Saturday, June 6, 2020

Africans from Levant spread R1 and other DNA to ancient Europe

Ancient human genome-wide data from a 3000-year interval in the Caucasus corresponds with eco-geographic regions Chuan-Chao Wang et al .(2019) ,

Chuan et al (2019), recently published an article that discussed the genomes in Neolithic Europe. The researchers noted that "The steppe groups from Yamnaya and subsequent pastoralist cultures show evidence for previously undetected farmer-related ancestry from different contact zones, while Steppe Maykop individuals harbour additional Upper Palaeolithic Siberian and Native American related ancestry.  " The researchers added that " [it ] is also visible in the Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution, with R1/R1b1 and Q1a2 types in the Steppe and L, J, and G2 types in the Caucasus cluster " This is interesting because the Kushites of the Yamnaya culture mainly carried R1b. These Kushites practiced an agro-pastoral culture.

The Yamnaya culture bearers came from the Levant. These people based on ancient Bullae identified themselves as Kushites. The Levant had early been settled by people from the Nile Valley. Beginning as early as 5000 years ago Kushites the ḫЗšt, lived from the Nile Valley below Egypt, all the way to the Levant and Anatolia. The Kushites belonged to the C-Group culture of Nubia. The Kushites spoke Niger-Congo and Dravidian languages  . The Niger-Congo (NC) Superfamily of languages is the largest family of languages spoken in Africa. Researchers have assumed that the NC speakers originated in West Africa in the Inland Niger Delta. The research indicates that the NC speakers originated in the Saharan Highlands 12kya and belonged to the Ounanian culture .

The Kushites were called ḫЗst in Africa and the Levant. Kushites had early settled in the Levant since Narmer times. We find  Narmer's name  on jars and  serekhs from excavations in Israel and Palestine , for example Tel Erani, Arad, 'En Besor, Halif Terrace/Nahal Tillah and more(4). A bulla dating to this period makes it clear that this part of the Negev was called ḫЗts.t ("Kush") or ḫ ("Kushite").

Chuan et al (20190 made it clear that, " Recent ancient DNA studies have resolved several longstanding questions regarding cultural and population transformations in prehistory. One important feature is a cline of European hunter-gatherer (HG) ancestry that runs roughly from West to East (hence WHG and EHG; blue component in Fig. 2a,c). This ancestry differs from that of Early European farmers, who are more closely related to farmers of northwest Anatolia21,22 and also to pre-farming Levantine individuals9. The near East and Anatolia have long-been seen as the regions from which European farming and animal husbandry emerged. In the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic, these regions harboured three divergent populations, with Anatolian and Levantine ancestry in the west, and a group with a distinct ancestry in the east. The latter was first described in Upper Pleistocene individuals from Georgia (Caucasus hunter-gatherers; CHG)13 and then in Mesolithic and Neolithic individuals from Iran9,23. The following millennia, spanning the Neolithic to BA, saw admixture between these ancestral groups, leading to a pattern of genetic homogenization of the source populations9. North of the Caucasus, Eneolithic and BA individuals from the Samara region (5200–4000 BCE) carry an equal mixture of EHG- and CHG/Iranian ancestry, so-called ‘steppe ancestry’ 13 that eventually spread further west18,19, where it contributed substantially to present-day Europeans, and east to the Altai region as well as to South Asia9 "

This makes it clear that there was continuity between the Black populations that spread the contemporary DNA into Eurasia.  It was Africans from the Nile Valley and North Africa that invented the ceramic assemblages that are called the  Bell Beaker and Corded Ware in Eurasia.

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