Ksar Akil. The oldest Aurignacian remains come from Iberia/Spain. These sites vary in age from 41kya for the l'Arbreda Cave, and 43kya for Abric Romani, located in Catalonia, Spain.
The dates for the Aurignacian in Europe make it clear this culture spread from west to east. You can also recognize that Aurignacian appears not to have reached the Levant, until 11ky after it was established in Spain.
These dates for sites where amh were found in Western Europe make it impossible for claims of U6, M1 and etc., originating prior to 32kya in the Levant and entering Africa via a back migration 40kya.
Many researchers believe that the Aurignacian culture entered Europe from the Levant. Although this view has been accepted without challenge, the archaeological evidence indicates that AMH replaced Neanderthal during the Aurignacian period in Europe around 32-35kya (4). It is also evident that archaic humans were replaced in much of the Levant by the Levantine Aurignacian culture bearers by a local variant of the technology at Ksar Akil Xlll-Vll 32kya , not 60-50kya(4-6 ) as assumed by many researchers..
The research indicates that this view is false. The archaeological evidence makes it clear that ‘classic Aurignacian’ began in Iberia and expanded eastward across Europe ( Boule, M., HV Vallois, 1957; Barral,L. & Charles,R.P. ,1963; Caramelli,D.,Lalueza-Fox,C et al, 2003;Verneaux,R.,1926; Diop,A.1974, 1991).
The Aurignacian civilization appears to have expanded from West to East (Diop,1974). The founders of this culture came from Africa (Boule and Vallois, 1957). Some researchers have argued that the Aurignacian culture was introduced to Europe(Bordes,1972 ; Lindly et al, 1990). They based this conclusion on the fact that its tool kit was foreign to the Mousterian type, and the culture appears in a mature form throughout Europe from France to Central Europe ( Mellars, 1992,2006; and Bordes, 1972 ).
The craniofacial evidence makes it clear that the Levantines and Aurignacian population came from Africa (Boule, M., HV Vallois, 1957; Barral,L. & Charles,R.P. ,1963; Caramelli,D.,Lalueza-Fox,C et al, 2003;Verneaux,R.,1926; Diop,A.1974, 1991). As a result we find that craniofacial features of the Grimaldi-Cro-Magnon population(8) and especially the Natufian populations when plotted fall within the range of Sub-Saharan populations like the Niger-Congo speakers ( Brace,2006) .
Many researchers have recognized that the Solutrean culture of Iberia probably originated in Africa(Burkitt, 2012; Childe, 2001; Debenath et al.,1986; Debenath and Dibble, 1994; Tiffagom, 2007). It is the mainstream view of Spanish prehistorians that the Solutrean culture originated in Africa (Pericot,1950). Boule and Vallois (1957) noted that ancient tool kits found in South African burials along the coast are associated with the Solutrean industry.
Pericot (1950, 1955) believed that the tanged points at the Parpallo site of the Solutrean were of Aterian cultural origin. Burkitt (2012) said that there were Algerian tools similar to the Solutrean tool kit. Gordon Childe (2009) claimed that the North African and Spanish populations that used the Solutrean tools were in direct communication. By the 1960’s, though, Smith (54) was able to reject the hypothesis of an African origin for the Solutrean culture.
Boule and Vallois in , Fossil men : elements of human palaeontology, noted that "We know now that the ethnography of South African tribes presents many striking similarities with the ethnography of our populations of the Reindeer Age. Not to speak of their stone implements which, as we shall see later , exhibit great similarities, Peringuey has told us that in certain burials on the South African coast 'associated with the Aurignacian or Solutrean type industry...."(p.318-319). They add, that in relation to Bushman art " This almost uninterrupted series leads us to regard the African continent as a centre of important migrations which at certain times may have played a great part in the stocking of Southern Europe. Finally, we must not forget that the Grimaldi Negroid skeletons sho many points of resemblance with the Bushman skeletons". They bear no less a resemblance to that of the fossil Man discovered at Asslar in mid-Sahara, whose characters led us to class him with the Hottentot-Bushman group.
Posth et al (2023) explains that Gravettian Culture was a Pan-European culture that represented a “biologically homogeneous population on the basis of craniometric ( which I have illustrated prove they were Negroes/Africans) and genomomic data during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Posth et al (2023) illustrates that Gravettian Culture was widespread and made up primarily of Goyet Q2 and Villabrium R1 ancestry.
Posth et al (2023) genomic data made it clear that the Blacks who belonged to the Gravettian Culture carried mtDNA haplogroups U2,U4 and R1b and Y-Chromosome haplogroups Q,R, and J (p.122). Posth et al (2032), explained that the Western hunter-gather (WHG) population belonged to Villabruna ancestry, while the Eastern hunter-gathers (EHG) ancestry was haplogroup Q.
In summary, the first modern homo sapiens came to Europe from Africa as pointed out by Boule and , DuBois and Diop make it clear the craniometric data indicated this population was Negro or African. These populations founded the Negro Civilizations in Europe that included: Aurignacian(44-31 ka) , Gravettian (31-26 ka ), Solutrean ( Spain and France c23-31ka), Magdalenian (France,Germany and Poland 18-15ka), Epigravettian (17-13ka) and the Neolithic (11-5ka).
Since thefist populations in Europe that came from Africa carried mtDNA haplogroups U2,U4 and R1b and Y-Chromosome haplogroups Q,R, and J, these haplogroups had probably first originated in Africa, instead of Europe. And as a result, mtDNA haplogroups U2,U4 and R1b and Y-Chromosome haplogroups Q,R, and J that appear in Egypt and Europe are of African, not Eurasian origin.
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